Friday, May 31, 2019

Emotions And Decision Making Essay -- essays research papers

A recently published article seems to lend new information as to the way in which senses influence our decision-making process. While emotions and reasoning atomic number 18 considered inherently separate by some, new experiments are challenging that perception. A series of studies done by experimental psychologists now show us that emotion plays a very natural role in decision-making situations. The experiments, ranging in type from neuroimaging to uncomplicated classical conditioning, suggest that emotions can affect everything from simple judgments of other nation to severe behavioral disabilities seen for example in sociopathic individuals.Emotion is now acknowledged as possibly the most basic of human operations and the radix for personal judgments. Fear especially has been studied extensively and is proving to be a very unconscious and automatic cognitive reaction. One fear-related study was conducted using simple classical conditioning subjects were shown a picture of a person exhibiting stereotypical properties along with a frown used to convey a feeling of well-disposed threat (Mineka, 2002). Once the subjects were adequately conditioned, simply seeing that type of person would cause an increase in heart rate, suggesting fear, as well as perk up responses attributed to anger. The experimenters used these findings to infer that social fears are easily instilled in people simply because they for some reason have a negative image of them planted in their head.Extensive studies of the rela...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Corruption in William Shakespeares Hamlet Essay -- Shakespeare Ha

The Corruption in William Shakespeares Hamlet Central to the plot and the themes developed in Shakespeares Hamlet, are the varying elements of corruption which occur during the play. This is echoed in Marcellus famous comment of Something is rotten in the defer of Denmark, when Hamlet is beckoned away by the Ghost (1.4.90). As the play continues and the story enfolds, it becomes apparent that there truly is something rotten in the state of Denmark, and rather that it is non just one something, but many things. The some obvious example of corruption is the story of the late King Hamlets murder by his chum Claudius. When Prince Hamlet goes to speak with the Ghost he learns that his fathers death was not an accident, as was officially reported, but instead that it was a Murder most foul . . . strange and unnatural, (1.5.27-28) move by King Hamlets brother who Now wears his crown (1.5.39). While this act was committed before the play even begins, it sets the stage for all the eve nts which follow, descending into a state just as corrupt as this first crime. A sequel of the murder of the King, is the soon following marriage of the widowed Queen to none other than Claudius, the murderer. While the Queen does not know that Claudius killed her former husband, her part in the relationship is not wholly innocent. Her mourning seems minimal and her lustfulness maximal, for But two months dead (1.2.138) was the King before She married . . . With such dexterity to incestuous sheets (1.2.156-157). This image of a corrupted or damned royalty is strongly played up, especially by Hamlet, who recognizes this new union of Claudius and his mother as incredibly demeaning to the state of Denmark, and a ... ...n guilty head, affecting the whole state of Denmark. By using murder and deception to gain the throne, as soon as Claudius assumes it, it is irrevocably tainted. Marrying the brother of her dead husband, the Queens bed becomes A couch for luxury and damned insect (1.5. 83). The games and favors played to please the King, the spying, the secrets kept, and the lies told, all come back with a sentence of death. Even the fight in the midst of Hamlet and Laertes is not fair, with a poison tipped weapon and a poisoned drink, conspiracies of the King to ensure Hamlets death, but which claim the life of the Queen, Laertes, and himself also. All of these events culminate in Act V to eventually destroy the royalty of Denmark with no member surviving the duration of the play, proving for any doubting member of the audience that something truly was rotten in the state of Denmark.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The History and Evolution of the Juvenile Justice System Essay

The history of the juvenile justice system is a mixture of the poisonous justice system, family court, child protective services, social services, orphanages, adoption and humanitarian growth. (Schmalleger, 2007) Where a child fit into the system would depend on the crime, family pedigree, financial standing, color and social status. Children of color would be tempered harsher than whites, Indian children were treated worse than African American Children, and status was determined by the color of your skin. Children of color would be given a death sentence before a white child and those with financial means could buy a pardon or parole. (Hopkins, 2008)From Americas beginning we modeled our criminal codes and punishments after Englands. England did not make allowances for the age or maturity of an offender, punishments ranged from flogging, mutilation, branding, public humiliation (stockades), work houses, exile and other forms of torture and every person was overpower to them no matter the age we carried this tradition with us to the colonies. (Roberson, 2007) In the nineteenth century we began what I feel is more of a social services chopine that was in fact an attack on the poor only the juvenile system calls the child-saving movement. This movement focused on the dangerousness and immorality that was believed to go hand in hand with being underprivileged. The House of Refuge that were privately or community funded opened in New York in 1825 (Larry J. Siegel, 2008) it was believed to be a family environment but was in fact a work house and functioned much like the later industrial prisons (1890-1935) that fell out of favor because of the economic impact on the U.S. economy. (Schmalleger, 2007)pg. 490) Americans were mu... ...ved January 2, 2011, from ExecutedToday.com http//www.executedtoday.com/2008/12/20/1786-hannah-ocuish-age-12/Larry J. Siegel, B. C. (2008). Juvenile Corrections. In B. C. Larry J. Siegel, Juvenile Delinquency The Core, tierce edition (pp. 336-368). Belmont Thomson Wadsworth.Larry J. Siegel, B. C. (2008). The History and Development of Juvenile Justice. In B. C. Larry J. Siegel, Juvenile Delinquency The Core, third edition (pp. 259-283). Belmont Thomson Wadsworth.National Orphan Train Complex. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 9, 2011, from National Orphan Train Complex http//www.orphantraindepot.com/FrequentlyAskedQuestions.htmlRoberson, W. S. (2007). Procedures in the Justice System. Upper Saddle River Pearson Prentice Hall.Schmalleger, F. (2007). sad Justice Today, ninth edition. Upper Saddle River Pearson Prentice Hall.

Emily Dickinsons Use of Humor and Irony Essay -- Emily Dickinson Poem

Emily Dickinsons Use of Humor and Irony While much of Emily Dickinsons poetry has been described as sad or morose, the poetess did use humor and banter in many of her poems. This essay will address the humor and/ or irony found in five of Dickinsons poems Faith is a Fine Invention, Im nonentity Who are you?, Some keep the Sabbath Going to Church and Success Is Counted Sweetest. The attempt will be made to show how Dickinson used humor and / or irony for the dual purposes of comic relief and to stress an idea or conclusion about her life and environment expressed by the poetess in the respective poem. The just about humorous or ironic are some of the shorter poems, such as the four lined stanzas of Faith is a Fine Invention and Success Is Counted Sweetest. In Faith..., Dickinson gravels a witty and biting satirical look at Faith and its limitations. While it still amuses readers today, it must be mentioned that this short poem would flummox had a greater impact and ser iousness to an audience from the period Dickinson lived in. Dickinson was raised in a strict Calvinist household and received most of her fosterage in her youth at a boarding school that also followed the American Puritanical tradition she was raised in. In this short, witty piece Dickinson addresses 2 of the main obsessions of her generation The pursuit of empirical knowledge through science, faith in an all-knowing, all- reigning Christian god and the debate on which was the more powerful belief. In this poem Dickinson uses humor to ease her position in the debate on to the reader. Dickinson uses her ability to write humourously and ironically (as seen in her suggestion of the use of microscopes) to present a firm, controversial opinion into w... ...ntuate the humor in the juxtaposition of the objects in order not to trivialize her own beliefs, but allows enough humor to encipher the description to stamp the poem with the child-like free spiritedness found in ...Nobody.... Aga in in this poem, the poetess desire for seclusion and unconventionality is expressed eloquently through a light-handed treatment of the subject matter. In conclusion, it can be stated the examples of Emily Dickinsons work discussed in this essay show the poetess to be highly skilled in the use of humor and irony. The use of these two tools in her poems is to stress a point or idea the poetess is trying to express, rather than being an end in themselves. These two tools allow her to present serious critiques of her society and the place she feels she has been allocated into by masking her concerns in a light-hearted, irreverent tone.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Themes of Class and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays research

Blood sidekicksHow does Willy Russell explore the themes of programme and society through Mickey and Eddie on spot?Introduction Through discover the make up Blood Brothers Willy Russell explore the themes of crystalize and society through Mickey and Eddie. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society within the play. Willy Russell Blood Brother concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more comfortable, which he has many good things such as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. Its merely because I lamb you, Eddie it states that Eddies parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished like Mickey. Mickey receives slim support where he rifles in a rented council estate flat. We come on the whole this way just look at the bleeding estate. This tells that Mickey live up b y the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to get a line these differences to the audience. For example the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. further the working class family does not have any of these resources. For example Mickey dont know what a dictionary is. Its thing in it, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to show how society was divided by showing the effect upon twain characters. hold in one to me. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split.... ...h use to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of the two main cha racters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words Gis a ciggie? it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with speak standard position whilst Eddie shown to be posh by speaking eloquently, you, sound dead funny swearing in that posh voice, Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play.It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, but the audience experience and know the relationship of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the cause of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event. Themes of Class and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays researchBlood BrothersHow does Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie on stage?Introduction Through out the play Blood Brothers Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Ed die. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society within the play. Willy Russell Blood Brother concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more comfortable, which he has many good things such as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. Its only because I love you, Eddie it states that Eddies parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished like Mickey. Mickey receives little support where he lives in a rented council estate flat. We come all this way just look at the bleeding estate. This tells that Mickey live up by the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to reveal these differences to the audience. For example the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. But the working class family does not have any of these resources. For example Mickey dont know what a dictionary is. Its thing in it, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to show how society was divided by showing the effect upon two characters. Give one to me. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split.... ...h used to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of the two main characters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words Gis a ciggie? it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with speaking standard English whilst Eddie shown to be posh by speaking eloquently, you, sound dead funny swearing in that posh v oice, Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play.It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, but the audience realise and know the relationship of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the effects of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event.

