Saturday, August 31, 2019

Kindred: A neo-slave narrative Essay

Often, man resorts to story-telling as a way of reconciling with a formidable incident in the past. By re-telling the story to another party, he comes to accept that this is a reality to be faced. He realizes that acceptance, rather than denial, is the best way of going about this trouble. Aside from the rehabilitating ability of story-telling with its contributory effect in dealing with a painful memory, others simply do this as a way of remembering. Concretizing the past as a piece of literature would ensure that the incident would not just be buried in the recesses of the memory; that it would be kept alive and the pains and suffering would not be without significance. In this light, it would come clear for readers how and why the proliferation and the presence of slave narratives came about. One may think that with the end of the painful era of slavery, all dialogues and discussion about the subject would also desist. For the African-American slaves and their descendants, this was not the case. The words of Robert Crossley of the University of Massachusetts rerated the thought: â€Å"First-person American slave narratives should have ceased being written when the last American citizen born into institutionalized slavery died. But the literary form has persisted, just as the legacy of slavery has persisted, into the present. † To be more specific, the birth and popularization of the slave narratives started in the nineteenth century. James Olney stated that each narrative â€Å"a unique production† as an autobiography, and â€Å"is not every autobiography the unique tale, uniquely told, of a unique life? † (148). Therefore, the uniqueness of each narrative from the others is a trait of this genre, as it narrates the experiences of the writers which are unique to another’s. However, certain characteristics are evidently similar in the work to be considered a part of the genre. For one thing, it has to tell the story of a black slave’s struggle for literacy and freedom, while testifying against the â€Å"peculiar institution/’ which in practice meant human bondage and humiliation (Gates, â€Å"Introduction† ix). By the second half of the twentieth century, a sub-genre of the slave narrative has arisen; called the â€Å"neo-slave narrative,† it is a fictional mutation of the slave narratives of nineteenth-century Americans (Crossley). This sub-set of the slave narrative genre is very similar with its umbrella genre in the sense that it presents personal accounts of slavery. However, the difference lies in the choice of the author to fictionalize existing accounts, and not his own personal experiences. The authors base the structure of their fictional work on the oral histories and existing slave narratives to make sure that the story would still echo true events in the historical sense. The birth of this sub-set of the slave narrative genre may be attributed to the void that it fills, or attempts to fill. Anita Wholuba in her paper said that the chasm which is attempted to be explored and filled is the ironic presence of silence in slave narratives, despite of the voice earned by the slave narrative writers. Wholuba said that â€Å"while a significant number of scholars have established that certain silences exist in the traditional narrative of history, neo-slave narrative authors have committed themselves to the task of identifying and sounding those silences where the representation of the American slavery era is concerned. † A novel titled Kindred, penned by Octavia Butler, is among the body of neo-slave narratives published in the last century. It was published in the year 1979, and speaks of an African-American woman’s sojourns to the past. The character Dana, lives in contemporary California, but is transported back in time to the antebellum South. In her involuntary travels to the past, she understands how difficult the situation for people before her ancestors actually was. As I was reading Kindred, I had the initial impression that it was just to be appreciated for its science fiction values. Although the science element in this novel was not so much as it was felt in other novels from the same genre, her meshing of science fiction and history was an innovation that should be noted and lauded. In any case, what caught my attention more was the similarity Kindred has with other novels we have read subsequently in the class, which were the Narrative of the Life of Frederic Douglass, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, and Up from Slavery. Evidently, there were characteristics of a slave narrative in the novel Kindred. However, the text didn’t meet the five criteria for it to be called a slave narrative, the genre which the other works fell under. As Kindred is a work of fiction, it would naturally be categorized as a neo slave narrative, a concept I came to be familiar with after research. Kindred as a neo-slave narrative With the plot and simple and direct language employed by Butler, Kindred could not be missed as a neo-slave narrative. Characters that are actual African-American slaves and Caucasian American masters and violence inflicted on slaves are presented in the novel. On a deeper sense, on the other hand, the novel follows the same pattern present in other slave narratives. Wholuba in the same paper added that although the text refers to other slave narratives such as the work written by Douglass’, in an effort to explore existing themes, the novel still manages to introduce new themes. The new themes that this novel presented, according to Wholuba still, include a more blunt â€Å"analysis and depiction of the slave’s struggle for sexual autonomy, the experience of middle passage, and the concept of memory. † As was mentioned, the novel Kindred follows the typical pattern for a slave narrative, and this will be the thesis of the paper. It will attempt to discuss and prove the characteristics of a slave narrative present in Butler’s popular piece of art. Another writer mentioned some of the other patterns commonly found in neo-slave narratives. Lysik mentioned in her essay that neo-slave narratives portrayed the â€Å"vital slave culture† in a positive light as it could serve as a means of surviving the brutal reality they are subjected to (Lysik). What this implicates is that the writers of the neo-slave narratives provide a new perspective in terms of viewing the arduous tasks and obligations slaves have to fulfill. Most authors show how slaves then turn this otherwise appalling condition to something that they could actually seek refuge in. First and foremost, the novel carried a prefatory statement by a person from Caucasian American race attesting to the authenticity of the author. The second criterion which has to be satisfied is the movement from slavery to freedom. Kindred has been classified under slave narratives by critics as leans toward the freedom narrative category. This concept will be further discussed in the following paragraphs. Aside from this, the most obvious criterion which the novel has to satisfy is that the story should portray the physical, emotional, and spiritual deprivation of slavery. Kindred, undeniably, does not fall short on this end. As the journey through time and space allows Dana to witness the events during the period of slavery firsthand, the novel is rich with narration regarding the struggles of the African-American slaves. Through Dana’s experiences, the tales of the different forms of deprivation and coercion were regaled to the readers. James and his contemporaries talked of this in a paper, saying that many forms of violence and intimidation were observed to be used to maintain white dominance in the slave economy through the eyes of the character of Dana. These â€Å"preservation† measures, so to speak, included the sexual violence against black women that was common during slavery, the assault on black families, the difficult choices that black people were compelled to make in acts of love, survival, and resistance, and the outcomes of internalized oppression (James, et. al). A specific scene in the novel would be that time when Dana personally witnessed the beating of a slave. The slave was hunted by white patrollers because of a crime that would seem absurd for people of the modern times: the slave was found spending time with his wife in their own bedroom without the slave master’s permission.


