Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 14

Economics - Essay Example pends on government regulations and zoning authorities which may mark land as being in industrial, commercial or residential zones which may reduce the varieties in which land could be used. For example, prime property sites in the middle of a bustling city may be zoned for parks or public recreational areas and no matter how much developers want to use that land for create high rise apartments or offices, the land remains free of buildings (Cem.ac.uk, 2008). In fact, even when demand changes to seek more industrial land in or around a city or more residential sites, government policy may be slow to react to the demand which could significantly increase the price of land currently zoned to be industrial or residential. The problem of zoning or rezoning is only multiplied when we consider how existing buildings no rezoned land may create problems for developers especially if the buildings are in congested areas or have significant historical or cultural importance (Cem.ac.uk, 2008). At the same time, there is no cost of production associated with land itself. This is because the primary determinant of what value can be derived from land comes from the best use land can be put to. However, owning a piece of land in a certain area gives the landowners the power of monopoly since they are the single owners of the site. New production of land with the same specifications in the same space is impossible therefore they can charge monopoly prices if they so desire (Cem.ac.uk, 2008). The monopoly ownership makes land an appreciating asset of course things such as an oil spill near a beach can significantly decrease the value of beachfront property but there is little chance of new land being created in significant numbers. This also encourages land hoarding as speculative ownership of land may lead to profits when properly zoned land becomes scarce in a given region (Cem.ac.uk, 2008). In this manner, speculators and those who are hoarding land may be quick to offer the

Monday, October 28, 2019

Gender Schema Theory Essay Example for Free

Gender Schema Theory Essay Martin and Halverson suggested an alternative to the cognitive-developmental approach proposed by Kohlberg and called it the gender schema theory. In Kohlberg’s theory, children must reach gender consistency before they are able to begin imitating the behaviour of same sex role models. In gender schema theory the early gender identity acquired at about the age of three is the starting point to which children will then begin to look for schemas, schemas are packages of organised clutters of information about gender-appropriate behaviour and children learn these schemas by interacting with people, such as learning which toys to play with, which clothes to wear etc. and these help children to make sense of the world around them and help children to organise their experiences and process new information and also to help self-evaluate themselves, this is to help them feel good about themselves. Support for the gender schema theory was conducted by Martin et al 1995 who showed toys to children aged four to five. Children were informed, before choosing a toy to play with that it was either a girls toy or a boys toy, they were then asked whether they and other boys or girls would like to play with the toys. They found that if a toy, such as a magnet, was given the label of being a boys toy then only boys would play with it. However if boys were told that it was a girl toy then they didn’t want to play with it. Similarly girls would not play with toys labelled for boys. The label given at the start consistently affected the children’s toy preference. It is an important finding in that it highlights the labelling and the categorisation of objects that children are subjected to from a young age, and how their toys can be labelled in the same way as appropriate gender behaviour. A limitation of this research is that an observation of the children and although it has high ecological validity as it is in a real life setting, the children may have shown demand characteristics as the toys were stereotyped for their gender it is questionable if they had guessed the aim of the research and the results may have been due to the children trying to please the researcher as they may have thought they would get punished for choosing the wrong gendered toy to play with and how much of the children’s choice was due to free-will. It was also done in a controlled environment which means that the findings cannot be generalised outside of the research setting. Bauer 1993 wanted to investigate this further and set out to study the way in which children call upon gender schemas when processing information. Pre-school-age and older children have been found to process gender consistent and gender inconsistent information differently so Bauer wanted to see if this was the case in very young children as well. Bauer devised a way to test girls and boys as young as twenty-five months of age. Children observed the experimenter carry out short sequences of stereotypically female, male or gender neutral activities, for example, changing a nappy, shaving a teddy bear or going on a treasure hunt. She tested children by ‘elicited imitation’ both immediately after and 24 hours later to see if they would copy what they had seen. Bauer found that girls showed equivalent quality of recall for all three types of sequence, boys on the other hand showed superior recall of male stereotyped activities, meaning they would not imitate any female behaviour and their recall for gender neutral activities was the same as for male stereotyped activities. These results indicate that boys more than girls tend to make use of gender schemas by the age of twenty-five months and boys appear to remember more accurately event sequences consistent with their own gender, whereas girls show no difference in recall of gender consistent and gender inconsistent information. A limitation of this research is that it could be due to boys being more likely to be penalised by their parents, especially their fathers for carrying out female stereotyped activities, so the children may have played with the male stereotyped toys even if they wanted to play with the other female stereotyped toys. The findings may also be down to that Bauer, who modelled the sequences, is female and the boys may have felt uncomfortable in copying her behaviour. Gender schema theory is parsimonious as it tries to explain gender through cognitive development and does not take into consideration biological gender differences, such as chromosomes, genes or hormones. It is also alpha-bias as it exaggerates the differences between men and women.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Dorm Life Essay -- College University Education Student Essays

Dorm Life College can be great; living with your roommates can be a nightmare. But wait†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦before you throw in the towel, make sure you know and understand the rules of a dorm room. Dorm life is something almost every college student must experience. It’s not as easy as it seems either. Most of the time students will try to room with people they know, but normally a student can’t be that lucky to make that happen. It can actually be easier living with people who are complete strangers, than living with people that have been there through life. The first thing to accomplish is knowing the fact that in a dorm room, everyone has a job. Everyone in the room must provide certain things. For example, one should bring the refrigerator, the other, a microwave, and so forth. When things are brought, they are to be shared, that’s what living together is all about. Nothing should be secluded from each other, especially the necessities of the room. If a roommate decides not to share, then they should learn nothing will be shared with them, and should more than likely live alone, if they have a problem with sharing. This should apply to the cleaning of the room as well. Each roommate should separate the chores. It is true that it’s hard to keep the dorm room spotless, but a dirty room can make a persons living arrangement uncomfortable. Someone could be in charge of the garbage; another could be in charge of the dust, which dorm rooms do collect a lot of. Dr. Andrew Johnson, a writer of College Bound Magazine, talks about in his article about dorm issues. For example, with cleaning the room, if a roommate does not do his or her job there are tactics of solving the situation. He says, â€Å" The best way is t... ... to help you on a subject your not having the best of luck in. Roommates should be there to motivate one another and grow closer. Not to fight like five year olds, or kick each other out. It can be easy to void problems, and that’s by not starting them. Everyone needs to have in mind; College is an important time in your life. Be excited to actually be at college, and be excited of the change from home. Take a chance, have an open mind for many college graduates, best memories include their roommate. But always remember that a dorm room is just like a democracy, if a roommate can't compromise then it's going to be there loss, because they will not win. Works Cited Dr. Andrew Johnson, College Bound Magazine, April 2002, 23-26 Henry Wechlsher, Ph.D, Campus Reality, Drug and Prevention, 2001 Interview: Morehead State Student, February 18, 2003