Themes of Class and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays research

Blood BrothersHow does Willy Russell explore the themes of sort out and hunting lodge through paddy field and Eddie on stage?Introduction by dint of out the play Blood Brothers Willy Russell explore the themes of word form and nightclub through Mickey and Eddie. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society deep down the play. Willy Russell Blood Brother concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more gentle, which he has many good matters much(prenominal) as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. Its only because I hunch over you, Eddie it states that Eddies parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished same(p) Mickey. Mickey receives little support where he lives in a rented council land flat. We come all this way just look at the bleeding estate. This tells that Mickey live up by the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to unveil these variations to the audience. For archetype the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. But the working class family does not have any of these resources. For example Mickey dont know what a dictionary is. Its thing in it, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to institute how society was divided by provideing the effect upon two characters. Give one to me. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split.... ...h used to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of t he two main characters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words Gis a ciggie? it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with verbalise standard English whilst Eddie shown to be swish by speaking eloquently, you, sound dead funny swearing in that posh voice, Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play.It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, only the audience realise and know the kind of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the effects of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event. Themes of crystalize and Society in Blood Brothers Essay -- essays researchBlood BrothersHow does Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society through Mickey and Eddie on stage?Introduction Through out the play Blood Brothers Willy Russell explore the themes of class and society throu gh Mickey and Eddie. He uses to look at the ideas of different classes in society within the play. Willy Russell Blood Brother concerned with issue of class in society and Eddie and Mickey represent working class and middle class respectively. The lifestyle of Eddie symbolyses a more comfortable, which he has many good things such as foods, sweet, money and the environment of Eddie. He also has comfortable with his parents. Its only because I love you, Eddie it states that Eddies parents love him, huge him and even though he do not get punished like Mickey. Mickey receives little support where he lives in a rented council estate flat. We come all this way just look at the bleeding estate. This tells that Mickey live up by the park. Russell uses dramatic devices to reveal these differences to the audience. For example the dictionary, he uses dictionary in the middle class family because in the middle class family they have all kind of resources such as books. But the working class family does not have any of these resources. For example Mickey dont know what a dictionary is. Its thing in it, it comments on that there is much differences about the society through Mickey and Eddie to the audience. Russell clearly intends to show how society was divided by showing the effect upon two characters. Give one to me. On the past Mrs. Lyon took one of the twins from Mrs. Johnstone by persuading her before the twins were born. This is how Russell uses to show how society was split.... ...h used to show the difference in class between Mickey and Eddie to the audience. The characters react each other about the way they speak and does. For example Willy Russell uses language of the two main characters to reveal the difference in their upbringings and education. Mickey regularly uses slang and shorten words Gis a ciggie? it shows that Mickey is unsatisfied with speaking standard English whilst Eddie shown to be posh by speaking eloquently, you, sound dead funny swearin g in that posh voice, Willy Russell state here to show the diversity in class and society through out the play.It uses dramatic irony that the two characters are unknown to each other that they are twins, but the audience realise and know the relationship of Mickey and Eddie. This emphasises the effects of differences in class and that the audience will be more affected be event.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Imaginative Experience in a Music Concert Essay

I believe eitherones been through a stage of life where you eat, sleep, dream, walk, talk, breath and hear your favorite artist or the band you love well, would be an understatement blowout their number in front of millions of people, amides which you stand singing the lyrics sung on stage with step forward a thought of what may happen tomorrow, its expert the song and you at the moment. Oh Just the thought of it makes me want to quiver. But that didnt last long until last November, few weeks after(prenominal)(prenominal)ward my birthday, my father came home with the brightest smile on his face and those twinkling eyes which I think would light up the street that I was living on. He said, Guess what and my heart started running at the speed of Usain Bolts 100 meter sprint.Then he finally spoke those magical words, which till date brings a smile to my face, I GOT YOU TWO TICKETS FOR THE MUMFORD AND THE SONS CONCERT. My heart at the very moment crept inside my mouth with the outburst of such inspiration. I think I passed out for a minute or two but quickly re-collecting myself I asked him how? He then explained, it was a small gesture of appreciateation from the people from Delhi whom he had helped in their short stay in Gangtok.Those long explanation didnt really matter much as I was optn back to what would I wear, whom would I take? Which reminded me that I had to make a phone call to my friend? On the phone was my best friend Pema and with such difficulty to hide my excitement I busted out in giggles asking her to join me for this trip to Goa, where the concert was happening. She, at first couldnt believe what she was hearing but after all we are diehard fans of the Mumfords so she happily agreed. After few days of packing and bickering we were on our flight to Goa. My inner goddess was doing back flips and spring with pom- poms in her hand. Soon we were good to go and ready to check in a hotel near the beach where the whole set up was going to ta ke place.The show was the day after we arrived so we had enough time to chill in the beach and arrange our already arranged outfits for The Day All of it seemed care a vague dream to me, zero seemed real and when the day finally arrived my body started to get really numb every passing second. Soon it started acquire really dark in the horizon and the view from the hotel window was breathtaking with the sun slowly being swallowed by the ocean in the far distance. I heard my heart pumping louder than ever making the last few countdowns for the show to start. Pema was standing beside me looking at the picture perfect moment, we stood there saying nothing rather just inhaling the fresh ocean breeze and preparing for our dream to shortly turn into reality.From a distance we saw groups of youngsters approaching towards the stage and we noticed we were get late to mark our sports. So Pema ran out of the door and I quickly followed her locking the door behind me. Moments later we were o ut of the hotel and on the golden grit beneath our bare foot trying to surpass those ahead of us, straight towards the peak of where the golden sand drew its line and the stage was set up. We stood heaving right before the youngsters whom we had noticed from our hotel window, it felt like a spacious victory to stand before then although soon we were on our knees tired after the run we had made. After regaining our breath we noticed the different colored lights, instruments and people running around the stage for their final touch up and in seconds they were good to go.I looked down at my watch and it was 630 and the whole sandy area was filled with blondes, brunettes, red heads, mow hawks, bald and every possible look that a hu patch can pull off the runway. The music kept filling our ears and soon there was a man on stage with a mike on his hand doing the usual check 1-2-3. The exquisite melody faded but continued to play in the background. The man then introduced himself as the host for the night and thanked us for being a part of such a wonderful project to raise fund for the children in Africa and India and no doubts we were in high spirits to be there. He then called on stage the band we had been waiting our whole life to see them play for us. Oh and that was the momentMy inner goddess with much excitement did a triple back flip and cartwheels all around the stage. The whole waiting was done with and the very following moment they were on stage The Mumford, leaving trails of goose bumps along my skin despite the heat. It was a bittersweet feeling over all, melancholy and a great deal of joy for having the opportunity to stand and watch the beauty of Indie. They started the night by singing their number on hit song on iTunes- I will wait. Although, my voice not so soothing and heavenly like theirs I closed my eyes and sang along. I thought to myself, Surely, life in the clouds feels unreal.Just as they sang the last verse I opened my eyes to see light e verywhere, bright warm, piercing lights, endeavoring it, I kept it at bay for a few more precious minutes. Soon they played numerous amounts of tracks and we tried keeping up with the high spirited people just having to fail every time. Nevertheless, it was a night to be remembered and cherished throughout my life and be grateful to my father without whose generosity toward people got us to this days.So be kind to one another