An agreement made by where purchasers and Sellerss coming close contact with each other for the intent of purchasing and merchandising of goods and services straight or indirectly is described as market. Perfective Competition Monopolistic Competition Monopoly CompetitionMarketOligopoly Competition Duopoly CompetitionMonopoly MarketSingle house No replacement Monetary value shaper Downward inclining supply curve Entry barriers No competitionPerfect MarketMonetary value Homogeneous merchandises Large figure of purchasers and Sellerss Free entry and free issue Perfect cognition Perfect mobility of factors of production Absence of conveyance costDUOPLOY Market2 Sellerss Restricted entry Sellers have some market power Close replacement might be differentiated Demand curve downward sloping Equilibrium point is MR =MCOligopoly MarketFew Sellerss Homogeneous and differentiated merchandises Restricted entry Imperfect information Mutuality and changeless battle Very high monetary value snap High merchandising cost Lack of uncertainnessMONOPOLISTIC MarketLarge figure of purchasers an Sellerss Merchandise distinction Free entry High merchandising cost Two dimensions of competition Monetary value Non monetary valueDIFFERENCE BETWEEN PRICE AND NON PRICE COMPETITIONFooting NON PRICE Monetary valueMeaningMarketing scheme in which one house tries to separate its merchandise or service from viing merchandises on the footing of properties like design and craft † Selling scheme where a company tries to separate its merchandise or service from viing merchandises on the footing of low monetary value.FocusThe focal point is on quality, deign, bringing methods, locations, particular services The focal point is on lone monetary value of the merchandise.Net incomeIt is normally more profitable than selling for a lower monetary value, and avoids the hazard of a monetary value war. The company may take to stand in normal net income or normal net income.Selling CostSelling cost is high as the company pass a batch on promotional activities Selling cost is low as company focuses on monetary value factor more than promotional activities.MarketMost common among oligopolies and monopolistic competition, because houses can be highly competitory. Due to inordinate completion, a state of affairs of monetary value wars occurs in oligopolistic and monopolistic marketsExamplesShampoo Market Mobile service suppliersNON PRICE COMPETITIONApplicable to all markets except perfect & A ; monopoly market. Single purchaser in monopoly so no competition.PRICE COMPETITIONApplicable in all types of markets except monopoly market All are monetary value takers & A ; monopoly is monetary value shaper.NON PRICE COMPETITIONProduct distinction is the procedure of separating a merchandise from other merchandises in the market by adding alone characteristics like manner, quality, offers etc which makes it more attractive and superior to the mark market. The success of the merchandise distinction is more based on non monetary value factors non monetary value factors and successful distinction gives origin to monopolistic competition and sometimes to hone competition besides.There are three types of merchandise distinction:1. Simple: based on a assortment of features 2. Horizontal: based on a individual feature but consumers are non clear on quality 3. Vertical: based on a individual feature and consumers are clear on its quality3 Elementss of monetary value distinction1. Convenience- as the altering scenario client wants the merchandise every bit shortly as possible. So the house should seek to present the merchandise available on clip. 2. Customization- harmonizing to the demands of the clients the merchandise must alter in footings of sizes, colour, design, engineering etc 3. Cost recovery- this is the cost that is deserving bear downing. It doesnaa‚ ¬a„?t average really high or really low but should be sensible harmonizing to the merchandise.Non monetary value determiners of demandIncome of the consumer There is direct relation between the income of the consumer and demand for it. By and large, higher the income, higher the measure demanded and lower the income lower the measure demanded. Monetary value of the related good In instance of replacement goods, demand for a trade good falls with the autumn in the monetary value of other trade goods In instance of complementary goods, monetary value demand of a trade good rises with the autumn in the monetary value of other trade goods. Taste and penchant If the client has developed a gustatory sensation for a trade good, the demand will increase If he has no gustatory sensation and penchant for the merchandise, the demand will diminish. Seasonal factors The demand keeps on altering harmonizing to the conditions conditions. Summers will increase the demand of soft drinks whereas winter will increase the demand og woollens. Number of purchasers The demand of any merchandise depends on the figure of purchasers of the merchandise. More the purchasers demand will be high, less the figure of purchaser demand will be less. , Future outlooks If the monetary value of any trade good is expected to lift in future, clients starts purchasing prior to that and if the crowbars are expected to come down in future the client postpone his purchasing to acquire the benefit.NON PRICE DETERMINANTS OF SUPPLYInput signal monetary values As the input monetary values increases, the supply will be affected and will fall down. Technology Measure of the stuff required depends upon the engineering. Cost salvaging engineering consequences in autumn in input monetary values and therefore addition in the supply. Number of Sellerss With the addition in the figure of Sellerss, the supply besides increases with the curve switching to its right side. Expectations If the monetary values are expected to lift in future, the marketer will do unreal deficit and therefore the supply decreases.ADVANTAGES OF NON PRICE COMPETITIONThe consumers get low monetary values as the accent is non on monetary value itaa‚ ¬a„?s fundamentally on the other factors of the merchandise other than monetary value. To convey fluctuations houses keep on conveying new engineerings which result in more smoothing of the maps and add fluctuation in the merchandise. The accent is non on monetary value and hence the chief focal point is on bettering the quality and the services of the merchandise. Large figure of discrepancies leads to many picks and options for the clients in the market. There is no monetary value war in the market hence it keeps and creates a proper subject in the market which leads to smooth state of affairs. Consumers get more and more fringe benefits in footings of offers and price reductions which attract people and therefore take to competition in the market. A typical characteristic of non-price tools is that they may modify the grade of replaceability among goods.PRICE CONPETITIONPRICE EALSTICITY OF DEMANDThis step the reactivity of measure demanded of a merchandise to alterations in its ain monetary value. It allows comparing of measure demanded with pecuniary alterations It measures the alterationMarketPRICE ELASTICITYPerfect marketMonopoly marketMonopolistic marketOligopoly marketDuopoly marketIn this market the demand is elastic as the merchandises are indistinguishable in nature and are perfect replacement of each other. This market is extremely inelastic as there is 1 marketer who can do alterations in the monetary value and measure demanded consequently. Demand is comparatively elastic, with little alteration in monetary value leads to big alteration in measure demanded as all the merchandises are close replacement of each other. Demand is comparatively elastic as the merchandises are close replacement of each other. Demand is comparatively elastic as there are merely 2 Sellerss in the market and the merchandises are close replacement. For example- If the monetary value of steel and Fe additions what happens to its measure demanded.CROSS ELASTICITY OF DEMANDThe reactivity of demand for one good to a alteration in the monetary value of another ; the proportionate alteration in demand for one good divided by the proportionate alteration in the monetary value of the other.MarketCROSS ELASTICITYPerfect market Monopolistic market Duopoly market Oligopoly market Monopoly market As the merchandises are homogeneous there is a high monetary value cross snap demand. Cross piece snap is comparatively high due to competition and the figure of manufacturers in this market is high Fewer manufacturers in the market so the cross monetary value snap is low. Merchandises are close replacement, so alteration in monetary value will increase the demand of another merchandise. It has high cross snap. Merely 1 marketer in the market and therefore no replacement is available so transverse monetary value snap is non applicableADVANTAGES OF PRICE COMPETITIONPricing policy has a direct impact on the clients as pricing of any merchandise is the first observation of clients. Puting monetary values is relatively a simple undertaking as it does non necessitate fiscal and accounting records to find monetary values No market research is required which involves a high cost. So it saves cost on promotional activities as compared to non monetary value competition. Pricing straight indicates the quality and criterion of the merchandise and therefore the value of the merchandise can be estimated. Price competition divides the sections decently as it clearly points the premium and economic system category. Pricing scheme helps a batch to new participants come ining in the market to derive market portion.DecisionMonetary value and non monetary value, both have different impact on the markets. As observed in the above assignment it is seen that monopolistic market is the market state of affairs which is most influenced by both the schemes i.e. monetary value and non monetary value.This assignment is all my ain work and has non been copied in portion or in whole from any other beginning, except for any clearly marked up citation. It complies with the Instituteaa‚ ¬a„?s ordinances on Plagiarism which I have read and understood.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Culture, Goal-Oriented Communication (Leadership)