Thursday, October 24, 2019

A Paper Essay

A Paper Brian Nguyen Austin Community College December 4, 2012 ENGL. 1301 English Composition 1 Should people who are caught driving drunk lose their licenses for a year? I highly agree anyone who drives drunk and fails a sobriety test should lose their licenses for how much alcohol or illegal drugs the driver consumes. (Ballantyne) This should happen because 40% of accidents are caused by drunk drivers. (Ballantyne) This will make the roads safer and would teach the driver a lesson. Studies indicate that since the law has done this, 800 lives have been saved in a year. Ballantyne) With the law doing this, I agree it’s a good idea for the law to do this because it will make me feel safer when I’m driving on the roads. But especially for my parents and family don’t have to worry about me getting in an accident and getting hurt. I think if anybody suspects a drunk driver on the road, they should call the police and report their licenses plate number and location. A nd the cops will take care of the situation and keep the roads safe. Back in fall 2008, my cousin Joe Nguyen was 18 and picking up two of my other friends from a party out of town.He knew they were intoxicated and couldn’t drive, so he wanted to be safe and pick them up. The drive was around 30 miles out of town and it was 4 am in the morning, he safely picked them up and was on his way back into town. Having only 10 minutes to get into town, he was hit head on with an oncoming car. The other driver was drunk and had been swerving into the opposite lane. The impact of the hit had killed him and injured the other two will serious injury. One having serious scares and the other having brain damage. She didn’t remember what happened and couldn’t recognize who her family was.When I said anybody who fails a breath test I mean anybody. Adult drivers, teenage drivers, and under aged driver should receive the consequences. With the roads with young drivers just like me, they should know better not to drink because they are under aged. But with teens being per pressured from other people when they go to school parties, they need to think about the consequences. But now-a-days, I know for experience that a lot of young teens drink when they go to parties. Just to fit in or their friends will judge them if they don’t drink.Then that’s when they need to say no and walk away. When young teenagers see that their friends and even their family members driving drunk, they think it is okay if they do it also. Once they do it and don’t get caught, they do it again and again until one day they get caught. Officers take zero tolerance towards underage drunk drivers. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) If the under aged driver consumes only a small amount of alcohol, then the driver is fined and his or her licenses is lost for a year. On 2004, a woman named Judith Gubernikoff was at home taking care of her three sons.She helps her father at a fish market and has to go take a 25 mile drive to go wake up her father in Manhattan where he lived. (Kotb) Neville Wells, a 41 year-old man was drink at a night club. He was a big drinker and always drives home drunk. (Kotb) When he left the night club around 3 am at night, witnesses say that his driving could be compared as a blind person behind the wheel. (Kotb) He has driving a minivan that night, and had hit a parked car in a parking lot. (Kotb) Making the car fly in the air and only thing stopping the car was an iron fence. Kotb) Inside the parked car were Judith and her father where they had to be cut out of the vehicle and rushed to the hospital. (Kotb) Wells, the driver of the minivan was okay with only scratches. (Kotb) The doctors were able to save Judith’s father but could save Judith. (Kotb) The doctor said that the power of the impact of the hit had made Judith’s heart burst like water balloon being poked by a needle. (Kotb) Her husband, Geor ge Gubernikoff was doing research about Wells on his record of DWLs. (Kotb) Well’s first DWL was in 1999 and he gotten a fine. Kotb) His second DWL was in 2000 and lost his license for a year. (Kotb) The night of the accident, the report of the breath test said that his blood level was . 22. (Kotb) Which is 3 times the average legal limit and he had about 15 alcoholic drinks. (Kotb) He didn’t get a fine for this accident, he was sent to prison for 17 years for second degree murder. (Kotb) With adults being legal drivers and legal to drink, they shouldn’t be able to drink and drive at the same time. The story of Judith and Neville shows that adults like Neville, should not have a license and shouldn’t be driving period.Even if he isn’t intoxicated with alcohol, he shouldn’t have the privilege of driving. Showing that Americans around the State don’t care about driving drunk and will just do whatever they want to do. That it can lead to death and serious injuries. If you were to be stopped by a cop and arrested for DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) or DUI (Driving under the Influence), then you will have to pay a big fine of expense determined on your licenses and insurance policy. (â€Å"godui. org†) On one if my resources, this website shows people’s opinion on if you drive drunk you should lose your licenses for a year. Debate. org) 85% of the people agreed and 15% disagreed about the driving drunk. (Debate. org) Some of the 85% people say that they should do better than just take away their license for a year. (Debate. org) Some say that their license should be taken away forever. Debate. org (Debate. org) For the people who disagreed had something else to say. They say that the law are being dramatic about the situation and should not spend so much money on something that is not important. (Debate. org) I highly disagree with his comment about being dramatic and stop spending on something that is not important.I think the law is doing a good job and should spend as much money as they can to stop drunk driving. The law may be being too dramatic about this situation, but in my opinion they are just trying to keep the roads safe and making sure driving drunk is being stopped. The laws in Texas about DWI and DUI are different from other states. In other states, on their first offense they only get a fine. But in Texas, on their first DWI, their licenses are lost for a year and a fine is issued too. (T) The judge in Texas sends the driver to DUI School and has to take class depending on how bad their DWI or DUI is. T) Going to DUI School is the ticket on getting your license back and the bad thing about it is you have to pay for each class. (T) With Texas having stricter laws from each other, drivers will not able to get a fine on their first offence. (roisin) DUI School is not as easy as sitting in a class for seven hours and you can get the hours. You have to sit down with a pr ofessional counselor and answer a few questions about their drinking problems. (â€Å"dwi. com†) Depending on the drunk driver, shows how much meetings you have to attend. (â€Å"dwi. om†) It can be up to 4 meetings up to 90 meetings in 90 days, or 28-day residential treatment program, detoxification, or other medical treatment. (â€Å"dwi. com†) The cost of all the fees and bills you get when you drive drunk you have to pay. (â€Å"dwi. com†) First there is the fine you get for driving drunk. (â€Å"dwi. com†) Then you have to pay an additional insurance coverage before you get your licenses back and that can be a lot of money. (â€Å"dwi. com†) The last fine you have to pay is when the state has to re-issue your driver’s licenses.With all the fees and bills you have to pay, the cost will be higher than a regular traffic accident. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) Drivers are mostly paying for the cost of damages of the r oad, car, or medical bill of the person he or she injured in an accident. (roisin) So what will happen to the person’s vehicle if they were arrested for a DWI? Well there are a lot of things that can happen to the vehicle. First the officer has an interlock device that locks the car so if the person is trying to make a run for it. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) Then the car can ether impounded, confiscated, or sold. â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) With the information I have given you, I hope you agree that drunk drivers should lose their licenses for a year for the safety of others on the road. With innocent people dying from drunk drivers driving on the road, the law should enforce this law around the United States. Work Cited Ballantyne, Coco. â€Å"Roads safer when drunk drivers immediately lose license to kill. .† Science American. Scientific American Inc, 24 2007. Web. 6 Dec 2012. Kotb, Hoda. â€Å"The worst kind of drunk drivers. â⠂¬  NBC news. NBC News. Web. 6 Dec 2012. â€Å"should people who are caught driving drunk lose their licenses for a year?. † godui. org. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"alcohol alert. † Consequences of drunk driving. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"Debate. org. † Society Opinions. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. T, Buddy. â€Å"Alcoholism. about. com. † Penalties for Driving Drunk. Medical Review Board, 28 2012. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"Arrested dor DWI in Texas. † dwi. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 6 Dec 2012. roisin, . â€Å"yahoo. com. † drunk drivers should lose their licenses for life the first time they are caught. N. p. , n. d. Web. 7 Dec 2012. A Paper Essay A Paper Brian Nguyen Austin Community College December 4, 2012 ENGL. 1301 English Composition 1 Should people who are caught driving drunk lose their licenses for a year? I highly agree anyone who drives drunk and fails a sobriety test should lose their licenses for how much alcohol or illegal drugs the driver consumes. (Ballantyne) This should happen because 40% of accidents are caused by drunk drivers. (Ballantyne) This will make the roads safer and would teach the driver a lesson. Studies indicate that since the law has done this, 800 lives have been saved in a year. Ballantyne) With the law doing this, I agree it’s a good idea for the law to do this because it will make me feel safer when I’m driving on the roads. But especially for my parents and family don’t have to worry about me getting in an accident and getting hurt. I think if anybody suspects a drunk driver on the road, they should call the police and report their licenses plate number and location. A nd the cops will take care of the situation and keep the roads safe. Back in fall 2008, my cousin Joe Nguyen was 18 and picking up two of my other friends from a party out of town.He knew they were intoxicated and couldn’t drive, so he wanted to be safe and pick them up. The drive was around 30 miles out of town and it was 4 am in the morning, he safely picked them up and was on his way back into town. Having only 10 minutes to get into town, he was hit head on with an oncoming car. The other driver was drunk and had been swerving into the opposite lane. The impact of the hit had killed him and injured the other two will serious injury. One having serious scares and the other having brain damage. She didn’t remember what happened and couldn’t recognize who her family was.When I said anybody who fails a breath test I mean anybody. Adult drivers, teenage drivers, and under aged driver should receive the consequences. With the roads with young drivers just like me, they should know better not to drink because they are under aged. But with teens being per pressured from other people when they go to school parties, they need to think about the consequences. But now-a-days, I know for experience that a lot of young teens drink when they go to parties. Just to fit in or their friends will judge them if they don’t drink.Then that’s when they need to say no and walk away. When young teenagers see that their friends and even their family members driving drunk, they think it is okay if they do it also. Once they do it and don’t get caught, they do it again and again until one day they get caught. Officers take zero tolerance towards underage drunk drivers. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) If the under aged driver consumes only a small amount of alcohol, then the driver is fined and his or her licenses is lost for a year. On 2004, a woman named Judith Gubernikoff was at home taking care of her three sons.She helps her father at a fish market and has to go take a 25 mile drive to go wake up her father in Manhattan where he lived. (Kotb) Neville Wells, a 41 year-old man was drink at a night club. He was a big drinker and always drives home drunk. (Kotb) When he left the night club around 3 am at night, witnesses say that his driving could be compared as a blind person behind the wheel. (Kotb) He has driving a minivan that night, and had hit a parked car in a parking lot. (Kotb) Making the car fly in the air and only thing stopping the car was an iron fence. Kotb) Inside the parked car were Judith and her father where they had to be cut out of the vehicle and rushed to the hospital. (Kotb) Wells, the driver of the minivan was okay with only scratches. (Kotb) The doctors were able to save Judith’s father but could save Judith. (Kotb) The doctor said that the power of the impact of the hit had made Judith’s heart burst like water balloon being poked by a needle. (Kotb) Her husband, Geor ge Gubernikoff was doing research about Wells on his record of DWLs. (Kotb) Well’s first DWL was in 1999 and he gotten a fine. Kotb) His second DWL was in 2000 and lost his license for a year. (Kotb) The night of the accident, the report of the breath test said that his blood level was . 22. (Kotb) Which is 3 times the average legal limit and he had about 15 alcoholic drinks. (Kotb) He didn’t get a fine for this accident, he was sent to prison for 17 years for second degree murder. (Kotb) With adults being legal drivers and legal to drink, they shouldn’t be able to drink and drive at the same time. The story of Judith and Neville shows that adults like Neville, should not have a license and shouldn’t be driving period.Even if he isn’t intoxicated with alcohol, he shouldn’t have the privilege of driving. Showing that Americans around the State don’t care about driving drunk and will just do whatever they want to do. That it can lead to death and serious injuries. If you were to be stopped by a cop and arrested for DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) or DUI (Driving under the Influence), then you will have to pay a big fine of expense determined on your licenses and insurance policy. (â€Å"godui. org†) On one if my resources, this website shows people’s opinion on if you drive drunk you should lose your licenses for a year. Debate. org) 85% of the people agreed and 15% disagreed about the driving drunk. (Debate. org) Some of the 85% people say that they should do better than just take away their license for a year. (Debate. org) Some say that their license should be taken away forever. Debate. org (Debate. org) For the people who disagreed had something else to say. They say that the law are being dramatic about the situation and should not spend so much money on something that is not important. (Debate. org) I highly disagree with his comment about being dramatic and stop spending on something that is not important.I think the law is doing a good job and should spend as much money as they can to stop drunk driving. The law may be being too dramatic about this situation, but in my opinion they are just trying to keep the roads safe and making sure driving drunk is being stopped. The laws in Texas about DWI and DUI are different from other states. In other states, on their first offense they only get a fine. But in Texas, on their first DWI, their licenses are lost for a year and a fine is issued too. (T) The judge in Texas sends the driver to DUI School and has to take class depending on how bad their DWI or DUI is. T) Going to DUI School is the ticket on getting your license back and the bad thing about it is you have to pay for each class. (T) With Texas having stricter laws from each other, drivers will not able to get a fine on their first offence. (roisin) DUI School is not as easy as sitting in a class for seven hours and you can get the hours. You have to sit down with a pr ofessional counselor and answer a few questions about their drinking problems. (â€Å"dwi. com†) Depending on the drunk driver, shows how much meetings you have to attend. (â€Å"dwi. om†) It can be up to 4 meetings up to 90 meetings in 90 days, or 28-day residential treatment program, detoxification, or other medical treatment. (â€Å"dwi. com†) The cost of all the fees and bills you get when you drive drunk you have to pay. (â€Å"dwi. com†) First there is the fine you get for driving drunk. (â€Å"dwi. com†) Then you have to pay an additional insurance coverage before you get your licenses back and that can be a lot of money. (â€Å"dwi. com†) The last fine you have to pay is when the state has to re-issue your driver’s licenses.With all the fees and bills you have to pay, the cost will be higher than a regular traffic accident. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) Drivers are mostly paying for the cost of damages of the r oad, car, or medical bill of the person he or she injured in an accident. (roisin) So what will happen to the person’s vehicle if they were arrested for a DWI? Well there are a lot of things that can happen to the vehicle. First the officer has an interlock device that locks the car so if the person is trying to make a run for it. (â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) Then the car can ether impounded, confiscated, or sold. â€Å"Consequences of drunk driving†) With the information I have given you, I hope you agree that drunk drivers should lose their licenses for a year for the safety of others on the road. With innocent people dying from drunk drivers driving on the road, the law should enforce this law around the United States. Work Cited Ballantyne, Coco. â€Å"Roads safer when drunk drivers immediately lose license to kill. .† Science American. Scientific American Inc, 24 2007. Web. 6 Dec 2012. Kotb, Hoda. â€Å"The worst kind of drunk drivers. â⠂¬  NBC news. NBC News. Web. 6 Dec 2012. â€Å"should people who are caught driving drunk lose their licenses for a year?. † godui. org. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"alcohol alert. † Consequences of drunk driving. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"Debate. org. † Society Opinions. N. p.. Web. 6 Dec 2012. T, Buddy. â€Å"Alcoholism. about. com. † Penalties for Driving Drunk. Medical Review Board, 28 2012. Web. 6 Dec 2012. . â€Å"Arrested dor DWI in Texas. † dwi. com. N. p. , n. d. Web. 6 Dec 2012. roisin, . â€Å"yahoo. com. † drunk drivers should lose their licenses for life the first time they are caught. N. p. , n. d. Web. 7 Dec 2012.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Computer negative or positive effect