Sunday, May 26, 2019

African American History Essay

Introduction The the States that was there after the conclusion of the polite war is nothing like the America we recognize presently. Significant events puzzle occurred since 1865 that have shaped our understanding of what America is today. Major industrial enterprise and urbanization, equal rights for any(prenominal) citizens and the two major world wars that have shaped our understanding of what America is today. While, there are numerous events that have shaped America, there are few events that have served as markers of change for the finished society, particularly for the African Americans.From 1619 to 1865, a earthshaking number of African American immigrated to the United States as slaves. Ever since the arrival of the first African Americans in tiptop Comfort, currently known as Fort Monroe in Hampton, the African American community has made significant strides in the community. However, the major event that occasi sensation and only(a)d this strikes transpired in 18 65 the abolition of slavery. This attach as a single major event that catapulted the African American society to where it is today. This article will examine the history of African American from 1865 to today.In 1865, the urbane war between the north and south, or civil war as it is known came to an end. This was a time of great upheaval in the American society. The blameless American society was attempting to integrate, and become part of the union. The south had agreed to integrate and become part f the union (Feagin, 2014). The South had consented to colligate the union. In the same year, chairperson Lincoln was kill. The conclusion of the Civil War occasioned the beginning of the period of reconstruction. This period was characterized by upheaval, and the AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 3 country attempted to reintegrate itself, and also integrate the southern.This was a period of new beginning for the entire nation (Gates, 2012). The Constitution 13th amendment was ra tified, abolishing slavery in the United States of America. This phase is edged in history as one of the most imperative event in the African Americans history (Feagin, 2014). During the era of reconstruction, which lasted from 1865 to 1876, significant events occurred that shaped the lives of African Americans. The African Americans begun the process of reintegration, and they found themselves with a system that they were not used to.This period was not just a period of reintegration for the sportsmanlike people, but rather for the entire nation (Feagin, 2014). During this time, it was particularly challenging to the African Americans because they were attempting to integrate to a society that was heavily biased against them. During the reconstruction period, there was detailed political and social agreement, especially over the issues of who should be permitted to vote (Gates, 2012). There were disagreements as to whether confederates, ex-slaves or those slaves that fought durin g the war should be allowed to vote.The death of President Lincoln and the mental home of new administration under President Andrew Johnson made the process of reintegration more complex for African Americans (Feagin, 2014). In 1866, legislation known as the Black Codes was irresistibly passed by every white legislator of the former confederate States. The black-market codes greatly hampered the ability of African Americans to be re coordinated into the society (Gates, 2012). During that same year, the Congress passed the Civil rights act, which conferred citizenship rights to all African Americans, andgiving those equal rights and liberties as to those of the white-American people (Feagin, 2014). The 14th amendment was ratified, in 1868, which defined citizenship for the African Americans, and also which overturned the Dred Scot decision (Gates, 2012). The 14th amendment strengthened the civil and legal rights of the African Americans, elucidating among other things, AFRICAN AME RICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 4 that no state in the union shall deprive any African Americans their repayable process in law and the equal protections provided in the law (Feagin, 2014).The 14th amendment ensured, to some extent that the African Americans civil rights were protected. The 14th Amendment reversed the United States domineering Court ruling in Dred Scott v. Sanford, which ruled that African Americans were not truly United States citizens (Feagin, 2014). The 14th amendment had several profound impacts on the lives of African Americans. First off, the amendment integrated African Americans into the society, by overruling the previous ruling that African Americans were not truly American citizens (Gates, 2012).Secondly, the 14th amendment prohibited the national and state governments from depriving any person, including African Americans, liberty, bread and butter and property without due regard and process as established in law. By guarding the civil liberties and rights o f African Americans, the law inflicted a penalty, which entailed the sack of electoral votes and the loss of congressional seats, on states that dispossessed African Americans of their voting rights.Thirdly, the 14th amendment guaranteed all Americans, regardless of their racial affiliations protection under the law (Feagin, 2014). This clause serves an essential understructure for the decision to repeal the ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that overturned separatism. The 15th amendment was ratified in 1870, which gave African Americans voting rights. As the one-third and final amendment to be ratified in the reconstruction period, the 15th amendment forbids the national and state governments from refusing a citizen the voting rights based on that citizens color, race or servitude (Feagin, 2014).The adoption of the 15th amendments was greeted with extensive celebrations in African American communities and other abolitionist societies.The sense among African Americans is that their rights had been offered protected and secured. The adoption of the 15th Amendment completed a series of civil change, and it was one of the most significant events African American historical events. The 15th amendment meant AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 5 that the African American communities did not require the protection they were being offered by the government (Feagin, 2014). Towards the end of the reconstruction era, the south recognized that it would no longer be conceivable to bobby pin on the perspective of recreating itself out of the North.In spite of this, there was still lingering tensions between the North and South (Feagin, 2014). Although equal rights were granted to African Americans, they did not fully enjoy them. While African Americans enjoyed expanded freedoms, it would not be till nearly a hundred years later, during the Civil rights movement that the entire fruits of reconstruction would be seen. The period of reconstruction ended in 1877, during which, a deal was struck with Democratic leaders from the south, to make Rutherford B. Hayes the U. S president, in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the south, and which stops the efforts to protect the Civil liberties of African Americans. In the period after the reconstruction era, rapid industrialization followed.During this period, African Americans on the south started escaping to the North to run away from oppression (Gates, 2012). In 1879, thousands of African Americans moved to the north. In the industrialization period, rapid industrialization and development ensued in big cities in the United States. Construction of railroads spread across the country. Railroads encouraged the growth and expansion of cities (Gates, 2012).Many Africa Americans migrated to the cities to work in the processing and production companies. In 1881, Tennessee ratified the first of the Jim Crow segregation rules, which segregated stated railroads. Over the next 15 years, similar laws were passed throughout the southern States. The segregation laws caused African Americans to migrate to the northern States (Gates, 2012). The Jim Crow segregation laws conferred a separate but equal status to all African Americans. In practice, the separation led to circumstances for African Americans that were second-rate to those offered to white Americans.AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 6 systematizing several of economic, informational and socials disadvantages. The southern states had De jure while de facto applied in the northern states (Feagin, 2014). The Jim Crow segregation laws inflicted segregation in housing, which was imposed by covenants, job discrimination, and loan lending discrimination in banks, and also African Americans were also discriminated in labor unions (Gates, 2012). During the industrialization era, companies came up across various cities.African Americans were increasingly becoming urbanized, and left their farms and homesteads, and moved to big cities to get jobs. In 1887, the standing Lincoln statue was unveiled at Augustus Saint gardens in Chicago (Feagin, 2014). The Plessey v. Ferguson case was a milestone ruling in the United States. The Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Jim Crows separate but equal segregation policies to be legal, and begin being implemented. These laws barred African Americans from equal access in all public facilities. The 1900s marked the rise of civil rights movement across the United States. In 1954, the court in Brown v.Board of education case, ruled that segregation in education facilities to be unconstitutional and this measure strike down segregation in education facilities (Feagin, 2014). In 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested in Montgomery Alabama, for refusing to give up her seat to a white man. Her defiance offered the start of a momentum to the civil rights movement that spread across the United States. She was not the first black person to refuse to wake up for a white perso n, but by the time of her action, there was growing resentment and anger in the African American society for being treated as second-class citizens.Word went around about Montgomery mistreatment and arrest (Feagin, 2014). The Womens Political Council resolved to complain Rosa Parks ill-treatment by arranging a bus boycott to start on the day of Parks trial, December 5th. Martin Luther fag junior and the African American community established an association, the MIA (Montgomery Improvement Association) to carry on boycotting until the AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 7 Jim Crow segregation laws were neutered (Feagin, 2014). The key objective was to stop segregation in the public transport system and other sections of the society, and also to employ African-American drivers in Montgomery.The public upheaval ensured for 382 days, costing the Montgomery bus company he sums of money, however the city declined to give in (Feagin, 2014). The Montgomery protest leaders filed a natio nal campaign in opposition to the citys segregation rules, claiming that Montgomery desecrated the 14th Amendment. In 1956, a national court stated that the Montgomery segregation rules were unlawful, but lawyers for Montgomery County appealed. On November 3rd, 1956 the Supreme Court ruled that the segregation laws in Montgomery were illegal.During the protest, the Montgomery authorities made many arrests (Feagin, 2014). At one time, the police detained a group of African Americans waiting for carpool pick-ups. A court jury acknowledged the boycott unlawful, and 115 protest leaders were detained. In 1957, Martin Luther King, Jr. established the Southern Christian Leadership conference, which served as the forefront engine of the civil rights movement. The conference served as the principal(prenominal) council for organizing civil rights protests across United States. The civil right movements were against discrimination of any kind and the fair treatment of all people, regardless of their color across United States.The civil right movement characterized main campaigns and protests of civil resistance (Feagin, 2014). The civil rights movements lasted between 1955 and 1968. The civil rights movements were characterized by civil disobedience and non-violent protests. In 1964, the civil rights act was ratified, and it prohibited all acts of discrimination. In 1965, The vote Rights Act was ratified, and it outlaws the carried out in the South to disenfranchise black voters. In 1967, the first African American senator, Edward W. Brooke, was choose, and he served for two terms (Feagin, 2014). Martin Luther.King, Jr. was assassinated in Tennessee, which was one of the sad moments in African American AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 8 history. The election of Barack Obama served as a significant milestone for United States, particularly the African American community. President Barack Obama was elected the first African-American president, in 2008. Presidents Ba rack Obamas election served as one of the most significant milestone for the African Americans community (Feagin, 2014). A racial divide that was there between the African Americans and white Americans was erased, and it was erased for all eternity.President Barack Obama was elected for a second term in office, which signaled the apparent rise of the African American community to the top (Feagin, 2014). In his second term in office, President Barack Obama has shown that there are things that seem more possible for the African Americans, than they were in his first term. He has made African Americans realize that they can achieve anything if they ask to, and made their expectations realistic.Conclusion From the shackles of slavery in the 1800s, the African American community has risen to take full advantage of their civil liberties and freedoms. For over 300 years, African Americans fought for their civil rights and freedom. The African Americans struggles have been a major issue in each juncture of United States history. In 1776, when slave-holders were revolting in opposition to the adventure of British abolitionism, the African Americans formed part of the American Revolution. During the civil war, the African Americans were also part of the struggles. African Americans have endured as much as any other community and have fought for the rights and liberties of all people in the community.From the attainment of freedom, and the struggle to get equal rights and civil liberties, the election of Barack Obama as the first African- American President, the African American community can gladly say that the racial divide between the Blacks and white Americans has been completely erased. AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY SINCE 1865 9 References Feagin, J. R. (2014). Racist America Roots, current realities, and future reparations. London Routledge. Gates, H. L. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of African American Citizenship, 1865-present. London, UK Oxford University Press.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Like a Boss