Culture, Goal-Oriented Communication (Leadership), and A Fast Growing Organization: the case of Samsung Electronics Hur, Chulboo, Professor Emeritus, Myongji University, Seoul, Korea and Adjunct Professor of Business Management, Yanbian University of Science and Technology, Yianji, Jilin, China Mobile phone 010-9872-7492, e-mail: [email  protected] com and [email  protected] ac. kr Summary In response to the globalization and rapid economic growth of China, the Korean economy has transformed itself.A few Korean firms, spearheaded by Samsung Electronics, have successfully driven the economy, even if the Korean economy has difficulty in the ‘nut cracker’ situation. The success of Samsung Electronics has been attributed to the strategies of ‘selection and concentration,’ ‘successful restructuring following the IMF crisis,’ ‘long-term vision and unprecedented risk-taking strategy,’ ‘speed management,’ ‘world class brain management’ and ‘successful benchmarking of both Japanese and American management,’ among others. But in regard to Samsung’s strategies, cogent questions need to be examined. Associated essay: Pragmatism Over PrincipleFor example, would any Korean firm be able to apply the same strategies as used by Samsung Electronics, and produce the same success? No one could confidently say yes to this question. Samsung Electronics has dramatically achieved a successful transformation between 1987 and 1999. We argue that this is the result of Mr. Lee, Kun Hee (the ex-CEO of Samsung Group)’s strategic learning leadership and its resultant paradigm shift, and that this can be applied to the emergence phenomenon of complexity theory that provides the momentum of evolution of the corporate cultural and/or core competence.The paper explores the dynamic process of this phenomenon. 1 1. Introduction: Korean Economy and Samsung Electronics After three decades of rapid industrial growth, in itself a dramatic transformation from the poverty-stricken agricultural economy of 1961, the Korean industries became exposed to the predicament of borderless competition as well as the threat of the formidable super-speed chaser, the Chinese economy.In the time between Korea’s acceptance as a member of the WTO in 1992 and the IMF Control of the Korean Economy in December 1997, pessimism was high among the Korean leading circles regarding the future of the Korean firms and the economy. Nut Cracker Theory of the Korean Economy (Maekyung Booze Allen & Hamilton Report, July 1997) Japan 10. 22 2. 8845, 4,029, 3. 5696 Korea 1 1 1 1 China 2. 35, 5. 7994, 6. 09, 5. 8399 2000 World Bank estimated GDP ratio in black color 2007 IMF estimated GDP ratio in Red color 2007 US CIA estimated PPP adjusted GDP ratio in blue color 2000 World Bank estimated PPP adjusted GDP ratio in violet color The figures have been corrected in this diagram from the author’s 2004 article But miraculously, the Korean economy has partly escaped the â€Å"nut cracker situation,† thanks to a few large firms spearheaded by Samsung Electronics. For example, three Korean firms were selected in the Fortune 100 companies in 2006. They were Samsung Electronics, LG, and Hyundai Motors. But this year, Samsung Electronics was listed as the only Korean firm with US$92. 26 billion in sales in the Forbes 100. It 2 is ranked 6th among Asian firms, following Toyota, PetroChina, Mitsubishi, UF Financial, and Bank of China.Samsung electronics ranked 3rd in the Info Tech 100, in the 2007 Businessweek scoreboard, following AT&T and Hewlett Packard. Four Chaebol groups were responsible for 48% of the country’s exports, 49% of the Seoul stock market, and 42% of GDP based on sales in 2004. And in 2008,10 major export products from Chaebol groups account for 61. 1% of the nation’s total export (ChoongAng Daily, Feb. , 6, 2008). The Korean Economy Pulled by 4 Chaebol Groups ChoongAng Daily, April 29, 2004 The major Korean firms exhibiting global competitiveness are centered on the following industries: semiconductors/ TFT-LCD, mobile phones, petrochemical roducts, shipbuilding and small- and medium-sized automobiles. Businessweek (July, 2007), in cooperation with the English Interbrand Co. , reported that 3 Korean firms were included in the 100 global top brands value. They are Samsung Electronics, (21 th place); Hyundai 72nd place); and LG Electronics (97th place). Samsung’s brand value increased 4% from the previous year’s 15 billion dollars to 16. 4 billion dollars, but lost one place in ranking. Businessweek reported that Samsung Electronics is 3rd in Asia, after Toyota and Honda.Samsung is superb in LCD and high capacity memory chips, but suffered loss because it failed to enter into the low price cellular phone market in the year 2006. Hyundai Motors attained success by jumping to 72nd position from 2005’s 80th through explicit brand strategies and aggressive strategies in the overseas market, and thus 3 became the 8th global auto maker. LG also ascended 14% by improving brand value of 400 million dollars. USA captu red 1st through 5th places, and registered 52 firms: Germany, 10; France 9, Japan, 8; England 6; Swiss 4; Korea, 3; and Finland, Italy.Sweden, Spain, and Bermuda each listed 1 firm in the 100 brand powers. BusinessWeek July 2007, based on the Interbrand Co. , England Research data. 2007 Businessweek Top 100 Global Brands Scoreboard 2007 2006 Change Brand Name 2007 Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Nokia Toyota Intel Honda Samsung E. Sony Hyundai Brand Value $m 2007 65,324 58,709 57,091 51,569 33,696 32,070 30,954 17,998 16,853 12,907 4,453 Brand Value $m 2006 67,000 56,926 56,201 48,907 30,131 27,941 32,319 17,049 16,169 11,695 4,078 Parent Company Coca-Cola Microsoft IBM GE Nokia Toyota Intel Honda Motor Samsung Sony Hyundai Motor MatsushitaBrand Brand in Rank Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19 21 25 72 1 2 3 4 6 7 5 19 20 26 75 Country Rank 0 0 0 0 1 1 -2 0 -1 1 3 U. S. U. S. U. S. U. S. FINLAND JAPAN U. S. JAPAN S. KOREA JAPAN S. KOREA 78 77 -1 Panasonic 4,135 3,977 electric Industrial JAPAN 92 97 9 8 92 94 90 0 -3 -8 Lexus LG Nissan 3,354 3,100 3,072 3,070 3,010 3,108 Toyota Motor LG Nissan Motor JAPAN S. KOREA JAPAN Three years earlier in 2004, Businessweek (August 9~16, 2004) listed only Samsung Electronics as the sole Korean firm in the list of 100 global brands, and also placed the firm in 4th place in the global top 5 brands (world ranking was 21st).The Weekly also published a special edition on the Samsung brand (November 29, 2004) and reported that Samsung’s competitive edge came from cost reduction through innovation and world class industrial designers who enabled the firm to capture five world class 4 design prizes in 2004. The firm had also won over 100 design prizes between 2000 and 2004. Samsung Electronics ran her own innovative design institute, and its designers took lectures directly from IDEO, the top class US design company, and from faculty members of a US design school located in Pasadena, California.The number of the firm’s designers increas ed from 170 in 2000 to 480 in 2004, accordingly. In the following table, the 2008 Forbes global 2000 big companies are reclassified according to country. Reflecting unfavorable world trade, there are signs of setback for the firms of traditional trading countries like Korea and Japan in profit ratio, but one can notice an increase in the number of firms in oil exporting countries and BRIC countries. For example, in terms of sales volume, Japan had 87 firms and South Korea had 24 firms in the 2007 Fortune 500, as oppose to France’s 38, Germany’s 37, and Great Britain’s 33 firms. 008 Forbes 100, 500 and 2000 Large Companies* Countries USA France Germany Great Britain Japan China Swiss Canada Spain Italy Netherland Brazil Australia Belgium South Korea Russia Norway Finland Luxemberg Panama 100, 500, 2,000 29, 165, 590 9, 32, 67 9, 26, 59 8, 34, 120 7, 47, 260 5+1, 12+7, 70+39** 5, 11, 37 4, 20, 59 3, 13, 28 3, 10, 37 3, 10, 24 3, 7, 34 2, 12, 50 2, 3, 12 1, 12, 52 1, 9, 29 1, 5, 14 1, 3, 12 1, 1, 8 1, 1, 2 Class I II III 5 Sweden India Taiwan Singapore Ireland Bermuda South Africa Mexico Turkey Austria Greece Saudi Arabia Portugal Denmark Thailand Israel Cayman Islands Czech Republic 0, 10, 29 0. , 48 0, 4, 41 0, 4, 18 0, 4, 10 0, 3, 25 0. 3, 17 0, 3, 16 0, 3, 14 0, 3, 13 0, 3, 12 0, 2, 11 0, 2, 10 0, 2, 9 0, 1, 14 0. 1, 10 0, 1, 4 0, 1, 1 IV 6 Malaysia United Arab Emirates Kuwait Chile Indonesia Iceland Poland Qatar Egypt New Zealand Hungary Parkistan Philippines Peru Columbia Morocco Barain Jordan Liberia Channel Islands 0, 0, 15 0, 0, 11 0, 0, 7 0, 0, 7 0, 0, 5 0, 0, 4 0, 0, 4 0, 0, 4 0, 0, 3 0. 0, 2 0. 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 2 0, 0, 1 0, 0, 1 0, 0, 1 V *The global 2000 by Forbes. com, April 2, The Forbes 500 and 2000 figures include Forbes 100 and 500 figures respectively. *The Hong Kong figures were added to the Chinese figures. Samsung Electronics has maintained its position as a leader in semiconductors for 12 years after seizing first place in the global memory semiconductor chip sector with the introduction of the first 256-megabyte D RAM chip in 1994. The firm has been the world leader in the 8 hitec products such as D RAM, 28. 7%; S Ram, 33. 3%; Flash Memory, 30. 7%; TFT-LCD, 20. 5%; Display Driver Chips; 20. 5%; Monitor, 15. 2%; digital TV sets, 10. 6%; and Mobile Phones, 14. 3% (2 nd place after Nokia, beating Motolora in 2006). The Group, in total, has 25 world best products.The firm has also been the number one exporter in Korea for 12 years since 1994. In 2004, Samsung Electronics has recorded W110 trillion in accumulated sales and W29 trillion in profits, clearing all the loss accumulated since 1973 when the firm first entered the semiconductor industry. In the entire semiconductor industry, including non-memory chip sectors, the firm is the world's second largest chip producer following Intel, the 7 world leader. The Samsung Group contributes 21% of the nation’s expor ts; 20% of the entire stock market; and in sales volume, 18% of the country’s GDP.As of 2005, Samsung has 23,000 researchers with over 2,400 doctoral degree holders spending an annual research fund of 4. 7 billion dollars. In 2000, Samsung ranked 6th in U. S. A. patent right applications. During 2005 and 2006, Samsung placed 5th. and aspires to be in the top 3 by the year 2007. (Lee, Chae Yoon, 2006) Samsung Electronics’ revenue was over 92. 26 billion dollars last year, but the firm recorded a 10. 3 billion dollar net profit in 2004, the 7th largest position among 9 world 10 billionaire firms. This surprised many Japanese opinion leaders, recalling the imilar phenomenon in 1999-2001, when a spectacular performance of net profit amounted to 120 billion won from semiconductors and mobile phones, at a time when almost all world leaders of semiconductor manufacturers recorded red ink (with the exception of GE, IBM, and Nokia. ) A bad period for chip producers worldwide, m any leading semiconductor manufacturers closed down their production lines. The number of worldwide semiconductor manufacturers has declined from 22 in 1998 to 12 since 2004, including such famous IT leaders like Toshiba, Motorola, and Fujitsu.Samsung Electronics faced some difficulty in mobile phones in 2006, but it improved in 2007, as there were some progress in the mobile communication services. Samsung Electronics agreed to begin 3rd generation WiBro commercial services across the United States on a nationwide basis with the service provider Sprint and Nextel, starting in 2008. WiBro is a wireless high-speed Internet technology that enables the transmission of data anytime, anywhere, even within vehicles moving faster than 100 kilometers (62 miles) per hour or on mountaintops.The connection speed is even faster than a fixed-line Internet connection. In addition, Samsung Electronics has recently announced the development of the 4th generation WiBro technology which is expected t o operate five times faster than the presently available 3rd generation WiBro system. Korea's WiBro technology, also known as mobile WiMAX, is the result of three decades of continuous research. As it was solely developed in Korea, it is potentially far more lucrative than CDMA had been. The project was a product of collaboration between the Samsung Electronic research team and the governmental research lab 8 nder the governmental policy led by Minister Chin, Dae Jae, former President of Samsung Electronics, all under the influence of Samsung corporate culture, exemplified by: â€Å"look for our next lines of business, ten years ahead †¦Ã¢â‚¬  The story of Korea's advance in telecommunications began in the 1970s, when the mechanical national telephone system reached a saturation point. To resolve the problem, the Korean government decided in 1976 to develop Korea's own time division exchange, or TDX, a form of electronic operator. With 1,060 researchers working on the project , Korea became the 10th country in the world to develop her own TDX.At the helm of this project, part of his national development plans, was Park, Jung-hee. President Park, Jung-hee, a self-educated economist, was the nation’s top class expert on the history of Japanese modernization since Meiji Restoration (1869). He laid the ground of the Korean industrial development in 1961, following the Japanese track. He also indirectly influenced the growth of the Korean Chaebuls and their technological development/learning processes. In 1989, the Korean government developed the TDX-10, together with the governmental research intitutes, the researchers in the Chaebol groups, and from the universities.The outcome was a more sophisticated digital operator system, and as a result, Korea could afford to export the technology, although only a half of the parts used in the TDX were locally produced. However, all stages of the TDX-10, from design to software, were devised and produced in Kor ea. Samsung Electronics played a major part in the developmental procecess, but we must also note that Samsung alone started to build up global capabilities of semiconductor manufacturing all by herself as early as 1973. The foundation of Korea's subsequent success in mobile phones was laid in 993, when Korea became the first country in the world to commercialize the code division multiple access technology, or CDMA, conceptually developed in the laboratory level by a small U. S. firm, Qualcomm. Unlike the time division multiple access, or TDMA, system used in Europe, which assigned a specific frequency for each user, CDMA allowed multiple subscribers to a single frequency. The CDMA was adopted by Korea because of low connection error compared to other technology in the Korean situation of high population density, of mountainous areas and multiple concentrations of high rise building blocks. Expectations were high with the hope that the Korean firms would turn huge profits from the Korean’s share of CDMA technology improvement, as countries such as China, India, and Brazil decided to adopt the system. But with Qualcomm demanding high royalty payments on CDMA source technology, its price competitiveness soon eroded. (The Korean firms have paid over 1 trillion won or $1 billion in royalty payments to Qualcomm, the CDMA source technology holder up to date. )Moreover, Europe looked to nurture her own telecommunications companies with the development of the Global System for Mobile Communication, or GSM. The adoption of this updated version of TDMA meant Korean firms were further handicapped because the Korean firms were not able to sell CDMA technology to one of the world's biggest cellular phone markets. In short, Korea found success by copying foreign telecommunications technology in the 1980s; and by the 1990s, Korea was commercializing foreign developed technology but still had a long way to go until technological independence. (ChoongAng Daily Aug. 10, 2006)Future of Samsung Technological Capabilities: In close coordination with Government, Chaebol, and university research instututes, Korea developed a new generation of mobile phone wireless Internet technology. WiBro system, the new technology, is leading the rest of the world by years ahead. It is accepted as one of the standards by the World electronic organizations. Samsung Electronics has made trial-runs with Brazil, Venezuela, Croatia, and Saudi Arabia, and has begun entry into the US market, while telecommunication companies in Japan, Britain, France, and Italy, are showing keen interest in the technology.WiBro shall be the fourth generation technology, if the CDMA technology used today is considered as the third generation. According to the agreement with Sprint, the US partner, Samsung Electronics will provide base stations, handsets, and chipsets. About 100 small- and medium-sized business firms will participate as well. Samsung estimates that the deal will produce 33 t rillion won and create 270,000 new jobs. (ChoongAng Daily Aug. 9, 2006) Samsung Electronics has made successive technological breakthroughs, most recently in the world's first 50-gigabit NAND flash memory chip, employing a new method called the charge trap flash, or CTF.The firm is a world leader today in LCD TV, 10 mobile phone parts, and various memory chips. The CFT technology provides the foundation for entering the tera-bit [1,000-gigabit] age after 2010. Dr. Hwang, Chang-kyu, president in charge of Samsung Electronics R & D Division added that Samsung's semiconductor division was different from its competitors in terms of its dual investment in facilities as well as in research and development. â€Å"This year, we spent 2. 