Using computers everyday can have more ,negative than positive effect on young children. Nowadays computer play a crucial role for young generation. Mostly children dependent on computers for multifarious purposes. But some people believe that it cause obstacle between their healthy life and in acquiring practical knowledge. Lets delve deeper into the topic to seek more clarification. Firstly and most commonly,the advanced technology make the people more lethargic. The children spend their leisure time in playing games on computer which cause paucity of interaction with their friends.Because team work is must to interact with the world. While sitting in front of the monitor screen their eye sight effects badly. ln addition, numerous children suffered from back pain and obesity problem that occurs due to the lack of physical exercise. This problems have create critical health hazards. Furthermore, The use of computers make the life more fast and easy. Students enhance their knowledge and learn the use of technology. Due to the modern era it is must for the children to keep them-self update. today their is a world of cut throat competition .The computer beneficial to improve the general knowledge and IQ evel. lt makes the children more occupied in work and its better to stay away from bad habits. In nutshell, It would safe to say the advantages of the computer over weigh the disadvantages. To conclude, computer meant to make live comfortable and easy but people handle that in complex and abusive manner. lts not possible to keep away the children from computers. The children should allow them to use it in the supervision of parents only. 2. Topic: â€Å"Using a computer everyday can have more negative than positive effects on children.Do you agree ? Explain your opinion with relevant examples . ln today's technologically developed world, the computer is no longer a luxury-{don't use hyphens in a formal essay, use a comma here} but a staple of everyday life. In pe rsonal, professional and academic spheres reliance on the computer is inevitable. Although,{no comma} some would say that use of a computer at an early age has detrimental effects, I content that its benefits outweigh its risk[s {good intro}The current education system places a great amount of mental pressure on students. this is your topic sentence and should give your first reason for your argument} Including omputer and internet with the studies may make the curriculum more interactive and interesting. {try to put this reason first and then explain it} Learning vast syllabus{you don't learn the syllabus really} and diverse topics in different areas can often force a student to opt for rote learning without putting stress on their brain, {this is unclear, do you mean â€Å"to avoid putting stress †¦ â€Å"? } such [a] method further lead[s ] to strait-Jacket [a] child's cognitive skills.In contrast, use of computers and internet for exploring such topics will help them in a chieving an in-depth knowledge nd understanding trom their roots{tnis sounds like you are talking about the children's roots}. It can further stemmed{what can be stemmed? } to make them a good abstract thinker. It is also worthy to galvanize{â€Å"galvanize† sounds odd here} the use of computer during children's leisure time. {once again, try to start with your reason}There are a galore [of] {â€Å"galore† might be a little too informal for this type of essay} strateg[y-]related computer games available in the market.Playing such skill games is a good way of increasing one's concentration level, boosting self-confidence and improving the[one's] thinking capability. In today's Job market, every single openings comes up with a requirement of mandatory computer knowledge with hands-on [training], on the rudiments of computer skills. Having children explored[exposed] to such skills at an early age would ironically{â€Å"ironically† is wrong here} prepare them for mo re profession career. On the other hand, one must not ignore the detrimental effects on health of using computers continuously for extended time periods.Guidance by parents and elders is a must for a child – especially to supervise if{â€Å"verify that† sounds better} they are not addicted to any antalizing, restricted websites that contains in-decent{one word, no hypen} and violent materials. To sum up, I would concede that computer use at an early age is of pinnacle{pinnacle is a noun, not an adjective} importances and its disadvantages can be easily curbed with proper guidance and constant supervision. 3. Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on children. Do you agree or disagree?Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Essay 1 – High Score – Band 8-91n today's modern world, computers are an essential part of everyday life. Around the globe, children often us e computers from a very young age. Although it is important for children to participate in various well-balanced activities, in my opinion, children who use the computer daily are actually developing a critical skill for future success. The bases for my views are personal, academic, and professional.From a personal point of view, computers are an invaluable resource to help young people explore the world around them. For example, children who use Internet to satisfy their curiosity about diverse topics are already becoming independent learners. No child with a computer is ever bored! By starting early in their lives, children feel totally at ease around computers; they are also able to take advantage of the wide range of services computers provide. From an academic viewpoint, children have no choice but to master this technological invention.For instance, when I was in university, students brought their laptops to class to take notes, do research and exchange information. They wrote assignments, created presentations and developed databases. Children who build early confidence and experience in these abilities are at a distinct advantage over those who have not. From a rofessional perspective, the computer has found a permanent place in the workplace. Today, employers still pay to provide computer training to their employees. Tomorrow, corporations will expect prospective Job applicants to already possess these critical Job skills.Consequently, parents who encourage their child to use the computer for a reasonable period of time daily are in fact investing in the child's future career. In conclusion, there is no doubt that the computer as a technological tool is nere tos y ta . The sooner children better for many aspects of their future lives. become computer I iterate 4. thank you for your advices 🙂 I posted my re-writing essay. Check it out 🙂 Computers are one of the important thing in our life. It always participates in our various life. E veryday everyone use computers for different interests.We use them for work, for our personal interests. Nowadays basically only children and adults over 16 years old such as students often use PC. Of course students use them or preparing a reports or to learn something curiosity. In this essay I will give academic uses of computers for children, but I will also disagree with children spending too uch leisure time using computers. First of all, I think computers can be useful for three reasons. Firstly, it helps people explore the world around them. For instant, children who use Internet to learn different topics, sooner becoming independent learners.Secondly, from nowadays most school started teaching subjects using computer, owing to it children are going to have more technical skills. We can see each student bringing their laptops to write notes during lectures, share information and do research. Lastly, PCs are found in every kind of office. In the future, ompanies will demand f rom employee skills of using computers well. Therefor kids who have already learnt how to use computer rightly, it will be easy for them in the future. On the other hand, kids should not play computer every time.It seems to me that they need to spend all their free time hanging out with friends, to read more books, newspapers and listen to radio. I like the way of living our parents and grandparents did in the past. Due to those times, children used to evolve better than nowadays. So, parents should be a little bit strict to their kids, permit to spend all heir time with computer. They should be careful and always look after them. Kids need to be close to the Nature! In the end I would like to add that, computers can be 0K but I think children should not use them too much! 26 words! 5. IELTS SAMPLE ESSAYS: Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on your children. Do you agree or disagree? Posted by Muhammad Gulzar on 04:02 I tend to agree that young c hildren can be negatively affected by too much time spent on the computer every day. This is partly because sitting in front of a screen for too ong can be damaging to both the eyes and the physical posture of a young child, regardless of what they are using the computer for. However, the main concern is about the type of computer activities that attract children.These are often electronic games that tend to be very intense and rather violent. The player is usually the ‘hero' of the game and too much exposure can encourage children to be self-centred and insensitive to others. Even when children use a computer for other purposes, such as getting information or emailing friends, it is no substitute for human interaction. Spending time with other children and sharing non-virtual experiences is an important part ot a child's development that cannot be provided by a computer. n spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for young children cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly in terms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge and information available in the world today. Therefore it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and working lives. think the main point is to make sure that young children do not overuse computers.Parents must ensure that their children learn to enjoy other kinds of activity and not simply sit at home, learning to live in a virtual world. 6. Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effects on young children. Do you agree or disagree? Children use computers more than ever before these days. They can be found surfing the internet, playing on-line games and on social network sites. Sometimes, especially when there is no parental control, they can spend too much time daily on computers.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Education Is the Powerful Weapon Essay Example