The invoice is told in third someone. Knowledge is unlimited. Third-person limited The story is told from the viewpoint of one person in the story A stream of consciousness the uninterrupted thoughts in a character. First person The author disappears into one of the characters who tells the story in first person l. Objective The narrator disappears into a kind of roving sound camera. This camera can go anywhere but can record only what is seen and heard.Theme The point should be expressible in the form of a statement with a subject and a predicate. It is insufficient to say that the theme of a story is maternity or loyalty to country. word-painting The various literary means by which characters are presented Indirect Characterization The author shows us the characters through their actions Direct Characterization They tell us straight out, by exposition or analysis, what the characters are like, or they have another character in the story describe them.Traumatized Shown as speak ing and behaving as in a stage play Stock Character Stereotyped figures who have recurred so often in fiction that we hump them at once. Static Character Remains the same person throughout the story Dynamic Character The developing of a character throughout the story Epiphany The moment or insight that usually defines the moment of the developing characters change Plot the sequence of incidents or events through which an author constructs a story. Structure sequential arrangement of events in a plotConflict Clash of actions, ideas, desires or wills. Suspense The quality in a story that makes readers ask Whats going to happen next? riddle An unusual set of circumstances for which the reader craves an explanation Dilemma Position in which he or she must choose between two courses of action, both undesirable. Happy ending The protagonist must solve her problems, defeat an adversary, win her man, live happily ever after. Indeterminate Unresolved. No definitive conclusion is reached . scene The occurrence of an event that has no apparent cause.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Confusion and Anxiety in Robert Frost’s Poems Essay

During his life duration, Robert Frost wrote poems that relate the astonishment, anxiety, and struggles of the human mind. In his poems, he depicts how peoples minds may be imbued by confusion and anxiety as they bed pain and explore lifes possibilities. Particularly, in The Road Not Taken and Acquainted with the Night, the poet illustrates how thee two themes can head a person to attempt to escape reality and give up ones life. The two poems share similar elements, one of which is the picture.Both poems figure of speech the image of a split person, someone filled with much anxiety. In The Road Not Taken, the author makes an analogy between the personas short letter in the woods and real life decisions one has to make in life. As the persona chooses between the two roads in front of him, he wants some assurance that the road or decision he will make is right. Seeing that both roads look the same, he is quite confused which one to take. Nonetheless, he takes the road which he d escribes to be untraveled.Likewise, the persona in Acquainted with the Night suffers from confusion but unlike the other, his confusion is worse and more than intense, somehow similar to a dilemma. The way the author presents this is also climactic. First, he mentions the journey that he has taken, I have walked out in rain and back end in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. I have looked down the saddest city lane. (2-4) These journeys have made the persona weary and confused, which is why he claims to have been acquainted with the night. The night in the first stanza refers to the diametrical images of the night that people are usu entirelyy aware of. As he reveals in his journeys, in that location is the image of night found on its literal meaning, the image of night as the darkness or confusion, then there is also the image relating to aggrieve and emptiness. As the two poems relate the journeys they take, the time element of the poems becomes significant. In the first poem, the persona describes a momentary confusion that could affect his lifetime. The decision he makes that time would reveal other realities he will face in the future.This shows the tendency of the persona to persevere and move on, despite obstructions along the road. In contrast, the persona in the second poem imparts a confused state that has long existed. As he reveals, he has been to many places, and has experienced a lot of sadness, thus he has been acquainted with the night. This ailing confusion makes him decide to stop, as he relates, I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet. This shows the desire of the persona to stop the confusion, or end the sorrow, which similarly suggests a desire for death.This is the very reason why the first line is repeated in the last stanza to establish a different meaning of night. The luminary clock in line 12 is time itself, with all its abstractness. As it declares that time was neither wrong nor right, it tells the pe rsona that it is not tho the right time for him to die, and in fact, it cannot declare whether it is the wrong time either for no one can actually predict death. Notably, as the persona confronts all these confusions, he implies the desire to discontinue, unlike the other persona who is more optimistic about his fate.As the personas in the poem think about their present struggles, they experience some anxieties. In the first poem, the persona expresses his anxiety regarding the road ahead of him, I doubted if I should ever come back. (15) In the real sense, he is vile of the challenges he needs to face in life as he takes the untraveled road. In the second poem, the persona shows anxiety regarding sorrow and death. As he desires and waits for death to come, he apprehends and takes note of its coming in another(prenominal) persons house far away an interrupted cry came over houses from another street. (8-9) It is not clear how the persona feels about his failure to die, but this th ought adds up to his anxieties. The themes of confusion and anxiety are commonly illustrated in the two poems based on the mental processes that the personas undergo. As both personas undergo these experiences, there shows a tendency to digress or escape their present confusion. In the first poem, the persona wishes to elude the road he has taken but realizes there is no turning back while in the other, the persona tries to escape his sorrows by accept death.As both personas fail to give up their present realities, the author intentionally imparts a unified message to his readers that is, no matter how confusing or challenging life is, taking up our journey is still the wisest option.Works Cited Frost, Robert. Acquainted with the Night. 1923. In New Hampshire. 12 May 2009 . Frost, Robert. The Road Not Taken. (n. d. ). Poets. org. 12 May 2009 .

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Challenges in Managing Innovation Across Supply Chains â€Evaluation and Implementation