8 trillion won ($2. 9 billion) on semiconductor research and development.For CTF technology, we started to develop it five years ago and created an independent developing team three years ago. We have 30 to 40 of these development teams, so imagine what kin d of developments we can achieve in 5 to 10 years,† he said. He had rosy predictions for the DRAM and graphic DDR DRAM markets, saying they were diversifying and could lead to a supply shortage. â€Å"Even now, Samsung is only able to meet 70 percent of the demand. Prices shall be good until 2009,† he said. â€Å"Samsung currently occupies 50 to 60 percent of the graphic DDR market and will provide 100 percent of the chips for the Nintendo game players,† he added.Samsung Electronics developed the first 256-megabit NAND flash memory in 1999, and ever since, the company has doubled the capacity of its semiconductor on a yearly basis. The industry has even dubbed this phenomenon as â€Å"Hwang's Law,† an allusion to Moore's Law, which states that the processing power of chips will double every 18 months. NAND flash memory chips are mostly used to store data in small devices such as digital cameras and music players. The chip Samsung presented was made using 4 0nano technology; last year, chips were made using 50-nano technology. The difference allows more semiconductors to be produced from each wafer.Forty nanometers is 3,000 times thinner than a human hair. It is expected that the new NANO chip would create new Flash memory chip demand worth $60. 6 billion by the year 2016 when the technology becomes fully commercial in 2008 2. Previous Research works on the Samsung Transformation Samsung Electronic’s evolution from a fledgling company within a developing nation to a powerhouse global leader and technological innovator has attracted much attention from academicians and journalists, and as a result, numerous articles have documented the transformation, mostly from Samsung in-house researchers, journalists, and some 1 Japanese observers and scholars, as well as a few Korean scholars. Senior researcher Chang, SangSoo from Samsung Economic Research Institute (SERI, August, 2005) observed that the Samsung Group has gone through four s tages of growth in an accelerated pace, owing to the superb leadership of the CEO and the inspiring corporate culture in which the upper management work under a shared value system, exemplified by: â€Å"a single mind towards a single goal. † His four growth stages are as follows: 1) Inauguration of the enterprise and foundation of the system between 1938 to late 1950’s: Included in this period were the turmoil and confusion of the Liberation (1945), the Independence (1948), and the Korean War (1950 -1953). Samsung has started the first Japanese-style public new employee recruit examination in Korean history as early as in 1957. (Recruitment of recent college graduates based on general examinations—in effect, an IQ test. ) (2) Growth from a small- and medium-sized firm to one of the large firms in Korea. It had elements of the early stages of a business group.It was the period of General Park, Chung-hee’s Military Coup and the launching of successive five -year economic development plans between late ‘50’s to mid ‘60’s. (3) Ascendance to the Korean top enterprise between late ‘60’s to late ‘80’s. This period includes the 6th Five-Year Economic Development Plan and the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games. (4) Ascendance to the global top Enterprise between late ‘80’s to now. This period started with the transfer of the leadership from the first generation group chairmanship to the second generation group chairmanship, thereby marking â€Å"new management. There were crises, rising from the Korean WTO participation, and turmoil caused by the IMF crisis, as well as the 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup. Chang believes that the quantum leap resulted from the superb human resources management and the overall strategies of the Samsung group. Samsung Electronics, the forerunner of the Samsung group, has gone through a paradigm shift of personnel management in the following ways: 1. 2. Growth s trategy based on mass production and economy of scale centering on seniority pay system until 1996. Survival strategies under IMF crisis–employing a merit system of individually 12 ifferentiated salaries between 1998 and 1999. 3. Core competence based personnel administration of up-grading overseas personnel and team based compensation system adopting profit sharing and stock option programs between 2000 and 2002. 4. Further strengthening of the core competence based personnel administration aiming at solidifying the pool of the global top grade human resources. And the evolution of the human resources management has been reinforced by: (1) The regional expert system for the employees to get on-the-spot training for one year. Over 2800 persons have gone through the program between 1990 and 2004. 2) Through Samsung MBA program since 1995, the firm conferred the master degree to some 460 persons. The program is divided into Socio-MBA and Techno-MBA programs. (3) Under the overs eas genius program, over 100 full scholarship grants were awarded to top 5% level students enrolled in India, China, and Russian top universities since 1995. (4) An in-house semiconductor college was established for 30 graduates with BS degrees, 20 graduates with masters degrees, and 3 graduates with doctoral degrees. (5) An in-house manufacturing technology college was set up for the retraining of 100 overseas engineers. 6) Five to six week courses for the functional expertise educational programs were set up to provide training for some 700 specialists in the fields of finance, planning, procurement, marketing, and personnel administration. Autographic writer Hong, Ha Sang (2005) sketched 16 Samsung top managers, both in Korean and Japanese. He emphasized, similar to the opinions of many Japanese journalists, that the troika leading the Samsung transformation consisted of (1) Chaiman Lee, Kun Hee, (2) a group of professional managers, and (3) the Center for Structural Realignment. Cho, Tu Sup, Professor of Yokohama National University and former Professor of Nagoya University in Japan with Yoon, Chong-sup, his Ph. D. student and a researcher of SERI, wrote a book in Japan titled, â€Å"Samsung strategy to technological capability – technological learning process towards global business,† based on Yoon’s dissertation 13 (2004). Their research is centered on a single business entity, an organic cluster comprised of four Samsung companies. They are: Samsung Electronics, Samsung SDI, Samsung Corning, and Samsung Electricity.And their classification of the technological learning process includes the following four stages: (1) Absorption stage: It took place in the early 1970’s in a declining industry of black and white TVs, tuners, cathodes, tubes, DY and FBT. Samsung relied on a simple assembly line technology of joint venture partners, such as Sanyo, NEC, and Corning. But Samsung also intensified its technological absorption, having i ts engineers attempt to reverse-engineer beyond the level of formal technological cooperation by penetrating into the tacit knowledge behind the explicit knowledge.The firm implemented strategies of producing the parts domestically rather than simply relying on the importation of parts from partner companies. Samsung Electronics also established the vertical integration of the electronic products, even starting to export black and white TV sets to Japan on OEM basis. Depended on the Japanese technology. (2) Emulation stage: It started in the late 70’s as it evolved into color TV set assembly. Samsung had developed some level of maturity in technological capability through reverse-engineering. And as a result, Samsung could take ver some of the decision power of the joint ventures. (3) Improvement stage: It took place in ‘80’s, a rapid growth stage for Samsung technology in the area of large size flat panel TV including large size CPT, CTD, and CRT. Samsung became self-sufficient in designing numerous models and developed mass production technology. The firm could export plants and compete with overseas manufactures of color TV sets with its own R&D division. Samsung diversified its products including the development of an overseas sales network. (4) Innovation stage. The ‘90’s and beyond marks the development of high efinition TV and digital TV. Samsung solely developed TVs of an original concept, such as thin TV sets. Samsung could enjoy the freedom of cross licensing, strategic alliance, and it could export products on her own brand, through her own network of overseas production bases. The book does not deal with semiconductor technology capability building, because Samsung had to build the capability all alone, as no advanced nations were willing to provide assistance in the sensitive area. However, the corporate culture of strategic 14 learning has been preserved and documented. When Korean technological and ducational cap abilities were poorer in comparison to that of advanced nations, Samsung’s intense in-house higher educational system continued to benchmark themselves against the GE in-house educational system, and Lee, Kun Hee’s â€Å"genius management† provided many effective solutions. Professor Kim Shin proposed a strategic model of Samsung in comparison with Toyota Motors. (June, 2003. Japan Korea Association of International Management, Tokyo. ) Samsung Electronics World rank 3rd in IT, Fortune ranking 115th and Financial Times, 67 2002 records th Toyota Motors 3rd in Auto, Fortune ranking 10 h Sales, 40. 5 billion; Net profit 7. 25 bil. (Won) 14. 5% of total South Korean export Sales, 16 billion; Net profit, 1. 4 bil (Yen) Management strength Superior adaptation motivation human to resources, change, high speedy work Positive adaptation to change, Rational management based on strong community spirit JIT inventory management Unique management concept Digital convergence Production mode Production of multiple products in small quantity Production of multiple products in small quantity Japan is in trouble but Toyota is an exception Corporate image Digital best StrategyGlobal HRM, increase the number of the world best products and social Globalization, Concentration on and sustained cost reduction R&D friendliness Chang, Se-Jin (2008) also compares Sony and Samsung, the winners of both analogue electronics and digital electronics centering on strategies and HRM. Journalist/writer Lee, Chae Yoon (2006) compared Samsung and Toyota in a similar manner: He observed that Toyota benchmarked Ford to overcome the adverse productivity rate of 8 to 1 as early as 1935, and again in 1949, and, in that process, Toyota developed what is known as the Toyota Production System, or Just In Time 5 (JIT) and Kanbang system (zero inventory), all contributing to the â€Å"Toyota Way. † He also observed that since 1987, Samsung has benchmarked GE and Toyota in the de velopment of world best products, speedy decision making, and R&D and Market strategies. A senior consultant and an expert on the Korean industry, Midarai Hizami ( ) from the Nomura Research Institute of Japan observed that the strength of the Korean business system reform lies in the efficacy of the Samsung Electronics’ decision making mechanism, which was lacking in the Japanese firms. (2005) He observed that Mr.Lee Kun Hee, in power, was making important decisions, and the system of external board members and board of directors was nominal in the corporate governance. He summarized that the uniqueness of Samsung Electronics was due to (1) the corporate chairman’s unique ability for judgment and leadership, (2) existence of a corporate strategic center called the Center of Structural Realignment, (3) delegation of power to professional managers and their compensation system, and (4) business projects based on strategic marketing viewpoint. Finally Midarai proposed th at the Japanese company reform planners had to be mindful of the Samsung system.A business consultant and Chairman of Japan Debate Association, Kitaoka, Doshiaki (? ), published a book titled â€Å"I am afraid of Samsung† documenting a year long debate series on the threat of Samsung and how the Japanese firms could roll back. He concluded that Mr. Lee Kun Hee was a genius, who had an exceptional gift in both technology and management, and who would concentrate solely on long-range strategic research to command outstanding think tanks and watch dogs called the Strategic Realignment Center and the Samsung Economic Research Institute.He also argued that, with Mr. Lee’s long-range strategic view, swift decision making, and enormous scale of resources allocation, Samsung could have overrun all the world top class giants of the Japanese electronic firms when the IT bubble collapsed in 2002. He felt that the Japanese CEOs were handicapped because they would stay in their po sitions for a relatively short term (2-3 years), while Mr. Lee, Kun Hee could stay in his office for life, thereby able to formulate long-range strategies for Samsung.He argued that the Koreans were so dogged that they were posing a potential threat to the future of the Japanese firms’. 