Education Is the Powerful Weapon Essay Example Education Is the Powerful Weapon Essay Education Is the Powerful Weapon Essay Notes from Provincial Meeting with Colgate-Palmolive re-Partnership for Oral Health Education: 19 May 2011: Natalia, Pietermaritzburg. 1. Welcome: Dr Zungu welcomed the representatives from Colgate – Palmolive and from National Department of Health: Oral Health Programme. The Head of Department acknowledged the work previously done by Colgate – Palmolive in the school based brushing program. Dr Zungu stated that the Province and the Department would benefit from this health promotion and prevention of dental carries programme, as part of re-engineering of PHC. Dr Zungu acknowledged the oral hygienists attending the meeting as leaders in oral health, especially promotion and prevention. 2. Present and Apologies Oral hygienists from each District, except Umzinyathi (where there are no Oral Hygienists), were present. Umzinyathi was represented by the Oral Health Programme coordinator. 3. PHC and Oral Health Ms Dalton restated the partnership as being part of health promotion and that oral health is an important component of PHC. The oral hygienists should be the leaders in enrolling the schools onto the programme, and re-enforcing messages through partnership with School Health Nurses, Dieticians and nutritional advisors, PHC Nurses and Department of Education. The initiative should be a District wide, and a District managed initiative. 4. Presentation by Ms Rowel from Colgate-Palmolive The project was outlined. Purpose: To establish oral health education in as many schools in KZN as possible within the funds available. Process: a) Each Health District in Partnership with Department of Education should identify schools, and introduce the education programme. b) A registration form with the details of school is required to be sent to Colgate – Palmolive. c) The required number of Oral Health Education School Kits will be sent to the school. d) The teachers will be given some training on the use of kits, lesson plans, etc. Target: Grade One pupil only, there are insufficient funds to extend at this time. Sustainability: The programme / project can only be sustained in partnership with the two Departments. Health Department will need to supplement toothpaste and brushes – as Colgate / Palmolive only provided the start up consumables. Indicators: Number of schools with brushing programmes (already on DHIS) Number of children exposed to Oral Health Education. Project outcomes Project should be a strategy to introduce and identify children for fissure sealants. Reduction in dental carries Reduction in tooth extractions in schools children. 5. Discussion |Item |Decision |Action by whom | |5. 1. Provincial target schools |Target the â€Å"Full service Schools† and |Dalton to write to District to inform| |Not all schools can be reached. Discussion was around whether to target the â€Å"Full |Quintile One schools. |them of the project, targets etc. | |service Schools† and Quintile One schools, or target the largest schools to enroll the| | | |maximum number of children; especially as some of the Quintile One schools are small | | | |schools. Another suggestion was Health Promoting schools, however Oral Health is | | | |already part of the criteria used. | | | |5. 2. Project Leaders |Oral hygienists would lead the project at|Dalton to write to District to inform| |Oral hygienists stated that this was their field, but would require District |District level. However a team approach |them of the project, targets, etc. | |Management support, especially to access consumables to sustain the Programme in |was essential | | |schools. | | | |Hygienists were reminded to work in teams with School Health Nurses, Dieticians and | | | |Nutritional Advisors, NPO’s and PHC Nurses. | | |There are no Oral Hygienists in Umzinyathi, the Oral Health Programme Coordinator | | | |would facilitate the project, it was suggested the District offer bursaries for this | | | |cadre. | | |5. 3. Funds for consumables to sustain brushing programmes. |Ms Dalton would undertake to ask Dr. |Dalton to add financial support to | |The brushing programmes started previously have stalled as it was not seen as a |Mansvelder if funds can be accessed. And |the letter to District Managers. | |priority in the financial constraints. And Hospital CEO’s were reluctant to let |to add financial support to the letter to|Dalton to ask Dr Mansvelder if some | |hygienists take consumables from Hospital premises to distribute to schools. |District Managers. |funds can be made available. | |It had been reported that there were funds available for PHC, this is truly a | | | |promotion and prevention intervention and should be funded. | | |5. 4. Fissure Sealants The project should be used be used to identify children in need |Oral Health Programme to monitor the |Vayej: Oral Health | |of sealants. |number of children being reached for | | |eThekweni District requires a light for the light cure sealant. |fissure sealant. | | | | | | | | | |In Uthukela there was a complaint that School Health Nurses are not identifying dental| | | |carries correctly, and over referring to dentists†¦ however no action to teach the |MCWH and Uthukela District to facilitate | | |Schools Health Nurses has been offered. |the School Health Teams being skilled to |Manickum, | | |recognise dental carries in children. Uthukela District Oral Health | | | |Coordinator. | |5. 5. Transport Oral Hygienists often experience challenges in accessing transport to |Dalton to write to District to inform |Dalton | |visit schools. |them of the project and need for | | |Oral hygienists can also at times travel with School Health Teams, or dieticians to |transport to be allocated for project | | |schools. | | | |5. 6. Stakeholders the following stakeholders must be involved at District level: |All stakeholders must be involved in the |Dalton to include in letter to | |School Health Teams, Community Care Givers, Oral Health Programme Co-odinator, |District Plan for the Project |Districts. | |District based Dietician, NPO’s, Dentists participating in the Colgate â€Å"Bright Smiles,| | | |Bright Futures† , and the PHC clinics nearest to the schools where the project | | | |commences. | | | |6. 7. District Plans: District plans involving all stakeholders are required to |Oral hygienists to approach Oral Health |Dalton to include in letter to | |finalise a Provincial plan and enable Colgate Palmolive to support the roll out in the|Coordinators in each District to maximize|Districts | |Province. |the project opportunity. | | |The â€Å"war rooms† must be included and informed about the project so that Community care| |District plans by end of June 2011. | |givers can participate at home and school level. | | | |6. 8. Indictors: New indicators would not be added to DHIS at this stage. The |The Oral Health coordinators are expected|Provincial Oral Health Programme to | |Quarterly reports from Districts include the number of brushing programme at schools. |to report on the project in the Quarterly|request inclusion of other indicators| | |report in the narrative section. |at a later stage. | 7. Closure: Colgate Palmolive was thanked for introducing the project and giving a â€Å"kick start† to Oral Health Education as part of PHC re-Engineering, and assisting the Province to move toward health promotion and prevention strategies. The Oral hygienists were thanked for being enthusiastic about their work and the project.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Types of Solids and How to Categorize Them

Types of Solids and How to Categorize Them In the broadest sense, solids may be categorized as either crystalline solids or amorphous solids. Most specifically, scientists typically recognize six main types of solids, each characterized by specific properties and structures. Ionic Solids Ionic solids form when electrostatic attraction causes anions and cations to form a crystal lattice. In an ionic crystal, each ion is surrounded by ions with an opposite charge. Ionic crystals are extremely stable because considerable energy is required to break ionic bonds. Metallic Solids The positively charged nuclei of metal atoms are held together by valence electrons to form metallic solids. The electrons are considered delocalized because they arent bound to any particular atoms, as in covalent bonds. Delocalized electrons can move throughout the solid. This is the electron sea model of metallic solids- positive nuclei float in a sea of negative electrons. Metals are characterized by high thermal and electrical conductivity and are typically hard, shiny, and ductile. Examples: Almost all metals and their alloys, such as gold, brass, steel. Network Atomic Solids This type of solid is also known simply as a network solid. Network atomic solids are huge crystals consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds. Many gemstones are network atomic solids. Examples: Diamond, amethyst, ruby. Atomic Solids Atomic solids form when weak London dispersion forces bind the atoms of cold noble gasses. Examples: These solids are not seen in everyday life since they require extremely low temperatures. An example would be solid krypton or solid argon. Molecular Solids Covalent molecules held together by intermolecular forces form molecular solids. While the intermolecular forces are strong enough to hold the molecules in place, molecular solids typically have lower melting and boiling points than metallic, ionic, or network atomic solids, which are held together by stronger bonds. Example: Water ice. Amorphous Solids Unlike all of the other types of solids, amorphous solids do not exhibit a crystal structure. This type of solid is characterized by an irregular bonding pattern. Amorphous solids may be soft and rubbery when they are formed by long molecules, tangled together and held by intermolecular forces. Glassy solids are hard and brittle, formed by atoms irregularly joined by covalent bonds. Examples: Plastic, glass.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