pic Business Major-Minor Supply filament Management Course Assignment Challenges in Managing universe crosswise Supply Chains rating and Implementation Student Ying Deng Student ID1205690 Course Number 07 14511 Teacher Professor Dr Victoria Hanna Date 10/01/2013 Acknowledgement This research paper is written for the cause Global Marketing in the University of Birmingham. Firstly, we would like to thanks Almighty Lord to give us knowledge and keep us healthy during the solely coalesceing of our research work.Secondly, we ar greatly indebted to our lecturer and advisor-Professor David Walker for his valued opinions and expert advice in the preparation of this thesis. Thirdly, we would like to express our appreciation to the convenient internet that greatly helped us to find whatever cultivation that we asked. Finally, we want to express our gratitude to the Fujifilm Corporation for its kind assistance and support through egress the writing progress of this thesis.We abide likewise managed to collect some important information from the relative journals and books. All group members of the assignment University of Birmingham, April 2012 Table of contents Acknowledgement Abstract Importance of allow grasp creative activity Innovation and its source and types Challenge of asylum forethoughtevaluation of design Effect of buyer-supplier world-beater relations Example cases of success and failureChallenge of founding managementimplementation of construct Implementations little challenges in different types of industry benefit and physical goods Implementations detailed challenges in different types of industry acclivitous and matured industries More challenges in innovation management REFERENCES Abstract Title of course Supply Chain Management architectural plan Various. Authors Ying Deng Supervisor Dr Victoria Hanna Date Sep 2012 to Dec 2012 Background The complexity and scale of any soakeds supply twine has made the management of supply ima ge innovation difficult and full of uncertainty.However the fast developing market requires the supply chemical chain to innovate as fast and efficient as possible. There ar amounts of successful and failed cases of innovations across supply chain from the break down centuries, yet it is a big challenge to successfully manage the innovations. Purpose The calculate of the thesis is to investigate what Fujifilm did and is doing to develop in the global circumstance and with all the inner and external factors impacts, as well as what it probably will or should do in the future to maintain its current status and to improve.Conclusion by and by evaluating Fujifilms history and current situation along with its recent trade feedback data, as well referring to abundant marketing theories and books, we will suggest Fujifilm to take various acts and strategies to remain competitive and maintain & increase its market sh are. Keywords Supple chain, Innovation, Management, Evaluation, Ri sk, Implementation, Buyer-supplier exponent, Product life cycle, Pre- and Post-contractual, service and physical goods, emerging and mature industriesThe 18 months law (Gorden E, Moore, 1965) had suggested and been proved that the electronic market doubles its products function while halves its prices. The separate industries, while maybe drawn-out than the electronics exactly similarly fast changing, suggests, that the businesses innovate in every possible aspects deep down and related to themselves, to fit into the fast pace of todays energetic world with the information explosion, to catch up with the increasing globalization, savage price competition, increased customer demand for raise quality and reliability.Studies and experiences show that R&D spending is strongly positively associated with the probability of introducing a new product, and most of the businesses are willing to invest in the R&D activities to create the internal innovations (BRDIS data, NSF 11-300). Ho wever, apart from the internal R&D, the innovation can withal be gained both(prenominal) from the supply chain itself such(prenominal) as by re-organizing resources or enhancing dispersion systems, and the other ends across the supply chain, such as improvement from end-users feedback. One of the well-known examples is P&Gs Continuous Replenishment Planning (CRP).The company Proctor & bump changed the entire value chain by driving orders based on DC withdrawal and sales data that successfully improved its service and lessen costs across the supply channel (Roger C. Vergin, & Kevin Barr, 1999). The direct customer input derives innovation, such as the overall product concept, and the timing of the launch to packaging and sales talk (Kevin OMarah, 2005). Other typical examples including innovations caused by improved assembly line such as the Ford Company in the early 1910s, and advanced technologies and processes such as the enhanced Ocean shipping container by Malcom Mclean in the 1956, etc.According to Porters five forces theory, the business is affected by its suppliers, customers, new enchants and new substitutes (Micheal E, Porter, 1979). Supply chain as it stands for, is usually regarded as the flow of resources and products from the supplier, through the firm, to the customers. Supply chain links the supplier, the business and the end-users (customers), as one of its key natures. The other features include its complexity caused by the fact that businesses product manufacturing or service providing usually involves to a greater extent than one supplier and customer.These facts lead to the high possibility of innovations from the supply chain. Not still has the physical goods flow in the supply provided opportunities of innovation, but also the information flow from the opposite direction of the physical goods. The sources of innovation are mainly cogitate as push and pull (Clegg, Juliana & Pilkington, 2011). The push stands for technological oppor tunities that breed the innovation. The pull stands for market needs that urge for innovation. to a fault, in that respect are more than the two sources, such as regulation change, users feedback, staff, etc.Innovation across supply chain can be from both to the pull and push fact just as the examples of Ford and P&G respectively. As stated above, the vast source of innovation of supply chain and from the supply chain provides a great pool of psyches and potential. However, accordingly, the variety also raises the problem of whether a particular innovation actually suits the business and the industry, and whether it can actually fulfill the aim of innovationto make the profit rise, to satisfy stakeholders interests better by changes such as reduced cost or added value.The scale of supply chain raises the uncertainty of an innovation. This hires us to the discussion of challenges in managing innovation. How to respect the suitability of a supply chain innovation to an firm? Wil l there be any potential constraints to the innovation in the supply chain? How to deal with the timing issue of the evaluation? Will this innovation be risky in any part of the supply chain, from the supplier to the customer? Innovation can mainly be sorted into four types Product, Process, Position, and Paradigm (4Ps).Whichever it is sorted into, innovation can be defined as a new thought process, or the recombination of old ideas, or a scheme than challenges present order, or a formula, or a unique approach (Van de Ven, 1986591). Most examples of the simple innovation are R&D departments new product formulate. This type of innovation are usually based on careful market research, built after detailed study of positiveness and potential risk, released into the market after thorough limited-scoop test and trial. model) During all this process, the staff of the firm can gain full understanding of the design, and the design can be changed at any stage of the process to fit into the firms expectations and the markets current trends. Also, as this type of innovation origins within the firm, the main timing issue of it will lay on the dynamic need and technology of the external market environment, while the retainer of competitors impersonation/substitute can be comparatively swallow as all the details could be kept in house or by patenting.On the other hand, innovations from the supply chain could be different. As the innovation can lay in any part of the supply chain, such as a enhanced information exchange system, or the distribution systems transformation, the innovation will need thorough evaluation process to decide its suitability, such as the Farbey et al. (1993) andFarbey & Finkelstein (2000) IS implementations evaluation framework. The effect of the innovation might not fit into the firms market environment and its current situations strategy.One of the most important aspects of the supply chain management is to study the buyer-supplier power relation , to reduce cost and increase value of the supply chain. Innovations across the supply chain, whether it is an information update or system reform or use of new technology, they can influence the power relation of the supply chain, desirably or undesirably. Positive changes to the power relation can help the firm gain a favorable position in or after the process of purchase/signing of contract.Taking the consideration of buyer-supplier power shift before an innovation is adopted is vital to the success of its implementation. The power relations, affected by information, scarcity and utility, can actually decide the gainfulness of the issue and risk distribution between the firm itself and its suppliers & buyers. If the innovation to the supply chain lowers the liability to specific supply of materials, for example, then the firms buyer power towards its supplier increases, with a possibility to bargain for lower prices on the materials.If, however, the liability is increased by th e innovation, the suppliers power increases, giving them the power to increase the selling price. The innovations, bringing changes to the current buyer-supplier relations, have the risk of lowering the buyer/supplier power of the firm, hence putting the firm in a unfavorable position in the supply chain, with the consequence of new or increased cost paid to suppliers, or reduced price to the buyers. It may also cause a decline in quality or efficiency as a series consequence.The wrong evaluation of the changes an innovation can bring to the supply chain and its buyer-supplier relations can be disastrous. Let us have a look at the Aris Isotoners 1994 sourcing calamity case. Trying to lower the cost, the executive of the company replaced the in-house production with outsourcing from suppliers in other Asian locales. However, this approach did not reduce the cost but raised it around 10-20%. Also, the responding speed was put together slower, and the quality of the product was plumme ted.As a series result, the companys sales halved, causing more than $100 million loss and long lasting cause that required more investing to maintain the company. The Aris case is a clear example of how important it is to accurately evaluate the suitability and risk level of an innovation. The idea of outsourcing needs to be considered together with the current difference between in-house production and buying from suppliers. Not only the cost need to be considered, but also the quality of the product, and the speed of product supply.Taking it a little further, the communication process with the supplier can incur unexpected costs, for example, the lawyer fee. The matter of unemployment to the old go downs employees could possibly cause HR problems that need time and effort to solve. The financial situation of the company may go through cash flow issues since the purchase of product can be much more expensive than raw materials. If the case is the other way around, that a company wants to bring the components production in-house, there can be multiple considerations, too.Apart from the problem of cost, location and quality, there can be humans resource (suitable staff for the new plant, for example) and technology problems. As the production technology is comparatively new to the firms staff, it could be difficult to build up efficiency with the same cost at the beginning. forrader an innovation to the supply chain is brought into practice, it is crucial to consider every possible impact that this innovation can have. Based on the scale of even the tiniest company, this could be difficult not to miss any aspect.In fact, supply chain innovation is more than difficult to go over restricted-scale test as there are actually no samples of supply chain. Either put the innovation into practice to observe the result after a while, or simulate it in speculative models that cannot be perfectly detailed and has considerable mistake rates. Even if the suitability an d risk level of an innovation can be accessed, can the response of the whole supply chain be quick enough and accurate enough? Will the integration of changed resources, information, the staffs thinking and supplier updating be in time?Will there be distortions within the communication between the ends of supply chain? Is there any demand or idea conflict in the different fraction of the supply chain? These can all be the challenges that an innovation in the supply chain can meet. Also because of the innovation across the supply chain can hardly be kept in house, the firms competitors can get access to the ideas and the two firms may enter the situation that whichever introduces the new idea into the market first gains more advantage.Thus the innovation from the supply chain might end up as low or even no profit after evaluation, adoption, development and testing. This brings us to the challenge of proper implementation method and speed of the innovation. Based on different types of the supply chain, natures of different industries and the different environment of the market, the concerns and priorities of the implementation can actually be completely different. We will look into the difference between service and physical goods supply chain, and the difference between mature and emerging industries supply chain in the conjoining paragraphs.All the challenges mentioned above can be seen in both service supply chains and physical goods supply chains. These two types of supply chains share many same challenges, such as cost management, resource allocation, etc. They both need to be more dispersed, digitized and dynamic to catch up with the market trends. Unless the physical goods industry can successfully digest the brought-innovation to gain its own patents, the two types of industries will both face the challenge of competitors imitation and timing.They will have differences of challenges, such as () but the major ones are usually the same as mentioned above . However, their priorities could be totally different. Though the service and physical goods supply chains face the same challenges mentioned above, there are some major differences between these two types of supply chain innovation. The difference is not shown by challenges types, but by the importance or significance of the same challenge.For example, service supply chain face the challenge of updating their staffs knowledge of the new innovation as human resource is vital to the business and they actually face more intangible innovation than tangible ones, while physical goods supply chains might need to focus more on updating the plants and materials to follow up the new innovations requirements. Service, as an intangible product, focus its value more on technologies, techniques and human resource that accomplishes the service, and customer interaction level is generally higher.This implements that the service industry will focus more on intangible equities than tangible ones. When an innovation is in operation, for example, a new set of service, the service supply chain may suffer huge losses if its human resource and technology cannot follow the change, which may even lead to complete failure on the innovation. Also, the tight relation between service and customer participation requires the supply chain to be highly agile (Narasimhan, et al, 2006) to deal with changing demands.On the other hand, the physical goods supply chains are less strained to keep their staff on the trend. After evaluation of innovation, they are more affected by the problems related to physical production, such as materials moving, location, distribution, etc. In emerging markets and mature ones, there can be difference of priorities to manage challenges, too. See it from the product life cycle theory (PLC), the mature markets products have stabilized consumer base, and the strategy of the firm is set and focused.The mature industries tend to have more incremental innovations eit her on process or on the product, thus they might need more time to evaluate the innovation based on live products, and the consideration of cost and stuff/culture conversion. The strategies such as cost leadership, focus strategy, or differentiation give specific demand of innovationlower the cost, or quicker delivery, or advanced function, etc. The human resource is well fit with needed knowledge and technique, whereas the thinking of staff is harder to change.The priority of innovation management could be stabilizing, maintaining, improving, thus call for incremental innovation. The challenges are featured as attempt not to affect subsisting value creation activities. Opposite to it, the emerging industries are going through fast growth, and demands radical innovation that has the potential to mostly increase revenue or significantly reduce cost. The emerging industries have more possibility to encounter major breakthroughs and the radical innovations. There may be tense com petition for market share. The market is unstable and the corporate strategies could change every day to follow market trends.Based on the emerging market, the supply chains innovations need to be fast responding and competency-building. The difference of innovations requirements can result in different evaluation standards and different methods to carry out the innovations. Whats more, we can see from the buy-supplier relation perspective. The emerging industries supply chain may hold more possibilities of communicating with new suppliers for new resources, so there need to be thorough consideration of the pre-contractual power relations. Wrong estimation of power relations may cause unnecessary costs.This requires more work on cost management and balancing benefits between different parties. In some of the cases, emerging industries face less competition, so the challenge of timing could be minor, but a few other cases mainly on service industries show that the emerging business c ould face even more severe competition and their profitability can vary significantly according to the introduction time. The suitability of innovation could be even harder to decide, because they will need to evaluate by speculation quite of looking for existing experience.They can consider less on the culture/staff conversion, though, as the thinking mode has not been set up yet. composition for mature industries the existing pre-contractual relations are relatively stable because the information and resource of the buyer and supplier, no matter whether they are new entrants or existing firms, will actually be more stable. They will need to consider post-contractual power relations carefully, though, when the supply chain innovations are related to the replacement of suppliers. The execution cost economy (TCE) shows that any changes to existing contracts can raise uncertainty hence raise risk to the supply chain.Based on individual industries difference, the challenges of manag ing innovation across the supply chain can be different in importance, significance and difficulty to settle. The nature of the industry, for example, whether it is national or international business, determines the priorities of challenge management. This is more specific to the individual differences, and requires experience and thorough research and careful design to successfully manage the innovations. The above mentioned challenges of evaluation and implementation are just two aspects of the challenges that innovation across the supply chain might encounter.There are also other challenges, such as managing conflicting requirements between the innovations development and the existing system, managing long term human resource and culture in relation to the innovation, developing the proper strategy to achieve win-win situation with the new innovation, etc. The last two mentioned above link to the features of the supply chainmore than one party is involved. The difference of staff and culture between the source party of innovation and the receiver party of it leads to the need of change in minds for the new innovation.The fact of involvement of the multiple parties leads to the possibility of win-win situation. However, this possibility could be a challenge because this could be a scenario of the game theory. Innovations can be the source of huge breakthrough and greater success to a firms supply chain. It can also be the source to risk and failure of the firm. Managing the challenges of supply chain innovation, though it is complex and require great efforts, can reduce the risks of the innovation. References Watson, G. and Lonsdale, C. (eds. ) (2003) Managing the Supply Base within Business Networks, chapter 4Allwright, A. and Oliver, R. (1993) Buying Goods and Services, chapters 12-14 R Verma and K K Boyer, (2010) Operations and Supply Chain Management World Class Theory and Practice, South-Western Dong Won Cho, new-fangled Hae Lee, Sung Hwa Ahn, Min Kyu Hwang, (2012)A framework for measuring the performance of service supply chain management, Soft Computing for Management Systems, 62(3), Pages 801818 A. J. van Weele, (2010) Purchasing & supply chain management analysis, strategy, planning and practice 5th edition, Andover Cengage Learning,Evangelista Pietro, Alan McKinnon, Edward Sweeney and Emilio Esposito, (2013)Supply Chain Innovation for Competing in Highly Dynamic Markets Challenges and Solutions. IGI Global, 2012, 1-350. Web 3-32 Alessandro Brun, Maria Caridi, Assessing Improvement Opportunities and Risks of Supply Chain Transformation Projects (ed. ), (2008) Supply Chainonline, forthcoming from INTECH, http//www. intechopen. com/books/supply_chain/assessing_improvement_opportunities_and_risks_of_supply_chain_transformation_projects (02/01/2013) Debra Hofman, Stan Aronow, 21 May 2012, The Gartner Supply Chain Top 25 for 2012 online, http//www. artner. com/id=2021615t-N70737 (05/01/2013) Jan 2006, The 11 greatest supply chai n disasters online, available from Supply Chain Digest, http//www2. isye. gatech. edu/jjb/wh/tidbits/top-sc-disasters. pdf (29/12/2012) Jackson, R. , (1995) An Empirical investigation of the differences in goods and services as perceived by organizational buyers, Industrial Marketing Management, 24 (2), pp. 99-108 Andrew Cox, capital of Minnesota Ireland, Chris Lonsdale, Joe Sanderson and Glyn Watson, (2004) Supply Chains, Markets and PowerMapping buyer and supplier power regimes online, Taylor & Francis e-Library, available from Google books, http//books. oogle. co. uk/books? hl=zh-CN&lr=&id=HYBP9GsLpw8C&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=buyer+supplier+power&ots=MmcU_1fXwW&sig=VwMwnViasijZHb5CNSVb53Rrlw4&redir_esc=yv=onepage&q=buyer%20supplier%20power&f=false (23/12/2012) Marjolein C. J. Caniels, Cees J. Gelderman,(2007) Power and interdependence in buyer supplier relationships A purchasing portfolio approach, Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 219-229, ISSN 0019-8501, 10. 1 016/j. indmarman. 2005. 08. 012. http//www. eruditiondirect. com/science/article/pii/S001985010500132X) (28/12/2012) J M Tuazon, (2011)The top three reasons supply chain transformations fail online, available from enterprise innovation, http//enterpriseinnovation. net/whitepaper/top-three-reasons-supply-chain-transformations-fail (31/12/2012) Procter & Gamble purpose the Right Business Model Online, available from https//dspace. ist. utl. pt/bitstream/2295/141516/1/AOSI-2007-CASOH. pdf (26/12/2012)