16 Hasekawa, Tanashi ( ), management professor of Kyotokakuen University, contributed an article to Nikkei Business Monthly Magazine and commented that the Samsung quantum jump from Korea’s best to global leader was dependent solely on Mr. Lee Kun Hee’s leadership. (July 11, 2006) He observed that when the global IT bubble collapsed in 2000, Samsung surpassed the poorly performing Japanese electronic firms including Sony, and became a global IT power.In the process, Mr. Lee’s â€Å"New Management† became the leading vehicle of the transformation process. According to Dr. Hasekawa, ex-CEO Lee Kun Hee. lead the Samsung innovation even before the Korean economy was cru shed by the 1997 liquidity crisis, by taking the shareholders seriously, putting emphases on the transparency of management and accounting, personnel management based on ability, and the introduction of an annual salary system. In addition, he observed that the Center for Strategic Realignment, in cooperation with Mr.Lee Kun Hee and the professional managers, played key roles in information gathering, sense-making, and planning in an organic manner to effectively operate the overall business. An example can be found in the merging of the semiconductor and telecommunication business units. The decision to select and concentrate on three major areas, namely electricity-electronics, finance-trading, and service, has provided the basis for the Samsung jump into a position of global power. 3. DiscussionThe points of Chang, Sang Soo’s (SERI, August, 2005) four stages of growth, the jump from the Korean top to the global top based on the superb leadership of ex-CEO Lee Kun Hee and t he superb corporate culture of upper managements’ shared value, exemplified by â€Å"a single mind towards a single goal,† is well understood in a post facto analysis. But his proposal of a superb human resources management, outstanding educational system, and retraining systems can be better understood as an end result of the strategic means rather than as the actual cause of the transformation.After all, most of the leading global firms of Japan, USA, and Korea share similar characteristics with Samsung. Nonetheless, it is possible that Samsung has simply benchmarked itself against these rival companies, surpassing them even, in regards to these specific factors. Although Chang, Sang Soo’s proposal could be understood as a occurrence of novelty, with a serendiptious effect resulting from its organizational development techniques. However, Samsung’s transformation has not been a transient phenomenon. 7 In fact, Kim, Chang and Lee,s comparson of strategei s and HRM is not sufficient to explain the rapid change processes of Samsung. And many writers make a point to emphasize the rapid and timely decisions made by Lee, Kun Hee in regards to the speedy growth process, as well the leadership undeterred by outside inteference. Samsung, at its inception under the leadership of Mr. Lee, Byung Chul (founder and the first CEO of the Group), had been an ardent follower of Japanese Management. Mr.Lee received his education from Waseda University in Japan before WWII, and was famous for his annual â€Å"Tokyo Conceptualization:† He would stay in Tokyo at the beginning of every year in order to learn firsthand the forecasts of the coming year as made by Japanese journalists and economists through TV and mass communication media. He also had a Japanese girl friend in Tokyo. Also, he carefully studied the Japanese government’s new year economic plans and new year strategies for major Japanese corporations.He would personally follow th rough this information with Japanese experts and leading Japanese businessman friends. He, then, would collect necessary books and articles and return to Korea to encourage his top managers to read the material before formulating each year’s strategies and planning for the entire Samsung group. In addition, they also examined the forecasts made by the Korean experts. Mr. Lee, Byung Chul was not only the first generation CEO for Samsung but also one of the pioneers of the contemporary businessmen of Korea.Partly we can state that Samsung Group is an outcome of the Korean government’s modernization effort to transform the economy from one of the world’s poorest agricultural economy to an advanced industrial economy under President Park, Jung Hee between 1961 to 1979. However Samsung had been a forerunner of a small group of successful large corporations who quickly grew to keep pace with the rapid growth of the national economy. It was well known that President Pa rk, Jung Hee, the architect of the Korean economic miracle, had thoroughly studied and became one of the Korean op level experts on the Japanese industrialization history since the Meiji Restoration. But General Park was not particularly favorable towards Samsung from the beginning of May 16, 1961, the date of his military coup d’etat. Rather he was hostile, in the early days of coup, toward all the Chaebol or rich men because of his concept of socialistic and Confucian justice, at the time, reflecting the general sentiment of Korea and the ever critical Korean mass communication. General Park’s economic development policy was greatly influenced by socialistically oriented economist Park, 18Hi Bum, the then dean of Commerce College, Seoul National University, and they agreed to mobilize capital from the rich families including the Chinese restaurant owners in Korea. Furthermore, the Military Government staged a currency reform with disastrous results. The event provide d Mr. Lee, Byung Chul from Samsung Group momentum to stage a personal confrontation with General Park (who then was elected to the Presidency of Korea) in 1963, and persuaded President Park with a plan of industrialization of import substituting, export oriented growth policy, and the normalization with Japan.Lee, Byung Chul contributed an article on the same idea of Korean economic development plan to Hankuk Daily Newspaper in Seoul, then, owned and operated by Deputy Prime Minister of Economy, Chang, Ki Yung. In the earlier phase of Korean industrialization, there was serious debate among the scholars and policy makers of Korea, with forceful arguments that Korea should build agriculture first before industrialization, because Korea had no basis of industrialization at all.These models were available in Taiwan and Denmark. And Denmark educated agricultural economist Yoo, Dal Young and Max Weber economist Choe, Moon Whan, both from SNU, who were in turn personally tutoring Presiden t Park, who would later formulate Saemaul movement to change the Korean farmers’ culture, in the manner of McClelland’s achievement motivation education from Harvard, in order to develop an agricultural economy without much material investment. Since Mr.Lee, Byung Chul and President Park, Jung Hee’s meeting, President Park decided to take Mr. Lee, Byung Chul’s Japanese style of the â€Å"industrialization first policy† with a Weberian push, in addition to his all-out effort on the export oriented industrialization projects and thereby attained the ‘Han River miracle’. But in the process, he delayed the ever mounting public desire for democratization and ended his life tragically in October 24, 1979, with his famous last words, â€Å"spat upon my tomb later. After a few years of trial and effort, President Park’s economic plan was more or less settled around the US educated econometrician Nam, Duk Woo, an engineer oriented burea ucrat Oh, Won Chul, along with the use of the history of Japanese industrialization as the main textbook after normalization with Japan in the mid ‘60’s. Also, his policy line did not deviate much from Samsung’s first CEO Lee, Byung Chul’s 9 original 1963 proposal. Along the same line of thought, Hong, Ha Sang’s (2005) sketching of Samsung’s top professional managers can also be taken as providing the necessary condition for the transformation because all leading OECD global corporations have plenty of top level professional managers similar to Samsung’s â€Å"genius management. But the genius does not automatically yield global management. Anyway, Mr. Lee, Kun Hee, in a way, has adopted American style management on top of his inherited Japanese style management with a Korean color, by recruiting global scale top managers with engineering backgrounds, which is rare in traditional Korean managers unless the founders also have engineeri ng backgrounds.Because of business closely linked to the governmental economic development plan at the same time to deal with every level of governmental Confucian feudalistic heritage, most of the top managers from large corporations have consisted of economists and lawyers to cope with the governmental or pseudo governmental interference and for lobbying purposes. Mr.Lee, Kun Hee maintained groups of lawyers and economists, but he stepped aside from the Korean conventional practice and recruited professional top managers from a combined elite of engineering and business specialties and encouraged them to break away from their traditional conservative bureaucrat nutshells and exhibit their high level entrepreneurship of experimentation including a certain a latitude of failure toleranceNikkei Business weekly magazine, (July 14, 2006) maintained that â€Å"Samsung power originates from passion and solidarity,† and this was the very aspect that was missing in the Japanese firm . It was pointed out in the article that the strength of Samsung human resources management can be found in the strength of regional expert development program to strengthen Samsung marketing in strategic regions such as China and India, as well as in the potential growth markets, like France and Italy.The missing link was not fully described in the article regarding the â€Å"passion and solidarity† behind the superb HRM. The question remains: What makes the top managers and employees deeply moved with this burning passion? A Korean diplomat, who was stationed in Japan for a long time, wrote a very persuasive book in Japanese, contrasting the two different cultures of Korea and Japan: Park, Seun Moo, ‘Sunbi’ (humanity scholar-poet-politician) and ‘Samurai’ (sword man-scholar-politician), 20 Tokai University, Japan (2004).One aspect of contrast can be seen between emotive idealism and cool headed pragmatism. And there are some scholars and businessme n in Korea who can harness the Korean passion and emotive energy into the productive Korean style business management: Lee, Myun-woo, â€Å"Create W theory of Korea, 1969† (as oppose to McGregor’s X theory and Y theory and Okuchi’s Z theory or Americanized Japanese theory) and Lee, Chang-woo, â€Å"Han Management, 1992† (Harness Long suppressed emotion, Han, 1994) Chin, Dae-jae, â€Å"Manage Passion, 2006† The secret also lies in the American style competitive compensation system.In the words of Mr. Lee: â€Å"The incentive system is the greatest invention of the century, turning the tide favorably for capitalism, vis-a-vis socialism† where the top managers’ annual income is roughly several times higher than that of the comparable top managers in Korea, and the system runs down throughout the Samsung system to the very bottom. Cho, Tu Sup and Yoon, Chong Sup’s joint work narrates the learning and maturity process of Samsungâ₠¬â„¢s technological capability. The work is descriptive of the past track, but it is limited in causal analysis.However, the strategy of technological capacity has been the core of the Samsung organizational learning in the age of globalization, â€Å"the first comer takes all. † â€Å"There is no place for the second comers,†-all translated into the catch phrase—increase the number of the world best products. Also, Samsung observers do not fail to mention the golden triangle of Mr. Lee, Kun Hee, the Center for Structural Realignment, and the outstanding abilities of elite top management groups, as the source of the Samsung transformation from the Korea best to the global best.But Japanese observers tend to put more emphasis on the outstanding leadership of ex CEO Lee, Kun Hee. There are at least three books published by a group of Korean journalists and a writer. They are â€Å"Samsung Rising: Why Samsung Electronics is Strong,† (2002, Hankuk Economic Da ily) â€Å"Lee, Kun Hee,† by Hong, Ha Sung (2003, Hankuk Economic Daily), covering the period immediately after the Samsung Spectacular Performance between 1999 – 2002, and a slightly critical autobiography by Kang, Jung Man, titled â€Å"Lee, Kun Hee’s Era,† reflecting increasing criticism of Mr.Lee because of a †no union policy† and a suspected immoral deal in the process regarding his property inheritance for his son, etc. (2005, Personality and Thought) 21 What has Samsung achieved in the process of organizational transformation that made a paradigm shift to facilitate an essential part of the Korean-style management? In other words, what kind of model or models could be applied to explain the transformation processes of Samsung Electronics and Samsung Group? There are at least three models, which can explain the change process of Samsung.These are: Strategy models such as R&D strategy and core competence models. Organizational theory mode ls such as HRM, leadership, learning and culture Knowledge management model But each of these models can only provide a partial explanation of the dynamic processes of organizational transformation within the Samsung Group. Strategy models: R&D strategy and core competence model: There is the effect of equifinality, one of the concepts of General Systems Theory and/or contemporary complexity theory) in most of the successful firms’ strategies and outcomes.All the global leaders have similar strategies in the large framework of aspiration towards global leadership. The question is, how does one attain them. Almost every Chebol group with better technological leadership adopted a similar strategy when South Korea signed the WTO membership in 1992, but only Samsung has reached the goal(s). The simple contrast cannot explain the dynamics behind the quantum leap of Samsung from a developing nation status to the advanced nation status of Sony, Erickson, and Motorola, the establishe d leaders of the industrialized countries.Samsung can be better compared to the NEC case of 1980’s vis-a-vis GTE. C. K Prabalad and Gary Hamel (Harvard Business Review, 1990) observed that top executives will be judged on their ability to identify, cultivate, and exploit core competencies that make growth possible. And Mr. Lee is the right person in that capacity for Samsung. GTE 1980 Sale 1988 Sale $9. 98 billion $16. 48 billion NEC $3. 8 billion $21. 