15 Military Terms Used in Civilian Contexts

15 Military Terms Used in Civilian Contexts 15 Military Terms Used in Civilian Contexts 15 Military Terms Used in Civilian Contexts By Mark Nichol The English language includes some words that, originating in the vocabulary of warfare, have been applied to competitive contexts such as sports and business, while others that did not originate in that realm are associated with both the military and other endeavors. Here’s a list of terms pertaining to military units and formations that also have other, sometimes derivative, senses. 1. army: from medieval Latin armata (â€Å"army†)- also the source of the Spanish term armada, meaning â€Å"war fleet†- referring to a nation’s entire body of land forces or to one major unit of that body 2. brigade: from Italian briga (â€Å"quarrel†), a word for a unit consisting of thousands of soldiers or, by extension, to any large group of people organized according to common belief or toward achievement of a common goal; brigadier is a military rank for someone in command of a brigade, and related words are brigand (originally meaning â€Å"soldier† but later denoting a bandit) and brig and brigantine for types of warships during the Age of Sail (the use of the former as prison ships led to brig being applied to military prisons) 3. corps: from Latin corpus (â€Å"body†), a set unit of tens of thousands of soldiers; by extension, also a more or less numerous group of people involved in the same activity, such as the press corps or a corps de ballet, or ballet company 4. detail: from Old French detaillier (â€Å"cut into pieces†), originally only a reference to a part or facet of something, but it also came to apply to a small group of military personnel assigned a specific task, as well as to the task itself or the action of selecting the group 5. division: from Latin dividere (â€Å"divide†), a word with numerous senses, including referring to a unit consisting of tens of thousands of soldiers or a unit of aircraft or ships 6. echelon: from Late Latin scala (â€Å"ladder†) by way of French eschelon (originally â€Å"rung of a ladder† but later â€Å"grade,† â€Å"level,† or step†), adopted into English to refer to a military formation in which units are offset so that from above, they resemble a stairway in profile; the word then came to denote grades or levels of an organization or the people at one of those grades or levels 7. fleet: from Old English fleotan (â€Å"float†), a set unit of military naval vessels or the entirety of such vessels belonging to a navy or to a company; by extension, now also applied to collections of vehicles, such as a group of cars owned by a company or a government agency and available for employees’ use 8. flotilla: from Spanish (â€Å"little fleet†), a set unit of small warships; by extension, a large number of like things 9. host: from Latin hostis (â€Å"enemy† or â€Å"stranger†), which is also the source of hostile, with multiple meanings, including a large army or a multitude of indeterminate size 10. legion: from Latin legere (â€Å"gather†), originally a Roman military unit equivalent to a modern brigade; now, vaguely describes a multitude 11. phalanx: from Greek (â€Å"log†), originally referring to a closely arrayed military formation but now denoting a mass of people, animals, or things; also refers to bones of a hand or foot 12. platoon: from French pelaton (â€Å"little ball†), originally referring only to a set unit of about several dozen soldiers and by extension coming to mean a squad of athletes with a common function (such as offensive and defensive teams in football) or any group of people with a common characteristic or goal 13. regiment: ultimately from Latin regere (â€Å"lead straight† or â€Å"rule†), regimen was adopted into English to refer primarily to a fitness or health plan, but its cognate regiment refers to a military unit of about a thousand or more soldiers; to regiment is to control strictly 14. squad: ultimately from Vulgar Latin exquadrare (â€Å"make square†) by way of Middle French esquade, initially denoting a set unit of about a dozen soldiers but later also referring in general to a small group engaged in an activity (see also squadron) 15. squadron: from Italian squadrone (â€Å"squad†), cognate with squad, refers to any one of several types of military units depending on the branch of service (it can apply to soldiers, aircraft, or ships), and by extension a large group of people or things involved in a particular endeavor Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 English Grammar Rules You Should Know225 Foreign Phrases to Inspire YouMankind vs. Humankind

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Breach of Contract and Informed Consent Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Breach of Contract and Informed Consent - Essay Example ding to the facts of the case, Harvey suffered from carotid artery blockage and while his doctor recommended a surgical procedure, Harvey signed a consent form that restricted use of blood or blood products on his body. He acknowledged potential health risks to his condition. He confirmed this in another agreement a day before the surgery. The surgery appears successful until a blood clot was realized and he suffered a stroke. His mother, who was also listed as the next of kin, then offered consent for subsequent operations and procedures, some of which involved blood transfusion because Harvey lost lots of blood and was at risk of heart attack and death. Harvey later recovered and sued. One of the principles that guide the case is existence of a contract and its terms, and an agreement between Harvey and the doctor prior to the initial surgery identifies this. Consequently, any surgical procedures ought to have been conducted within the terms of the agreement. The agreement was further based on the patient’s informed consent as he acknowledged possible consequences on his decisions on the surgical procedure. This is because the initial agreement that existed in writing identified â€Å"disclosure,† â€Å"comprehension,† â€Å"voluntariness,† â€Å"competence,† and â€Å"consent† (Kennedy, 2008, p. 83). The informed consent was further consistent with statute law on autonomy and informed consent that grants a patient right to information and allows a patient to refuse treatment (Rutgers, n.d.), and case law as was argued in the case of Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital, as the patient reserved the right applicatio ns in the surgical procedures (Albert, 2000). There are however exceptions to the doctrine of informed consent that are applicable to the case and undermine Harvey’s chances of winning. Emergency is an example and defines need for an immediate action with the aim of preserving a patient’s life. This means that delays in a surgical action can

Friday, October 18, 2019

IT Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

IT - Research Paper Example This serves as the main difference between quantitative and qualitative research. This is because the former does not embrace transitional social aspects in terms of interpretation (Cooper & Hedges, 1994). Cooper, H. & Hedges, L. V. (1994). The Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Q2. The aspect of rigidity is cited as one of the major weaknesses of survey data. Most researchers miss out on important information that may come from interviewees predominantly because of lack of space. This emanates from a rigid design that does not allow for unforeseen information from the masses. Therefore, it becomes difficult for the individual to collect additional and new information about a product being researched. The solution to the problem lies in designing a broader research procedure that is quite flexible. This entails a hectic and tiresome process, but the results are usually worthy. Q3. Most researchers rely on the mechanical method in a bid to handle and org anizing huge numbers of data. Here, computers are largely used to their efficiency and speed that cannot be handled by the human brain. It is important to note that computers basically rely on tallying or counting words, phrases, and all sorts of coincidences that can be spotted within the data. One advantage of computers is the leverage it possesses over human beings in terms of speed and efficiency. Computers can also work efficiently in specified cases where certain positive comments about a given product are mentioned in the data (Patton, 2002). This type of data can be assessed using the so-called "red flags" and "green flags." It becomes easier to organize and handle data in this case even though it does not apply to all researches. This point also serves as its biggest weakness. Similarly, the method portrays some weakness in terms of failing to incorporate the human element in the organization of data. In other words, human interpretation and guidance is omitted from the equ ation. Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Question 4 __________ enable(s) organizations to see how potential employees will behave on the job and how they will adapt to the corporate culture. Answer Internships Networking Personal job applications Employee referrals 5 points Question 5 What type of informative presentation addresses "why" questions? Answer demonstration explanation description instructional 5 points Question 6 What type of informative presentation format simply gives an account of the status quo? Answer explanation briefing training session report 5 points Question 7 Which of the following is NOT one of the general purposes mentioned in the text? Answer to inform to persuade to motivate to critique 5 points Question 8 According to the text, the three functions of an introduction are Answer to entertain, preview purpose, and motivate. to orient, motivate, and build rapport. to build credibil ity, review main points, and provide a closing thought. to motivate, entertain, and celebrate. 5 points Question 9 The interviewee designs the resume and the cover letter based on the __________ and the research done on the company. Answer organizational structure business purpose personal biography work experience 5 points Question 10 An effective closing has three parts. Which of the following describes part two? Answer allowing the candidate to ask any final questions about the position allowing the cand

Plan organize and deliver group based learning Essay

Plan organize and deliver group based learning - Essay Example I’ve looked at this unit of competency to see how conflict resolution suited and noticed there is an entire section dedicated to it – ‘Deal effectively with issues, problems and conflicts’. I need your urgent help. Can you please provide a training session that deals simply with this issue for my new staff, ASAP. I had noticed there have been a few conflicts between my new and existing staff over various issues and feel this topic needs to be our first priority. I can give you 40 minutes next Tuesday morning to conduct the session. The following information may assist you with delivering this subject: 1. It is hoped that using mutual respect and open communication to discuss the issue that a resolution can be reached. This will include all parties concentrating on the problem and reaching a solution. No personal or derogatory comments from either party will be tolerated. 3. If conflict continues to occur due to this issue, mediation in the form of HR Personnel will be used to have a round-table discussion. If either employee is found to be in breach of the Town & City Cinemas Code of Conduct, reprimand steps will be taken. People should be treated as individuals with rights to be honoured and defended. Respect empowers others to claim their rights and to achieve their potential. Respect for the rights of other people is the basis on which individuals become members of a community and accept their social responsibilities to behave with integrity. The principle of taking personal and professional responsibility requires not only that people avoid doing harm to others but that they exhibit courteous behaviour upholding the standards expected of all members of the organisation as part of achieving a common good. In so doing they are expected to protect the rights of others and respect the diversity of cultures and peoples. Those well-positioned enough to assert their rights

Thursday, October 17, 2019

International Business Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

International Business Management - Essay Example This essay stresses that the Argentina market fit very well with Continental’s business strategy. Basically, the core business strategy of Continental is based on its continuous growth strategy. Continental’s expansion program enables the company to maximize the distribution of its operating costs within a specific geographic area. The said expansion strategy enables the company to have the power to offer competitive market prices to its target subscribers. Even before its existing technology becomes obsolete, the management team behind Continental ensures that the company has already invested a large sum of money not only on new technologies but also in other non-traditional cable services like residential and commercial voice, video and data communications services. This paper makes a conclusion that given that Mr. Hostetter’s business strategy is based on being decisive and aggressive entry into new markets, the plan of Continental to enter into a joint-venture with Fintelco is very promising. For this reason, it is safe to conclude that Continental’s expansion approach is very much consistent with the business strategy of Mr. Hostetter. With regards to their concern with the significance of currency risk involved, the management team behind Continental should not be bothered with the fact that Fintelco’s revenues would be dominated in pesos while its liabilities, interest expense and programming costs would be dominated in US dollars since the exchange rate between the two countries has been pegged by the Argentine government.