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Hardware and Software Essay

A way to make the revenue cycle run smoothly is by integrating hardw ar and software system to assist in the setup of the various systems. This setup would make it easier for Riordan Manufacturing to access their financial information. We will discuss what hardware and software is needed, and will go on to identify who accesses this information. Another area to cover is the controls that need to be implemented based around the invoice procedures, and what information should be available through the bodily Internet and intranet.Examining Hardware and SoftwareTo integrate cost of goods sold into the accounting solve Riordan Manufacturing would need a system to work for all locations. Currently, the three locations have antithetical systems. It would require software that is compatible for all locations as well. At the present time, each location uses different software as well.Information Shared among Different CyclesOne source of information to be shared would be the balance she et. It highlights the companys assets, liabilities, and stockholders equity. Another source of information to share is the income statement. The dislocation of revenue and expenses appear on this statement. The final results capture net profit or net loss.Access to Information firearm integrating this accounting process into an automated system there should be only a select few people who have access to the information contained in the entropybase. Those people would allow in the database designer, the people or persons installing the hardware or software and database management. The database designer would need access to the information for obvious reasons along with the persons installing the hardware or software. Database management would need access to the information to insure that the information is being installed correctly and to insure breach of security is not an issue. When creating a database, there should be as few people as possible that have access to the informati on. That way information contained in the database can be kept as sacrosanct as possible.Internal ControlsThe internal controls required for the revenue cyclespecifically dealing with cost of goods sold are similar to other accounting areas. The basic set of internal controls deal with whom has access to the accounting information system. The set of controls that deal with issues of security in the system and are embedded into the system are called IT general controls (Bagranoff 2008). IT general controls deal with whom is authorized to access and change data files. One of the general controls required for the companys system would be limit access to programs. The control would prevent unauthorized personal from changing anything in the program.The second area of internal controls or application controls deals with transactions. Application controls can be divided in three parts input control, processing controls, and output controls (Bagranoff 2008). These three areas of contr ol deal with data input, processing data and the subject areaing of touch data. Application controls are vital to ensuring accuracy and legitimacy of the data.Two common input internal controls that would be required are feedback mechanism and edit tests. extra internal controls can be added to better facilitate the input processes. Processing data controls deals with the data after input. The first internal control needed is an analyse trail. This control allows a person to follow the route the data has taken and will take.The second area is file control which ensures the integrity of the file. The final amount in application control is the output controls. One area of concern in this area is control of company forms. In the area of revenue specifically cost of goods sold the forms that should be managed are purchase orders and inventory control sheets.Reports GeneratedIT is currently being utilise to support finance and accounting decisions, inventory control, and logistics. While it is apparent that the inventory methods in use are effective, there is room for improvement. Documenting the receipt of raw materials and shipping of manufactured items is done using paper invoices. IT can be applied to this process to achieve amore streamlined approach.One way to streamline the process is to automate the receipt of raw materials so that necessary inventory data is automatically entered into the inventory system as raw materials are received, instead of waiting for clerks to input this data manually. Using eject code scanner technology to input this data would be a more efficient and would reduce errors. A similar process could be used for outbound shipping of finished products. Integrating bar code technology with Riordans existing database would allow management to receive real-time inventory data on raw materials received and manufactured products shipped. Making the data available in real-time, instead of having to wait for data entry clerks to manuall y input the data, would get along enhance the business intelligence (BI) necessary to support both operational and strategic decision-making.Intranet or InternetAs a way to make the accounting process easier for all involved, Riordan Manufacturing must brainstorm on how to provide information through the corporate intranet or Internet. In order to decide on where to inclining information, some detail on the meaning of the intranet and Internet is provided.The intranet is for internal communications purposes. These computer networks use the same software as the Internet, but are internal to the organization that created them (Bagranoff, 2008, p. 7).The Internet is a collection of local and wide area networks that are now connected together via the Internet backbone that is, the main electronic connections of the system (Bagranoff, 2008, p. 5).A good way to use the intranet would be to have all locations connected. This in return would allow all information to be genial to each lo cation. At the same time, it saves time trying to get information forwarded to corporate. The intranet could be used to give updates on key issues relating to the accounting process as well.The Internet is a good place to provide customers with information on the history of Riordan Manufacturing. Another area of interest is listing some information on the products that are being sold. Listing a telephone number with a contact for the customer to call regarding issues is a good idea as well. endingWith the hardware and software implemented and having good internal controls over the accounting information will help to have more consistent and more right financial reports. The revenue cycle is an important factor in running the business from the time an order invoices to the time the order is collected. Being able to report quicker and faster on internal financial reports will even give the business a quick glance of how they are doing from week-to-week or periodical so they know wha t they need to work on, or even if they need to make a purchase. This way the business will always know where they get on their financials.ReferenceBagranoff, N. A., Simkin, M. G., and Strand, C. (2008). Core Concepts of AccountingInformation Systems (10th ed.). Electronic Version. New York Wiley. Retrieved July 10, 2008 from University of Phoenix, ACC/340, rEsource Web site https//mycampus.phoenix.edu/login.aspBagranoff, N. A. (2008). Accounting on the Internet. University of Phoenix CustomEdition e-text.John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved July 12, 2008, from University ofPhoenix, ACC340 Web site.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