89 billion 22 In 1988, GTE has become a telephone operating company with a position in defense and lighting.GTE has divested Sylvania TV and Telenet and put switching, transmission, and digital PABX into joint ventures. In the same year NEC has emerged as a world leader in semiconductors, consolidated a position in mobile telephones, facsimiles, laptop and mainframe computers. As early as in 1970, NEC communicated her strategic intent of computer and communication convergence (C&C) both internally and externally. The NECâ€℠¢s strategy has been adopted by most South Korean firms as the Government proclaimed in 1983, the 1st year of the Korean Information Age.Samsung Group has concentrated her whole effort towards the strategic intent of â€Å"world best† and â€Å"increase number of world best products. † It’s organizational culture is simplified in this precise catch phrase and readily communicated to every corner of the system. According to the authors Prahalad and Hamet, The most powerful way to prevail in the global competition in the ‘80’s were top executives’ ability to restructure, de-clutter, and de-layer their corporation, but in the ‘90’s on, they will be judged on their ability to identify, cultivate, and exploit the core competencies that make growth possible.And this was exactly what Mr. Lee did since the beginning of his chairmanship. Samsung’s successful transformation in the last decade or more can be explained from successful organizational change and innovation model and/or leadership model and/or strategy of core competence building model and/or knowledge management model and more. But it can be enveloped into organizational learning, centering on transformation of organizational culture and cultivation of core competence. Some observers attested that Jack Welch started from restructuring to reform of organizational culture, but Mr.Lee went the other way around because the very unfavorable Korean socio-cultural environment and the 1997 IMF crisis have facilitated the process. Now under Mr. Lee, Kun Hee the leadership of the new Korean management style is a blend of both Japanese and American styles of external labor market and differential compensation and no life long employment, with the element of Silicon Valley’s revolutionary spirit. And it is also actively benchmarked by many Korean firms, as observed by Professor Lee Byung Chul (2002).There are indications that Japan, too, is groping rel uctantly towards a new model. 23 After all, many aspects of the Japanese cultural model can be considered as a reflection of globally small firms in the stage of rapid growth, rather than the uniqueness of the culture. A new approach is recommended to tap â€Å"culture† holistically and longitudinally instead of by simple snapshot of two firms for better causal explanation as practiced by political scientists, communication scientists, and sociologists relying on secondary sources of data too. Samsung leadership under Mr.Lee has gone through a systematic, dynamic, organic and nonlinear process of leadership of strategic or targeted organizational learning centering on core competence building. In the global arena, prevailing firms are mutually inspired by a competitive mutual benchmarking process among the world best firms. And it is observed that, of late, Samsung and Toyota are mutually benchmarking. (Lee, Chae Yun, 2006) Recently, Mr. Lee stated, in the presidential meetin g of Samsung corporations, â€Å"we don’t need top executives who are copying someone else’s ideas and strategies†. As many of our products are in the leading positions in the global market, we lost the target to benchmark or imitate. Samsung must strive towards a unique and differentiated creative management. † â€Å"With negotiation on FTA with U. S. A. for an accelerated domestic market opening and with China making a big stride in the global market, we are faced with both crises and opportunities. We must discover and cultivate a creative management system and creative personnel. † (Hankyung Economic daily, June 28, 2006) As many observers have attested, Samsung Electronic has the elements of GE and Toyota.It is natural that any firm among the global leaders would attempt to benchmark the best practices for the best performing companies. But one should not overlook the fact that there is an organic approach in the Samsung word â€Å"fusion. â⠂¬  Technological capability advancement, strategies of marketing and finance, and the process to convert into market taste of design are simultaneously used to break through the barriers of bureaucracy, or the tyranny of the small business unit, as written by Prabalad and Hamel (1990). Bureaucracy is the greatest invention of the Industrial Revolution.The founding fathers of economics and sociology, Adam Smith and Max Weber, respectively, described the merits in an elaborated manner: specialization and division of labor. How to retain the merits of the system and at the same time reduce the inherent problems of delay and red tape? In 1992, Mr. Lee was awarded the Korean Management Prize 24 of the Year at Korea University by the largest Korean business professor’s academy, The Korean Association of Business Administration. In his acceptance speech, Mr. Lee said in a slow and hesitant voice, â€Å"I was once approached by a Japanese engineer at Kimpo Airport.He said that Sam sung Electronic developed a high quality DRAM no sooner than the time when the Japanese rivaling company announced its own development. Our production was 6 months delayed by Samsung’s inner paperwork. So, for the next time, I assembled every concerned party so that we could announce the next generation chip simultaneously with the world big leaders, and eventually we beat them. † This was exactly the way how the late President Park handled the problems by regularly holding the Blue House Expanded Presidential Export Expansion meetings.Quite a few Japanese specialists on Samsung have observed that Samsung’s strength lies in the fact that Lee, Kun Hee’s term of office is indefinite, allowing him a free hand to delve into long range opportunities and strategic visions, while the Japanese CEO’s term of office lasts only 2-3 years, on average. This reminds us of the similar observations made by American scholars in the ‘70’s and ‘80â €™s. The Japanese CEOs were obligated to satisfy the major shareholders, the bank, whereas the American CEOs had to satisfy shareholders every year.However one should take note of the Samsung golden triangle in terms of its dynamics. Kang, Woo-ran, SERI (2006) conducted a survey to find that the Korean firms with Owner CEO- Professional managers combination out-achieved, as compared with Professional CEO only model or Owner CEO only model between 1986 and 2004. Michael Porter (1996 2004) suggested that the often acclaimed strategy of Japanese management was nothing but operational effectiveness. The Japanese businessman quickly caught up with the American businessman in a relatively short time span, between the 1960’s and 1980’s.In the process, Japanese firms exhibited core competence and accompanying Japanese best practices. They were recaptured by the American scholars in the form of new management theories: Total quality management, 6 sigma management, MIS netwo rk linked inventory-delivery systems, lean management and restructuring, knowledge management, benchmarking, organizational learning, to name a few. So the Japanese firm’s comparative advantages have been shared by many global firms in a slightly differentiated manner. 25 4.Culture, Goal Oriented Communication (Leadership) and A Fast Growing Organization, Samsung Electronics Samsung Electronics’, the centerpiece of the Samsung group, market value was only 420,680 million won in 1987 when ex CEO Lee, Kun Hee assumed the chairmanship. Ten years later in 1997, it was 3,996,909. 66 million won or roughly 950% increase. That is not bad. But from that time on, there has been a steep ascending of the market value of 12,179% increase of 91,671,138. 128 million won in 2007. One would naturally be tempted to ask, â€Å"What happened to the leadership of the first 10 years with ex-chairrman Lee, Kun Hee? Sams u ng Electro nics Market V alu e (1,000w o n) 12 0,00 0,0 00,0 00 10 0 ,00 0,0 00,0 00 80 ,00 0,00 0,0 00 60 ,00 0,00 0,0 00 40 ,00 0,00 0,0 00 20 ,00 0,00 0,0 00 Name 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Name Samsung Electronics Market Value (Unit 1,000 won equals roughly 1 to 1. 30 US Dollars) 1983 63,350,000 1989 1,640,470,000 1984 76,950,000 1990 1,318,439,793 1985 137,500,000 1991 1,328,438,858 1980 41,440,000 1986 308,000,000 1992 1,587,069,540 1987 981 59,500,000 1988 1982 64,400,000 420,680,000 1993 1,020,330,990 1994 6,272,521,240 3,013,541,426 1995 9,052,186,755 2001 44,932,513,615 2006 1996 3,579,480,030 2002 51,542,526,788 2007 1997 3,996,909,660 2003 73,785,248,588 1998 10,918,438,172 2004 73,174,129,278 1999 44,086,251,261 2005 108,281,475,740 2000 25,544,557,299 26 2006 0 101,254,538,541 91,671,138,128 Key Figures Representing Changes in Samsung Group in 20 Years Unit Sales Trillion Won 1987 17 2006 152 Ratio 8. 9 Profit Tax Before 0. 27 14. 2 52 . 8 Market Value 1 140 140Export 9 663 73. 7 Brand Value 100 dollars million None 169 (2007) N/A Number of Employees 10,000 men 16 25 1. 6 Source: Samsung Greoup PA Office Materials, Feb. , 2008. Scanning through the observervations made of Samsung Electronics’ rapid growth, one factor clearly emerges–the ex-CEO Lee, Kun Hee’s leadership as the success factor including his bold and swift large scale investment decisions at key junctures: When there was a debate over DRAM and SRAM, it was Lee, Kun Hee’s decision concerning DRAM, difficult to develop, but with he promise of a greater potential market. And the decision turned out to be a very wise one. When Samsung started to build Kiheung semiconductor lines, it was completed in 6 months while similar lines would take one year and a half in the overseas cases. Chang, Sang Soo (2005) observed that Samsung Group has gone through 4 stages of growth in an accelerated pace based on superb leadership of ex-CEO Le e Kun Hee and superb corporate culture of upper managements’ shared value: â€Å"a single mind towards a single goal. It indicates that Samsung’s global technological capability development has been possible due to the transformation of corporate culture as one of the pillars of Samsung global competence. So the leadership in transforming the Samsung culture and core competence by Lee Kun Hee has created the paradigm shift. 27 To understand Lee Kun Hee’s leadership, the comparison of first and second generation corporate culture is in order. Over the years, Mr. Lee, Byung Chul an ardent Japan learner had shaped Samsung as a rational bureaucratic model under a fragile and protective Korean economy.Korea did not have any capital, so the government obtained good quality loans and grants from the USA, West Germany, Japan, and World economic organizations, and in turn provided loans to selected Korean firms under the condition that the firms use the funds to set up industries within the guideline of the Government Plans. The interest rates were at international level, but the Korean market bank loan rate was several times higher under the high inflation rate, and thus the economic developmental loans were highly covetous in Korea.And this is one of the sources of the blame on the Chaebol and rich families receiving the governmental special favor, or the politician-capitalists corruption suspicion to date. Having neither technological nor managerial capabilities, most Korean firms exploited the cheap labor from the agricultural sector, at the same time attempting to build scale economy as sources of international competition emphasizing quantity in light industry and new and primitive petro-chemical and heavy industry. And Mr. Lee, Kun Hee emphasized quality over quantity in his first statement soon after his chairmanship inauguration.Against such backdrops, Chang, Sang Soo compared the first generation and second generation corporate culture a s follows: Change of Samsung Core Values First Generation Corporate Culture (1938-1987) (1988 – 1993. 3) Second Generation Corporate Culture 1993. 3- to date Second Founding Father’s Doctrine(1993) Dedicate to the human society through the best Founding Father’s Doctrine (1973) Contribute to nation through business Put priority on human resources Seek rationality Samsung Spirit (1984) Creativity High ethical standard Be Number one in the nation Perfectionism Co-prosper anpower, technology and the best services Samsung Spirit (1993) Co-prosper with customers Challenge to the world Create future Core Value (2005) Priority on human resources Aspire to be the best Leader of change Righteous business management 28 Co-prosper Principles of Management (2006) Stick to principles of law and ethics Maintain clean corporate culture Principles of Business Management Respect customers, stockholders and employees Respect environment, safety and health Fulfill social responsib ility as a corporate citizenFrom the chart, we can examine the Samsung aspiration to be the leader of the industrial age in the first generation founding father’s culture of rational bureaucracy, and the transformation of the second founding father’s culture as the leader of the globalization and digital and/or knowledge economy. In a similar vein, reporters from DongA Daily Newspaper depicted the change of corporate culture as follows: Change of Samsung Corporate Culture Past Minimizes Risk Taking New InvestmentPresent Put Emphasis on Taking a New opportunity Failure Decides after a Through Internal Decision Making Down Power Strong Management Management Management Staff Step Aside from the Operational Staff Decision Control size Delegated Decision First recognizing Investigation Culture Staff of Making while Financial System is Retained Conservative Emphasizes Process Rationality in Every Detail DongA Daily Newspaper, June 4, 2004 Image Evaluation Emphasizes Speed Em phasizes the Outcome Mr. Lee, Kun Hee has received thorough CEO training from his father for 21 years before taking over the position.He and his father-in-law, a lawyer and owner of ChoongAng Mass Communication, were ever present at his father’s staff meeting, usually during lunch hours. He could not retire from his office until he personally confirmed that his father was in bed. Mr. Lee, Byung Chul had chosen Mr. Lee Kun 29 Hee, the third son, against the conventional Korean tradition of passing the reins onto the eldest son, because the first son had a grave disagreement with his father. The second son was talented in business, but Mr.Lee Kun Hee was more futuristically oriented, even forcefully starting his own hi-tech venture in the early days when Korean technology was at an infantile stage.. Leadership Styles Compared: Mr. Lee, Kun Hee went through CEO training from his father, but his leadership style is so different from his father, though sharing some similarities. M r. Lee, Byung Chul emphasized the importance of personnel management and human resources, and he also mentioned that 80% of management dealt with the question of how to manage persons.He personally participated in the recruitment process in examination problems and personnel interviews, and at times, personally selected topics for group discussion in the screening process. Mr. Lee, Kun Hee expanded the inner labor market of selection and promotion systems to open system for the external labor market in recruiting outstanding personnel and managers. His father, a strict time keeper, who enjoyed talking, was concerned with every detail of the Business operation. His father practiced regular walks around management and was strict in awarding prizes and punishment for the subordinates.In contrast, Mr. Lee, Kun Hee is a good listener and often repeatedly asked, â€Å"why? why? why? † He rarely came to his office in the company building and mostly delegated his authority to his pro fessional top managers, and confined himself mostly in his electronic fortress called Seungjiwon, modeled after Microsoft CEO Bill Gates’ work place/residence, and developed long range visions of strategies for Samsung, specializing in a comprehensive and long range gatekeeper role. His organizational management has a flavor of human touch. He is a night worker and his sleeping hours are irregular.Although he confined himself in Seungjiwon, he gets instantaneous high qu