International Fashion Textiles Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

International Fashion Textiles Marketing - Essay Example The essay "International Fashion Textiles Marketing" explores the Textile Market and International Fashion. The paper also discovers the Textile and apparel industry in India. The Indian market consists of all the menswear, children swear, and women swear. The menswear consists of the casual, essentials, outerwear, and formalwear-occasions. The women swear consist of active wear, essentials, formalwear, and casual wear. The children’s wear consists of both the girls and boys wear such as essentials, formal wear, and active wear for girls. The political instability will ensure that the manufacturing facilities of the company are safe. The Indian economy is among the few economies that were not affected by the 2008/09 great recession. Coupled with the increasing GDP, the consumer power for fashion and textile products is increasing as more disposable income also increases. The Indian population is increasing steadily and this will increase the market base for textile products. I n addition, the Indian people are undergoing a cultural change as they embrace the western culture, and this may include embracing products manufactured by Levi Strauss. the Indian market has moved from manual manufacture of clothing to use of high tech machines in designing and manufacturing clothing products. The developed Indian technology will improve Levi Strauss’ efficiency and improve its productivity. The Indian government has strong environmental protection regulations that require companies to produce the minimum dioxide.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

International Business Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

International Business Management - Essay Example This essay stresses that the Argentina market fit very well with Continental’s business strategy. Basically, the core business strategy of Continental is based on its continuous growth strategy. Continental’s expansion program enables the company to maximize the distribution of its operating costs within a specific geographic area. The said expansion strategy enables the company to have the power to offer competitive market prices to its target subscribers. Even before its existing technology becomes obsolete, the management team behind Continental ensures that the company has already invested a large sum of money not only on new technologies but also in other non-traditional cable services like residential and commercial voice, video and data communications services. This paper makes a conclusion that given that Mr. Hostetter’s business strategy is based on being decisive and aggressive entry into new markets, the plan of Continental to enter into a joint-venture with Fintelco is very promising. For this reason, it is safe to conclude that Continental’s expansion approach is very much consistent with the business strategy of Mr. Hostetter. With regards to their concern with the significance of currency risk involved, the management team behind Continental should not be bothered with the fact that Fintelco’s revenues would be dominated in pesos while its liabilities, interest expense and programming costs would be dominated in US dollars since the exchange rate between the two countries has been pegged by the Argentine government.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Argument of Evaluation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Argument of Evaluation - Essay Example "The Artist† truly deserves the award it scoped as the ‘Best Picture’ movie during the 2012 Oscars. The movie leaves its audience with real pleasure in the way Hazanavicius makes use of tics and trick of silence together with care and wisdom. He goes further to include musical emotional rhythm emulated from some of the best movies ever witnessed. "The Artist† fluctuates between sad and funny and changes the sound age dawn into an individual tragedy presented to the audience as silent melodrama (Scott 3). The nostalgia used in the movie is instructive as witnessed in the scene where Valentin and Miller are seen tap-dancing on each other sides reminding the viewer of the visually inventive of how early films developed on sound could be. The other scene is when Vlanetin has a conversation with a policeman without title cards reminding the audience of the good silent movie it is. Such scenes call for a lot of imagination from the viewers hence they are fully involved and absorbed in the movie (Bradshaw 4). It is a miraculous form of entertainment that unexpectedly expresses a good deal about the pride of men and emotional literature. The final film of ‘the Artist’ was released in the year 2011making it one of the most joyful and heart-swelling silent movies and was screened in white and black, projecting it in an old fashioned Academy ratio boxy. Some of the lines in the movie are observed to be occasionally printed on dialogue intertitle cards. â€Å"The Artist† is places among the long tradition group of movies and it revolves around a film star who is established together with a young actress who is beguiling coming from the early Thirties and late Twenties Hollywood (Bradshaw 4). This was the period which was marked by the talkies rise. As the settings and pilot of the movie bring out the scenery of singing in the rain, the movie pulls in a different direction to Donen and Kelly’s sonically and visually screen music that

Monday, October 14, 2019

Integrating school safety data for the purpose of safe school program evaluation Essay Example for Free

Integrating school safety data for the purpose of safe school program evaluation Essay Abstract This paper addresses the issue of school safety and what should be done to enhance it. The need for all stakeholders; the government, the school administrations and community to facilitate safe school planning and thus essentially enhance school safety are equally taken into consideration. The paper further provides some of the indicators that are considered while implementing an effective safe school plan and how to assess and evaluate the proven programs. This in essence, provides a general picture of promoting school safety so that incidents of crime can be lessened. In addition, the need to create an enhanced safe environment needs to be sensitized in every school since it has a direct impact to the performance of schools. Introduction This paper considers data that will provide the way best practices and proven programs can be used to enhance school safety. Such a program that has been considered is Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block grants (JAIBG). This kind of a program considers the underlying premise that young people who violet the laws need to be held accountable for the offenses if society is to improve the quality of life in the nations’ communities. It is to this effect that the paper goes beyond and evaluates the accountability of the juveniles in relation to the environment they live in and other surrounding factors. Consequences or sanctions that are applied swiftly, surely, and consistently and are graduated to provide appropriate and effective responses to a varying levels offense seriousness and offender chronics work based, in preventing, controlling and reducing further law violations. There is, therefore the need to use best practices and such like proven programs to enhance school safety. Further more, the safe school planning procedures have to involve all the stakeholders including parent, teachers, government and the community and of course the students. Safe Schools and School Planning In most cases statistics and the government reports determine safe schools but this ought not to be an end by itself. Various questions are raised in defining a safe school due to the difficulty that comes along with the definition. A safe school is considered one in which guards patrol the halls, metal detectors protect all entrances and all violent incidents are reported to the police. Creating a safe school goes beyond eliminating knifing, fighting and shootings. Violence is also subtle things such as name calling; fear of being ridiculed; teasing; offensive touching; racial, ethical, cultural, or sexual slurs; and bullying (Hernandez, 2004). This shows that most violence in school does not occur overnight but it develops over a period of time. According to (Stevick and Levinson, 2003), â€Å"violence is the most extreme manifestation of range of behaviors that run contrary to schools’ expectations and purposes† A safe school is the one in which the total climate allows students, teachers, administrators, staff, and visitors to interact in a positive, non-threatening manner that reflects the educational mission of the school while fostering positive relationships and personal growth. In addition a safe school is one, which repeated absenteeism, inadequate performance, or dropouts, withdrawals or transfers due to feeling afraid in school are progressively reduced. Incidences of disruption, crime and violence are progressively reduced too. Safe school planning is a clear and concise plan for creating a safe school climate. This requires collaborative efforts of parents, students, school personnel, and communities. The plan should contain a written conduct and discipline code, and policy for annual building inspections to eliminate barriers to safety and a policy for annual written report regarding learning environment to be submitted to the relevant authorities. These are proactive measures that should be taken to reduce if not eliminating school-based crimes. A comprehensive planning process based on state law, gives a guideline to a school and the community at large in developing a plan that is relevant and effective. Best practice and Proven Programs Best practice is a management ideal, which asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity incentive, or reward that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. These are essentially the most efficient and effective ways of accomplishing a task. They are based on repeated procedures that have proven themselves over time for large numbers of people. On the other hand proven programs are those have shown success in their repeated use. Though this is the case, proven programs have to adjust depending on the rising challenges in our society. The proven programs are bound to come up with positive results that are manifested by safety school environment. Purpose of the proven programs is to promote school safety by increasing student accountably for their behavior. This facilitates the development of constructive well-conserved† accountability based programs that work with either juvenile offenders who are referred by law enforcement agents, or which are designed in corporation with law enforcement officials to protect student and school personnel from drug, gang and youth violence. It must be noted, however the accountability based programs operate most effectively when they are part of a comprehensive collaborative approach involving a wide range of partners including students, parents, school faculty, and staff, community residence, members of communities organization, law enforcement justice authorities. Partnership with local juvenile justice systems and schools to establish and maintain accountability based programs, and students’ accountability must work in concert with institutional accountability that addresses the underlying causes of students’ violence and misconduct. School safety programs that emphasis student accountability can be build on the experience of successful community-based delinquency prevention and intervention programs. Comprehensive strategy for serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders and safe futures program are examples that have proven effective in addressing juvenile delinquency (Wilson, 1993). The comprehensive strategy provides a blue print for establishing a continuum of care to meet the needs of at-risk or delinquent youth while protecting the public from harm. It promotes a systematic approach to prevention and the use of graduate sanctions in dealing with the offenses committed by such individuals and advocates the developments of partnerships between the juvenile court, law enforcement and community. Some of the programmatic strategies derived from the comprehensive strategy and the safe futures programs are applicable to accountability-based school safety initiatives include emphasis on juvenile accountability, develop an expanded and integrated network of social services. In provision of comprehensive strategies there is involvement of law enforcement as a stake holder in community-based efforts to prevent and respond to delinquency. Accountability in a school environment means expecting students to comply with school rules and regulations that reflect community standards or behavior and where necessary, addressing students misconduct with appropriate conduct including school discipline. Programs can take a comprehensive approach to reducing delinquency and misconduct in schools by building student accountability into the school culture. Efforts to enhance school safety should be fully integrated into all aspect of school operation including the learning environment curriculum, administration, staff selection and staff training. Enhancing School Safety through Assessment and Evaluation In enhancing school safety there is the need to understand all the indicators that distinguish a safe school from unsafe schools. One of the indictors that characterize a safe school is the orderliness of the school. This involves a creation of a climate of mutual respect and responsibility. This can be evaluated by the way students relate to others, teachers and staff. Expectations about this amicable relationship are what are accepted and consequences for unacceptable behavior are known and applied where appropriate. Another parameter to measure, evaluate and enhance school safety is to ensure that the school has existing plans, and implement the plans progressively. In addition there should be policies and procedures that address the safety of the school. When these issues are put in place the schools safety is enhance and evaluated. Measures that check the number of trespassers, incident of vandalism, reasons for absenteeism and number of firearms and other weapons have to be taken into account to enhance safety in schools. The environment in which an individual lives in has one to one relationship with the criminal or non-criminal behaviors. In considering the environment there is the need to use Crime Prevention Environment Design to ensure that safety at school is enhanced. This design takes into consideration the relationship between physical environment and the users of that environment. It is equally important to acknowledge that the users of the environment both criminals and honest alike are conscious their environment. They therefore can know and recognize a safe and unsafe environment. In doing so, the environment can be made safe by ensuring that buildings are built in an well-organized way. The doors and windows should not be obstructed. The streets and routes in the school should be well labeled and directions shown. Apart from this these routes and buildings should be under twenty-four hours surveillance to monitor intruders and strangers. Equally important is the lighting system, which should be checked to ensure that criminals do not take advantage of the dark alleys. If all this is taken into account then there is high possibility of enhancing school safety. In this sense there is also need to consider the orderliness of the school by taking measures to ensure this. Taking measures in considering the referrals the school gets and the reasons enhances orderliness of a school. Also the orderliness of a school is reflected by the number of suspensions both in-school and out of school and the performance index of the school. It is inevitable to consider the orderliness of a school because it has one to one relationship with the safety of the school. The more orderly the school is the more safety it tend to be and the vice versa is correct. A caring school also does a lot of good in enhancing its own safety. Schools, which care, are characterized by taking caution of the rate of and reasons for absenteeism in the school. A caring school should consider their staffs turn over-we have had of cases where the students have been incited by their teachers to do crimes for example going on strikes. This can be so when the teachers are against some of the management policies. It is therefore important for schools to care for the se issues and also the rate of students’ transfer. It is when the management put their efforts to enhance the discussed issues that the school safety is realized in the long run. To evaluate a school’s safety assessment, safety concerns of members of the school community should be done through surveys, for example. The information gathered from the survey ought to be used in the creation of the safe school plan so that safety concerns can be addressed. Continuous measurement of safety concerns need to take place so that actions can be adjusted to address concerns. On the hand to evaluate orderliness of a school, assessments of reasons of disorder need to occur. From these assessments, a code of conduct reflecting behavioral expectations can be established as part of the safe school plan. Review of the reasons for disorder should help establish the code of conduct. Adjustments to the code should be made based upon continuous review of the school orderliness. This in essence, the use of the available data will enable the concerned parties to enhance school safety. School Safety Data in the Evaluation of Programs Data is vital in evaluation of the programs that reduce insecurity in school. Data from Indicators of School Crime and Safety 2005 shows that, 17 percent of students in grade 9-12 reported they carried a weapon anywhere and six percent reported they had carried a weapon in school. Though the data show that this is a decline from the previous year, it is still shocking and calls for collective responsibility to all stake holders. The data collected in this report also identified other indicators of unsafe school like drugs availability in school and violent incidents at school. The data found in the Indicator reports for the five consecutive years has been used or integrated in the safety programs for the purpose of enhancing school safety. The data equally highlights reported of other actions which are frequently neglected but have a direct impact to the eventual safety of the school like use of hate-related words. Safety school data collected reported incidents what could be classified or determined if a school is safe or not. The data ranges from possession of weapon, sex offences, use of alcohol and drugs, vandalism, burglary among others. The safety of schools in this case is determined by the rates of transfers, suspensions and expulsions. The data shows that there are no incidents of unsafe schools in this state. All the stakeholders, the teachers, school administration, the community and the state can attribute this to the measures that have been taken. The data used reflected the percentages of students who smoked cigarettes and marijuana in a period of six months. This was considered alongside the strategies for prevention and creating a safe school. The effects of mental health from the use of drugs are equally indispensable. Another source of data was the community. The communities that care survey of student levels of risk and protective factors were also considered. The data used was from survey carried out about students from grade 6-12. The data from the Kansas department of Education was used. The set data includes information regarding the numbers of felonies, expulsions, suspensions, misdemeanors and violent acts on school grounds for various schools. This data was from the year 2000 to 2004. School years were included in this database in order to establish a baseline by which to compare data from the school years in which the safe school initiative will be implemented. Conclusion The issue of safe schools is an issue that should be taken with a lot of seriousness bearing in mind the number of criminal related incidents that occur in the school. It is the obligation of all the stakeholders to ensure that they work towards the betterment of school environment in terms of surveillance- it should be a collective responsibility. Educators should consider physical safety as well as intellectual and emotional safety. To promote truly safe schools, educators must understand the culture of all their students and the communities they serve, and help all the students understand and respect the culture and the climate of the schools they attend. On the other hand, the state and the educational authorities have to come up with policies that the school safety is enhanced. Thorough scrutinisation of these policies will at least ensure that the school and the community do not neglect their roles in enhancing safety in schools. References Aspy, C. (2004) Adolescent violence: The protective effects of youth assets. Journal of counseling and development, 286-277 Hernandez, T (2004) A safe school climate: A systematic approach and the school counselor. Professional school counseling 7 (4): 256-62. Stevick, E. (2003). From noncompliance to Columbine: Capturing student perspectives to Understand Non- compliance and Violence in Public Schools. Urban Review 35 (4) 323-49 Vail K. (2004) Troubling rise in school violence. American School Board Journal 191(1): 9-10 Wilson, R. (1991) Violence Prevention for Young Adolescents: A Survey of the State of Art. New York: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Witt, P. (1996) Public Recreation in High Risk Environments: Programs that Work. Arlington, AV: National Recreation Park.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