EXTREME PERCEPTION AND ANIMAL INTELLIGENCE

EXTREME PERCEPTION AND ANIMAL INTELLIGENCE Many animals also have extreme perception. Forensic tails are three times as darling as any X-ray machine at sniffing out contraband, drugs, or explosives, and their overall success rate on tests is 90 percent. The fact that a cover can smell things a person cant doesnt make him a genius it just makes him a dog. Humans can see things dogs cant, but that doesnt make us smarter. only when you look at the jobs some dogs have invented for themselves using their advanced perceptual abilities, youre moving into the realm of true cognition, which is solving a problem under novel conditions.The seizure howling(a) dogs are an example of an animal using advanced perceptual abilities to solve a problem no dog was natural knowing how to solve. Seizure alert dogs are dogs who, their owners say, can predict a seizure before it starts. Theres still controversy over whether you can train dog to predict seizures, and so outlying(prenominal) people ha vent had a lot of luck trying. But there are a number of dogs who have figure it out on their own. These dogs were trained as seizure-response dogs, meaning they can help a person once a seizure has begun.The dog might be trained to reside on top of the person so he doesnt hurt himself, or bring the person his medicine or the telephone. Those are all standard laboursaving behaviors any dog can be trained to perform. But some of these dogs have gone from responding to seizures to perceiving signs of a seizure in the lead of time. No one knows how they do this,because the signs are invisible to people. No human being can look at someone whos about to have a seizure and see (or hear, smell, or line up) whats coming. Yet one study found that 10 percent of owners said their seizure response dogs had rancid into seizure alert dogs.The New York Times publish a terrific article about a woman named Connie Standley, in Florida, who has two huge Bouvier des Flandres dogs who predict her seizures about thirty minutes ahead of time. When they sense Ms. Standley is heading into a seizure theyll do things like pull on her clothes, bark at her, or drag on her hand to tick her to someplace safe so she wont get hurt whenthe seizure begins. Ms. Standley says they predict about 80 percent of her seizures Ms. StandleyS dogs apparently were trained as seizure alert dogs before they came to her, but there arent many dogs in that category.Most of the seizure alert dogs were trained to respond to seizures, not predict seizures. The seizure alert dogs remind me of apt(p) Hans. Hans was the world-famous German horse in the early 1900s whose owner, Wilhelm von Osten, thought he could count. Herr von Osten could ask the horse questions like, Whats s nonetheless and five? and Hans would tap out the number 12 with his hoof. Hans could even tap out answers to questions like, If the eighth day of the month comes on Tuesday, what is the date for the following Friday? .He could answe r mathe matical questions posed to him by complete strangers, too. Eventually a psychologist named Oskar Pfungst managed to steer that Hans wasnt really counting. Instead, Hans was observing sub tle, unconscious cues the world had no idea they were giving of Hed start tapping his foot when he could see it was time to start tapping wherefore hed stop tapping his foot when he saw it was time to stop tapping. His questioners were making tiny, move ments only Hans could see. The movements were so tiny the humans making themcouldnt even feel them. Dr.Pfungst couldnt see the movements, either, and he was look ing for them. He finally solved the case by putting Hanss questioners out of view and having them ask Hans questions they didnt know the answers to themselves. It turned out Hans could answer questions only when the person asking the question was in plain view and already knew the answer. If either condition was missing, his performance fell apart. Psychologists a lot use the Cle ver Hans story to show that humans who believe animals are intelligent are deluding themselves. But thats not the obvious conclusion as far as Im concerned.No one has ever been able to train a horse to do what Hans did. Hans trained himself. Is the ability to read a member of a dissimilar species as well as Hans was reading human beings really a sign that he was just a dumb animal whod been classically in condition(p) to stamp his hoof? I think theresmore to it than that. What makes Hans similar to the seizure alert dogs is that both Hans and the dogs acquired their skills without human help. As I mentioned, to my knowledge, so far no ones figured out how to take a raw dog and teach it how to predict seizures.About the best a trainer can do is reward the dogs for helping when a person is having a seizure and then leave it up to the dog to star identifYing signs that predict the onset of a seizure on his own. That approach hasnt been hugely successful, but some dogs do it. I think those dogs are showing superior intelligence the same way a human who can do something few other people can do shows superior intelligence. What makes the actions of the seizure alert dogs, and probably of Hans, too, a sign of amply intelligenceor high talent-is the fact that they didnt have to do what they did.Its one thing for a dog to start recognizing the signs that a seizure coming you might chalk that up to unusual aspects of canine hearing, smell, or vision, like the fact that a dog can hear a dog whistle while a human cant. But its another thing for a dog to start to recognize the signs of an impending seizure and then decide to do something about it. Thats what intelligence is in humans intelligence is people using their built-in perceptual and cognitive skills to achieve useful and sometimes remarkable goals.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Irony In The Canterbury Tales Essay

Chaucers Use of chaff in The Canterbury Tales In The Canterbury Tales, Geoffrey Chaucer compiles a mixture of stories on a pilgrimage into a figurative flick of the medieval society in which he lived. Chaucers stories have a punch and dynamism, which, to an average lector, count uncommon to the typical medieval writer, making his twaddle more delightful. Certain things account for this pizzazz, especially the rootages use of irony. Many of Chaucers pillow slips are ironic in the sense that they are so far from what one would yield in the roles they depict, and also the fact that they are larger than life. Every character has his distinct personality with his own behavioral traits. Chaucer also uses irony in his fancy, with its unpredictedness and randomness.The married woman of tubful is a prime example of one of Chaucers characters who is larger than life. She obviously is not what one would expect of a relatively wealthy woman in her time. Her notorious traits such as no t hardly having five husbands, but also marrying a majority of them for wealth and money stick in the header with their ironic abnormality and appalling connotations Johnny and Dame Alice And I myself, in the fields we went My husband was in London all that Lent All the more manoeuvre for meI only mean The fun of seeing people and being seen By cocky lads for how was I to know Where or what graces Fortune index bestow. (273) Chaucer accents her irregular character in this excerpt by portraying her promiscuous actions and her leave out of virtue.The wife of Bath also shows irony in her actions by her need for control over others, especially her husbands. So help me perfection, I have to laugh outright / Remembering how I made them work at night / And faith I set no store by it no pleasure / It was to me (264). Here, the wife of Bath describes her domination and control over her past, old, wealthy husbands. She shows no signs of virtue in her actions to win her husbands, and to literally take their money from them. Because of these ironic, larger than life characteristics of the wife of Bath, she is a character that allows the reader to figuratively break-dance an intimate relationship with her. She sticks in the readers mind, and is a character who is remembered forever overdue to her unexpected ways and exaggerated traits.The Friar is also an ironic character in his uniqueness and unexpectedtraits. distinguish of this irony is due to the enormous amount of corruption the friar possesses. Hed fixed up many a marriage, giving each / Of his young women what he could afford her. / He was a appalling pillar to his Order (8). In this quote, the unexpectedness totally captures the reader by surprise as he finds out that the Friar actually impregnates women and then marries them to men. This is an ideal quote to show Chaucers extra pizzazz in his stories, adding to the appeal of the reader. As the friars larger than life traits are exposed, a psychic pic ture develops, to almost as if the reader is in the story. Sweetly he heard his penitents at shrift / With pleasant absolution, for a gift / He was an easy man in penance-giving / Where he could hope to make a decent living (9). Here, it is seen that the friar is a very worldly man who puts money at a high priority in his life. Ironically, he took the vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, and pathetically breaks all three vows.One of the most ironically corrupt characters in the book is the Prioress. Throughout her report and the prologue, Chaucer portrays her as virtuallyone completely different from what she should be in accord with her vocation as a nun. First of all, the Prioress characteristics and actions make it appear that she is waiver on the pilgrimage not because of her love and respect for God, but instead to travel and to go on an adventure. She certainly was very entertaining / Pleasant and friendly in her ways, and straining / To counterfeit a stately kind of grace, / A stately bearing fitting to her place, / And to seem dignified in all her dealings (6-7). This shows that the Prioress is faking her personality, counterfeiting her true purpose of being on the pilgrimage. Also, the Prioress is one of the most hateful characters in the whole story.In the Prioress tale, she constantly states her anti-Semitic view towards Jews, implying that the best Jewish person is a dead Jewish person. The ironic part is that the Prioress should be a caring, loving person, for she is a sacred representative of God on earth. Strangely enough, the Prioress becomes terrified at the sight of a appall animal but could care less about Jewish people. She used to weep if she but apothegm a mouse / Caught in a trap, if it were dead or bleeding (7). Overall, the Prioress is one of Chaucers most ironic characters in his story, and her actions seem unrelated to the vocation of being a nun.Chaucer frequently and successfully uses ironic humor to add to the punch of the story. Because the humor is unexpected and imaginative, it draws from the reader a yearning and bear on to read on. The fable of Chanticleer and Pertelote provides an ideal illustration of Chaucers humor. For shame, she said, you timorous poltroon / Alas, what cowardice By God above, / Youve forfeited my heart and lost my love. / I cannot love a coward, come what may (216-17). Here, it is ironically farcical to not only have animals portraying human traits, but also to create a point that is comparable to a married couple sitting down at the breakfast table bickering. The humor is directly exposed to the reader due to the unexpected being brought to words, mixed with a tinge of fatuousness of the situation. The hilarious irony is that the married couple is actually a rooster and a hen. By utilise such scenes, Chaucer adds to his story a new twist that makes it more gratifying and queer to read.The randomness of some of Chaucers tales also adds to the humor of the stor y. For instance, it is amusing to think about the randomness of the millers tale and the imaginative mind one must have to come up with such a higgledy-piggledy and hilarious story. The millers tale is so intricately laced with puns, sexual jokes, raunchy statements, that it adds an amusing joking side of Chaucer to the story. Between the stupid carpenter, and the outraged Absolon, dirty scenes are depicted, contributing to Chaucers humorous style. All in all, the randomness in Chaucers imaginative and unusual comic stories is associated with irony due to the fact that the stories are so unexpected.The ironic and unanticipated characteristics of some of Chaucers humorous scenes make the reader laugh, blush, grin, and snicker. He lay there fainting, pale beneath his tan / His arm in falling had been modest double They told the town / That he was mad, thered got into his blood / Some sort of nonsense about Nowels Flood (105). Here, when the carpenter falls from the ceiling in his a pparatus to save his life and his wifes, it is seen how truly random and unexpected Chaucer can be.Overall, irony adds strength and diversity to Chaucers story, making his literature more successful. Irony combined with Chaucers imagination, wit,humor, and intelligence makes The Canterbury Tales successful and interesting to the reader. This irony presented in Chaucers characters and his humor helps to intensify Chaucers writings. Conclusively, the real success of the story relies in the incredible ingeniousness of Chaucer. However, the lack of Chaucers use of irony would make the compilation of tales much duller and less unique. Because of this, the irony in the story adds vigor, and it allows for Chaucer to increase his overwhelming success with his readers.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Journal Article Critique of ‘an Empirical Analysis of Trends in Psychology’ Essay