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Final Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 2

Final - Essay Example The report also contains the objectives of business according to the social, economical, technological and political factors influencing the business. The objective for the competitive position of the business is also defined. The report will also define the segments which need to be addressed by the Apollo group in order to enhance its business. Apollo Group headquartered in the US has a multinational network of institutes. The main aim of formation of the Apollo group was to cater the education needs of working adults. The group undertakes its business through subsidiaries. Listing few of them are: the University of Phoenix having its online campus also, the College for Financial Planning, and Western International University etc. The courses offered at the institutes are innovatively designed according to the needs of 21st century. Apollo Group experienced improved financial performance in 2008 having consolidated net income of $476.5 million, or $2.87 per diluted share, on consolidated revenue of $3.1 billion, a 15% increase. The degree enrolments reached at the record highest levels at 362,100 which were 12% more than 2007. The Group is progressing through its aggressive marketing techniques and continuous expenditure on research and development in the field of new teaching techniques. The group has gained accreditation with the prestigious Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP). SWOT or strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis is a technique used by business analysts to identify and analyze environmental factors that influence a business organization’s performance in a variety of ways, including its decision making and corporate behavior (Mello, 2003, p.40). â€Å"The Threats-Opportunities-Weaknesses-Strengths (TOWS) Matrix is an important matching tool that helps managers develops four types of strategies: So Strategies, WO strategies, ST Strategies, and WT Strategies. SWOT analysis enables the organization