A Case Study On Computer Viruses Information Technology Essay

A Case Study On Computer Viruses Information Technology Essay In this project we have been asked to consider and discuss the different aspects of the above statement. We have asked to create a case study of an organization to help with our case and we have chosen for our case study to look at North Lanarkshire Council. The case study will be a report based on 2 interviews and a short look at the council and its history and what services it offers. There will also be a critical review arguing as to the rights and wrongs of the statement and finally a conclusion in which we will be a brief summary of what we have discovered during the report. Before we can begin to discuss the statement, we should take a quick look at exactly what a computer virus and phishing are and also take a quick look at their history. The computer virus was so named as it has similar properties as a human virus in the way they can pass form computer to computer and in that they need a host to survive. The first viruses were created during the 1980s, although there programs that worked on the same principle created maybe as early as the late 1960s. The first program of this type to appear on a computer other than the one it was written for was called Elk Cloner and was written by Rich Skrenta in 1982 and surprisingly was written to attack the Apple operating system as today viruses are very rarely written with Apple in mind. The most common virus of that period was written to infect PCs and was called the Brain and was written by two brothers Basit and Amjad Farooq Alvi in 1986. Both these virus were spread by floppy disks and since then the virus concept has grown and become more sophisticated. (antiviruswear.com, 2010) There are 3 main types of common virus today Worms Trojan Horse Email Virus A worm uses security flaws and computer networks to replicate itself. They can be very complex programs and once on an infected machine, will search for other flows to exploit. A Trojan Horse, named after the famous wooden horse in Homers Iliad. The virus disguises as itself as another file, e.g. a sound file with a .wav extension and once on the host computer does not reproduce but will make the host computer susceptible to attack by third parties by opening ports and can be a major threat to the users personal data. Am email virus once opened on an infected machine will send copies of itself to everyone on the email clients contacts list. They payload can also include Worms and Trojan Horses. (spamlaws.com, 2009)The term Phishing appears to have been first coined in 1996 and was applied to hackers who were stealing AOL passwords. It is now a broader term applied to a form of social engineering where the angler (phisher) throws a hook by maybe sending an spam email pretending to be from the recipients bank stating there has been a breach of security and asking for the customer to enter their password and user name on a website that is linked to on the email. This website may look like the persons online banking website but is a fake set up to steal the user names and passwords and allow the phishers to then gain access to the persons bank account details and transfer monies to other accounts. (allspammedup) Review For-end user protection Software-every user should have security software installed on their computer the software will help protect your computer from viruses, worms and other harmful programs. You should scan your computer on a regular basis and also update your operating system. anti virus anti spyware anti malware firewall botnet Antivirus you must update regularly to benefit for the latest threats. A computer virus is a computer program with the intent of copying itself and contaminating a computer. Viruses can boost their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a group of networks or a file structure that is accessed by another computer. You need antivirus software to prevent, detect and remove viruses from your computer. There are quite a lot of different types of viruses like worms and Trojan horse.Millions of computer users suffered billion of dollars in losses from real attack experienced over the internet. Most of the damages were caused by fast moving computer viruses and worms that travelled by email (Simson, 2002) Antispyware- Spyware is a sort of malware that can be setup on computers and gather small pieces of information over time and the users has no awareness that it is there. The existence of spyware is usually concealed from the consumer, and it can be hard to notice. Normally, spyware is secretly installed on the consumers own computer. Now and then spywares is like a key logger and is installed by the vendor of a joint, company, or public computer with the intention to secretly watch other users. Anti malware- A computer worm is a self reproducing malware computer program. It makes a computer network send duplicates of itself to computers that are on the same network and it will do it with no user intervention. This is due to weak security on the computer. Firewall-A firewall is to prevent unauthorized access to or from a network. Firewalls can also be implemented in both hardware and software they prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing a private network. All messages leaving the intranet pass through the firewall. Botnet- Once a solitary machine inside a network has become part of the botnet it will put other computers on the same network at risk. The infected computer is able to read emails and email addresses and copying files and also able to record keystrokes and send spam as well as capturing screen shots. Phishing- You could be sent an e-mail wrongly claiming to be a recognized genuine company in an attempt to scam the user into giving away their private information that will then be used for identity theft. The email will guide the user to visit a web site where they are asked to input their personal information, like your credit card details, passwords and bank account numbers. The website is a phony website and is only set up to steal the users information. Access- Its up to the end user if they want people accessing data so their privacy is in their hands, it is up to the user who they allow access to their computer. They should only allow people they trust to protect their computer with any personal information that is received or collected. Your personal information is under your control your privacy is your property so be aware of what information you store on your computer. Naivety is not an excuse, attackers will take advantage of a computers vulnerability. Legitimate companies will not ask for personal information in an email. Hardware like your router use password protection to constantly secure your wireless connection and will only allow named computers that you know access to the network. Awareness-Every user should be aware of the threats that is out there and what they can do. They should be aware of the different types of viruses and spyware and of what phishing is and what the stakes are. There is your privacy, time, money and your computer. Credit card fraud is on the increase and identity theft also. Your children are exposed to pornographic material and can be targeted by pedophiles. You also need to be aware of shopping when using your credit card most magstripe cards conform to ISO standard that the card contains three tracks of data referred to as track 1,2,3 the majority of magstripe cards contains no security measures to protect the data stored on the card (Stuart, 2009) Education-Most people are not aware of installing software to stop viruses, they have never been taught that your computer needs to be maintained and that there are viruses and worms they dont know of and the damage they can cause. You would not leave your home without locking your door so why leave a personal computer without protecting it. New users and children should be educated before being allowed access to a computer. Naivety is a weapon used by malware and phishers and children and teens are targeted, parents should take steps as well, there is a parental control that will help block websites and file downloads. Computer virus traps over 2,000 tourists on Russia-chinese border Over 2,000 Russian tourists were stranded in the Chinese town of Heihe on the Russian-Chinese border after a computer virus paralyzed the borders electronic pass entry system (Alexey, 2010) Internet service providers are facing an ever increasing amount of pressure to make sure their networks are virus and phishing free-not only would this be advantageous to their customers, but also very beneficial for the internet in general. Against-end user protection With the escalation of zombie-fed threats like phishing, securing the consumers PCs should no longer be down to the user themselves, the internet service providers should in this day and age be protecting the Internet traffic they are providing. ISPs should be taking more responsibility to monitor what is passing through their networks more closely. A zombie computer is a PC that has been secretly hacked, this then allows an outside person to control the computer with the intentions to infect, copy, corrupt and for erasing the hard drive. The hacker can then install tools that will store everything that is typed into the PC, this includes passwords, usernames and credit card and bank account details. Once this information is in the hands of the hackers it can be used for identity theft, committing fraud or sold on to the highest bidder. Related topics There has been a huge rise in cases that involve malicious code, also referred to as bot code that infects computers turning them into zombies, from April to June this year the number of reported cases have quadrupled to 13000. ISPs have been doing somethings to combat the threats of bot code by providing customers with online help on how to keep their PCs secure and some apply spam and virus filters for email as bot code is quite often spread through instant message worms, email and also through Trojans hidden in spam. The ISPs should however be offering a greater protection against these infestations than by just trying to control the threats from e-mail. Getting filtering to work effectively and properly takes a vast amount of time, patience, resources and money. Because the people writing the malware get better and better on a constant basis, it is a never ending struggle to keep up to pace with them so that filtering works. Some Internet service providers are using a technique called port 25 blocking to halt zombie computers that are connecting through their network sending out junk emails, this allows only emails that comes from its own server to be sent out, and this then helps eliminates spam that originates from another server. But those steps dont appear to be enough to tackle the threat of zombies, according to some experts. To take down zombies, ISPs should monitor their networks closer for traffic generated by the compromised PCs, said Dmitri Alperovitch, research engineer at CipherTrust, a security vendor in Alpharetta, USA.ISPs allow these machines to communicate with the rest of the world. They have the power to do a lot about the zombie threat, and they should be doing a lot about it Alperovitch said.A start for Internet companies would be for them to participate more actively in security groups and to use data on zombies collected by third-party security companies such as CipherTrust, he said. ISPs should monitor their networks more closely for anything suspicious, the ISPs should also be improving customer education and possibly even providing their customers with Anti-virus, Anti-spyware and firewalls for their own machines. If the ISPs were to provide customers with all the necessary software to protect themselves then there should no longer be any problems, as long as the customer uses the protection. Maybe the ISPs should enter in their contracts with customers that they will provide the software and if the customer chooses not to use it or take other preventative measures their internet connection will be cut off. If the ISPs were to do their part in helping to protect their customers then naivety in people using the internet should not be an excuse in this day and age, there has been enough cyber crime and virus and it has also been about long enough now that it is no longer excusable for people not to be protecting themselves while surfing the net. There are danger s in most things we do in life and we are expected to take preventative measures, if we go out for a walk we put shoes on to protect our feet, if we go out for a drive we put our seatbelt on and if we surf the net we should also protect ourselves in advance. We are not allowed to drive a car on the road if it is not roadworthy so maybe we should not be allowed to surf the net if our computer is not properly equipped. Although customers can be encouraged to keep their PCs clean with the threat of disconnection, the pressure should be on the ISPS to take more responsibility to tackle any threats coming through their network. With the amount of threats on the increase, ISPs should be taking a more hands on approach, as the hands-off method has been proven not to work. (1) Dmitri Alperovitch, research engineer at CipherTrust, a security vendor in Alpharetta (news.cnet.com, 2010) Case Study North Lanarkshire Council For our case study we chose North Lanarkshire Council, there were two reasons for this, the first being that they are a large organization with a huge computer infrastructure that would allow us to speak to a qualified IT specialist and also an end user to get both views across and the second reason being one of our team had previously worked there and was confident he would get the interviews arranged with the minimum of fuss. North Lanarkshire Council is the fourth largest local Authority in Scotland employing over 18,000 staff and serving a population of 321,000 people mainly in the following towns Airdrie, Bellshill, Coatbridge, Cumbernauld, Kilsyth, Motherwell, Shotts, Wishaw and their surrounding districts. The council is split into 5 key service areas: Finance and Customer Services incorporating all finance and IT services (including housing benefits and rebates) as well as public access via first stop shops, customer contact centre and website. Corporate Services which includes central support unit, human resources, legal services, design and property services. Environmental Services including planning and development, roads and transportation and protective services amongst others. Housing and Social Work services Learning leisure Services which includes education and community education services. The nature of this case study will dictate we concentrate on Finance and Customer Services, and in particular the government and development division which includes the IT function within the council and we will get a flavour as to how it protects its end users from Virus and Phishing attacks. The finance department has many functions and these include council tax, purchasing and debtors, housing benefits and rebates and as you can see there is much personal and financial data to be protected within even this small selection of councils services. If we add in the data that the social work also has to protect then we can see the security has to be comprehensive. We will now take a look at the interviews. Interviews overview We had chosen to contact North Lanarkshire Council to see if it was possible to interview 2 of their employees for the project. We decided to contact Alex Mitchell, Assistant Service Delivery Manager, as one of our team had already worked quite closely with him in the past when he worked for the North Lanarkshire Council IT Department. Alex agreed in principle and asked we email him 2 sets of questions one aimed at the end user and the other aimed at someone who would be more aware of the security measures in place from the IT section. He duly replied and said that the head of IT Security, Kenny Yates would be happy to meet for an interview and also gave us the name of an end user, namely a Lesley Bone who was happy to answer the end user questions. Due to adverse weather conditions it became very difficult to arrange the interviews and in the end Lesley emailed her answers to us and we carried out a telephone interview with Kenny. Happily, they were both fairly frank and gave a good indication of how the council deals with computer security and how it protects the end user. As was said earlier there were 2 sets of questions as some questions were asked to both people and others didnt make sense to ask the individual concerned so were more tailored as to an end user or the more technical question. The results were as follows. Lesley showed that as an end user she had an awareness of threats and had security in place in the house but was very vague as to what to do if she was affected by one and it seemed to be apparent that when given these questions she realized that maybe security is something she should look into and give more thought to in general. Kenny on the other hand gave us a great insight as to how difficult a job it is to protect an organisation such as NLC. He showed that it was not just down to the councils duty of care to its employees to protect them and the data they hold but there are many legal requirements some of which also get audited that have to be followed and can result in fines and removal from government secure networks if that audit is failed. He also said that awareness training is now taking place and this seemed to tie in as Lesley had said she had received no specific training as such but there had been a responsible use policy available for a long time. The main issues for the council as Kenny sees as the growth of remote and home working and as users have more scope to use unauthorized equipment on council networks and he also said naivety is the main cause of infection in council equipment. Finally when asked what was the main threats he said that spam and email type worm viruses are the main concern and social engineering techniques are getting more sophisticated but the main threat was could be lack of investment due to recent cutbacks and this could leave the council open to attack. The full interviews can be read. See appendices. Conclusion We were asked to comment and discuss the following statement It is up to end-users to protect themselves sufficiently from threats such as viruses and phishing they are responsible, naivety is not an excuse. And here is the conclusion our team has come up with. Firstly the user has a degree of responsibility, a home user especially must at least have the awareness that these threats exist, what they are, what they do and must know and carry out the minimum steps to protect themselves by at least installing a full security suite on all pcs and also making sure that anyone with internet access has the same awareness. Also they should be wary as to who has access and should protect their computers and wireless devices with a secure password. There is also a lot going on in the background that the end user is not aware of and this is also helping to protect them from threats, from working groups, the law and government acts and even their banks and retailers to their Internet service Provider and the security software writers. They are all working hard to minimize the effects of virus and phishing. In an organisation it is much different and the end user has very little to do to protect themselves as we saw in the interviews. That job is taken on by the IT department and it is a very difficult job to protect an organisation. Due to legal obligations there has to be very tight security, especially in organisations like the one we looked at North Lanarkshire Council and surprisingly it turned out that the main source of protection turned out to be the amount of investment made in it and keeping up to date as everything moves so fast in the IT world and if the organisations dont keep up they will get caught out. Finally is naivety an excuse, the answer has to be a resounding no, it appears to be one of the main causes of infection and more so it is also the main tool of the people who write the virus or use their social engineering tools in the phishing attacks. Bibliography Alexey, K. (2010, 04 19). WorldComputer virus traps over 2,000 tourists on Russian-Chinese border. Retrieved from rianovosti: http://en.rian.ru/world/20100419/158646482.html allspammedup. (n.d.). allspammedup. Retrieved from allspammedup: http://www.allspammedup.com/2009/02/history-of-phishing/ antiviruswear.com. (2010). antivirus. Retrieved from antivirus: http://www.antivirusware.com/articles/history-computer-viruses.html news.cnet.com. (2010). news.cnet.com. Retrieved from news.cnet.com: http://news.cnet.com/ISPs-versus-the-zombies/2100-7349_3-5793719.html#ixzz16FkK89Lv Simson, G. (2002). web security,privacy and commerce. cambridge: o,reilly. spamlaws.com. (2009). spamlaws. Retrieved from spamlaws: http://www.spamlaws.com/virus-comtypes.html Stuart, M. (2009). hacking exposed 6. new york: mcgraw.