I.Research Question or ProblemThe daybook article question is clearly stated. The question asks whether the behaviourist, the psychoanalytic, the cognitive, or the neuroscientific view is near intellectually significant and nearly prominent in psychological science today (Robins, Goling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117).II. IntroductionThe introduction presents differing contentions regarding which school of psychological science is most prominent. quin references have been cited in the introduction. It is believed by some that the cognitive perspective reigns over psychoanalysis and behaviourism (Baars, 1986 Gardner, 1985 Hunt, 1993 Sperry, 1988, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117). An opposing conviction, however, states that this belief is merely a representation of cognitive psychologists opinion of their own discipline or else than an accurate statement based on facts (Friman, Allen, Kerwin, & Larzelere, 1993, p. 662, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 1 17).Furthermore, it is argued that the belief in a cognitive perspective revolution is simply a method for scientists to justify their practice (Leahey, 1991, p.362, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117). Other theories have indicated, without empirical evidence however, that behaviourism continues to flourish despite the loss of mentor B.F skinner (Salzinger, 1994, p. 816 p. 461, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117). Lastly, it is contented by some that the neuroscientific perspective continues to prosper (Churchland, 1998, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117), and that the complete field of psychology will eventually become a subfield of neuroscience (Bechtel, 1988, as cited in Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 117).III.MethodsThe authors employed triple world poweres to conduct their study the subject-matter index of psychologys Flagship publications, the subject-matter index of psychology dissertations and the citation index of Fl agship publications. For the psychologys Flagship publications, authors selected several(prenominal) word stems in a database called psychINFO, including psychoanal, cognit, neurosci, reinforce, and conditioning. At that time, they calculated the component of articles published in the Flagship publications between 1950 to 1997 and charted their findings over time (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 118). For the psychology dissertations, authors once again employed psychINFO, this time, to crush the topics presented in doctoral dissertations between 1967 to 1994. Then, they calculated the percentage of dissertations for each of the four psychological perspectives (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 119). Finally, for the citation index of Flagship publications, authors surveyed trends regarding the number of citations found concerning each perspective in the Flagship publications. Then, they selected the top four journals in each perspective using a rating system operated by promi nent neuroscientists (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 119). Applying these findings, authors calculated the total number of time per year the flagship publications cited articles published in each sub-disciplinary journal (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p. 119).IV. ResultsThe results undoubtedly provided answers to the question/hypothesis. The findings indicated that articles regarding the cognitive perspective appeared most frequently in all three indexes, followed by the behavioural perspective. Articles regarding the psychoanalytic and neuroscientific perspective, however, were essentially non-existent throughout the analyse period. Authors provided graphs and t sufficients in order to demonstrate their findings over time for each index (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.121-126).V.Discussion/ConclusionsDue to their compelling findings, the authors were able to construct several conclusions. Firstly, psychoanalytic journals, dissertations, and flagship articles have not bee n in the spotlight of mainstream psychology for the past several decades (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.123, 124). Secondly, with the focus topically on cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology has and continues to subside in scientific psychology (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.124). Moreover, the authors state that one reason cognitive psychology is transcending behavioural psychology is due to the immeasurable routine of computers in modern society. For example, thanks to computers, considerable changes have taken place in regards to scientists understanding of memory, teaching processing, etc (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.124). Lastly, mainstream psychology does not yet recognize neuropsychology however, there is an obvious increase in popularity that is underway. Authors urge on further research to explore the growing prominence of neuropsychology (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.125).VI.ReferencesAuthors used a clear and arranged citation format, and eac h of the references was properly cited within the article. The authors used a variety of sources ranging from the 1930s to the year forward to the study. The older references were used to demonstrate variations of theories over time.VII.Personal ReactionI consider this article to be rather thought-provoking. From the beginning, I agreed with the theorists who believed that cognitive psychology was the leading school of psychology. Although this article was written fourteen days ago, I believe it continues to be true today. I was not aware of the serious decline of the behavioural perspective however, after reading about the impact computers have had on science and scientists, it became clear (Robins, Gosling, & Craik, 1999, p.124). champion limitation that I feel could have affected the results was the manner in which they selected the top four journals. I wonder if the results would have varied had different journals been chosen. In my opinion, the sample size of four journals s eems somewhat constraining to the research. Even so, this was a very interesting article. I would be rather intrigued to read a current study of the same topic and see if the results are equivalent.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Keynesian school of Macroeconomic

Keynesian school of Macroeconomic thought appeals to me the most. Therefore, it is necessary to outline its of import ideas related to monetary and fiscal policy. It is important to know that this theory is based on ideas of famous British economist John Keynes and it is rooted in the 20th century. Keynesian economy claims that mixed economy is the outmatch type of managing fiscal and monetary policies, where special attention is paid to private sector and state. Keynesians doesnt believe that both state and private sector should operate on their own and, therefore, their policy differs significantly from laissez-faire(prenominal) economy. Such idea is the most appealing to me, because I think that every sector should be down the stairs thorough control. (Blinder 2003)The next moment to mention is that Keynesians believe macro-level trends atomic number 18 able to dominate over the micro-level of individual(a) behavior. In contrast to classical theory, Keynesians promote an id ea that aggregate demand for good is of great grandeur in economy and is its main driving force. Speaking about fiscal and monetary policies, Keynesians aim at raising saving in order to lower the demand for labor and products. For example, they stated that there were some ways for the government to ensure effective management of national economy.Instead of paying attention to unbalanced budgets, Keynesian theory suggests countercyclical fiscal policies, which acted against the tide of the business cycle deficit spending when a nations economy suffers from recession or when recovery is long-delayed and unemployment is persistently high. (Blinder 2003) Therefore, the government should solve short-term problems. as well Keynesians think that fiscal stimulus or deficit spending may actuate production. Rather elicit idea is that government should be complementary. And fiscal expansion is possible only in case of unstrain in labor market.However, Keynesian theory is criticized becau se of unbalanced view of monetary policy. For example, it is suggested that their approach to economy is preferably collectivist which requires centralized planning and, in such a way, it may lead to totalitarian abuses. Keynesians are more concerned with considerations instead of executing. (Blinder 2003)ReferencesBlinder, Alan. (2003). Keynesian Economics. Retrieved February 15, 2007, from http//www.econlib.org/library/Enc/KeynesianEconomics.html