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

American Revoloutinary Way in New Jersey and how New Jersey's Research Paper

American Revoloutinary Way in New Jersey and how New Jersey's Geographic Location play a huge role in the war - Research Paper Example New Jersey also called the crossroads of the American Revolution for it is located at the central position of the new nation and acted as the military capital. However, it was not all of the people of the New Jersey who vividly advocated foe independence. The British was joined by African slaves who were promised freedom, for example, colonel Tye who was a slave after escaping and joining the British army which lead to regular raids against the people of New Jersey. During this time of American Revolution, the New Jersey community was made up of extremely diverse cultural groups of who were not equally distributed over the colony’s land surface. These social groups were difficult for the British to unite them, since every social group occupied different and distinct area. Additionally, the culture defined the way of life which affected the people activities and also the landscapes made by man that can be identified by means of their traits and characteristics complexes this ma de completely governing the colony very difficult for the British since every group had a different form of dwelling preferred by various groups in New Jersey this made New Jersey difficult to unite it war since it would cripple the British in the Americans economy hence an able to support the fight (Fischer, pp 45 262). New Jersey also was an important area which was used to disrupt British supply units. George Washington used forts on the Delaware River where he could mount an attack British supply troop as they sailed to Philadelphia. It was organized that men in whale boats crossed the Hudson and then raided New York city and long island and then captured the shipping that were to be taken to sandy hook where they used New Yolk harbor as the staging area. Additionally, ships that were located at Southern Jersey port raided British ships at the entrance point. Jersey also provided iron products for

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 2 SS Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT 2 SS - Essay Example The Bendigo bank in Tambellup and Cranbrook is one such kind of social enterprise, rising from humble beginnings to give the two communities their identity. The creation of the community bank is attributable to two individuals, Vicki Brown and Jan Pope, after facing several challenges; they rode on motivating points to spearhead the creation of this bank in their respective community. Overcoming the Feat: Challenges and Motivations they faced. They were motivated by the lack of proper banking services that catered for the needs of the rural community, while listening to a certain show; they reaffirmed Louise Petschler’s concern over poor banking in the country. According to the latter, banking services had deteriorated to the extent that they had failed to provide fair and affordable basic services, additionally, they were providing these at high costs and with poor customer services while closing community branches. CHALLENGES The initiative by Vicki and Jane is typically a c ommercial interest although with a social context, they face numerous legal, financial, management and development challenges that a typical commercial business faces. However, due to the unique communal premise that the business is built upon, they face a considerably different set of challenges than a typical business faces (Fayolle and Harry 8). The key challenges that Vicki Brown and Jan Pope faced were stakeholder participation, balancing of their key objectives, raising finance, and recruitment of professional staff and expert advice Stakeholder participation The key stakeholders in this initiative were the 700 and 1100 members of community for the two towns Tambellup and Cranbrook respectively. Furthermore, the Bendigo Bank was an important participant in the process, this because the community bank would be a franchise of their own establishment. The process of convincing people to contribute money to investing in an enterprise that was yet to be created proved to be a daunt ing task to the two and the steering committee that was in charge of the launch. They were apprehensive that the failure of the business would subject to guilt and a lot of burden. The rural community who were to be bank’s customers was concerned about the confidentiality of their financial information; this was expeditiously addressed by the concerned parties. Pessimism that the locals had over the future of the bank coupled with the show that ABC was running at that time concerning failures of local initiatives. Balancing Key Objectives Vicki and Jan had noted that the agricultural communities in their small towns were being inconvenienced as they were forced to travel long distance to undertake this important service. The lack of facilities in the area affected several businesses in the area and not merely these two major sectors of the area’s economy; an estimated $26,000 was being lost per week to other towns. Any community initiative must strive to balance two ke y objectives, achieve the social purpose for which it was initiated and operate as a sustainable commercial entity (Kickul and Sophie 219). The problem the two initiators faced were the way in which to balance these two objectives. On the other hand, they worried that if the bank performed the first function

Monday, August 26, 2019

Cardiovascular safety of NSAIDa Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Cardiovascular safety of NSAIDa - Essay Example As analgesics, NSAIDs are strange in that they are non-narcotic and thus are used as a non-addictive alternative to narcotics (Sundaram, 2014) The most common members of this group of drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen are all available over the counter in most countries. Acetaminophen (parecetamol) is not considered an NSAID because it has only little anti-inflammatory activity. It treats pain mainly by blocking COX-2 mostly in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body.NSAIDs work by inhibiting the activities of both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). They achieve their function by synthesizing prostaglandins and thromboxanes (Hughes, 2008 p. 100). It is believed that inhibiting COX-2 leads to the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. It has been discovered that, those NSAIDs that inhibit COX-1, particularly aspirin, may cause gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers. For this reason, the use COX-2 selective inhibitors may be preferred to COX-1 inhibiting NSAIDs. This paper will, therefore, primarily focus on the cardiovascular safety or effect of such NSAI Ds. According to John Vane (1927-2004), in his Nobel-winning works â€Å"the Mechanism of action of aspirin† he elevated that, most NSAIDs act as nonselective inhibitors by targeting enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) (Bruera & Portenoy, 2009 p. 271). They achieve their goal by inhibiting both the isoenzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Most of this inhibition caused by NSAIDs is competitively reversible (although at fluctuating degrees of reversibility), except the mechanisms of aspirin, which is irreversible inhibition. COX more specifically works as it catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid (a compound that is derived from the cellular phospholipid bilayer by phospholipase A2). Prostaglandins act among other things as messenger molecules in the process of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Emotional and Physical Symptoms of Depression during Pregnancy And Research Paper

Emotional and Physical Symptoms of Depression during Pregnancy And Different Ways of Treatment - Research Paper Example While most pregnant mothers use antidepressants to manage prenatal and postnatal depression, this study proposes other significant measures that can do better that antidepressants. The method for this research is a mixed method approach. The qualitative part of the study is observation and interviews while the quantitative part is considering the number of patients presenting symptoms in different health centers for a period of one year. Statistical analysis of the data obtained would help in determining the prevalence of depression in pregnancy. There is evidence suggesting that women have a higher prevalence of suffering fro depression during pregnancy. The fact that this presents adverse effects to the mothers places emphasis on the need for addressing the issue. Cases of pregnant mothers suffering from depression and stress are likely to reduce in the events of increased awareness on the contributing factors of stress and the necessary measures to curb them. In order to solve this, the health sector should find appropriate treatment for pregnancy depression. Pregnancy depression refers to a mental situation of pregnant mothers, whereby they are sad and feel they do not want to do anything. The present research paper will aid in highlighting the common symptoms of pregnancy depression and the appropriate treatment measures that pregnant mothers should take into account to address this problem. Accordinmg to the World Health Organization, pregnancy depression is currently an epidemic affecting many mothers across the world. Most pregnant mothers are highly affected by prenatal and postnatal depression. Since pregnancy depression is not â€Å"protective†, adequate treatment is necessary for pregnant mothers. Most pregnant mothers do not understand the necessary appropriate measure to address this issue and therefore, this field needs further research to educate mothers on how to cope with such

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Investigate the Iconography in the Work of John Singleton Copley Term Paper

Investigate the Iconography in the Work of John Singleton Copley - Term Paper Example The image is intended to convey some messages to the viewers through its facial expression. The pictorial likeness of the face of the image is of utmost concern (LightPoseGuide, para.3). It could also be kept in some gallery to pass some information onto the future generations. As such, it is necessary that the artist design a portrait that has some facial expression. The image should be natural to enable the observer develop a logical eyesight towards the intended meaning. Iconography is concerned with the symbolic nature of the portraits or any other artistic images. It is the study of the themes expressed in visual arts and their hidden meanings (Straten, 3). It involves identifying and providing a description of the contents of a given portrait. This then leads to an interpretation of what the contents imply in relation to the subject of the work (Straten, 3). This paper presents an iconographic examination of Watson and the Shark, a piece of work by John Singleton Copley, the ei ghteenth and nineteenth century American artist who later moved to London where he died. The symbolic nature of this and other works by the artist is examined. The artist is seen to have brought a significant impact on the nature of the American and British portraiture. John Singleton Copley’s Background John Singleton Copley is an American painter born in Boston in 1938 of an Irish immigrant into the US (Olga’s Gallery, para.1). At the age of ten, his father died and the mother, Mary Singleton Copley, was married to another man by the name Peter Pelham in the same year. The stepfather contributed significantly to the early education of Copley. He was a teacher as well as an engraver, and so Copley learned a lot when he worked at the stepfather’s shop. While working there, he learned various skills involved in engraving and developed relations with various painters in Boston (Olga’s Gallery, para.2). The stepfather also died within three years and Copley was forced to continue learning the art of engravings on his own. Copley began to paint portraits at the tender age of fifteen years. Even though these early works were seen to be immature with no proper facial expressions, the efforts of the artist could not be mistaken owing to his tender age (Olga’s Gallery, para.3). The artist borrowed elements from works from America and Europe. He interacted with more artists from Europe and other parts of the world that led to rapid development in his artistic skills. He was invited to various exhibitions in the colonial America and Canada, most of which he turned down. In 1766, Copley attended the exhibition of the Incorporated Society of Artists, where he gained fame among the public in England (Olga’s Gallery, para.8). His first work presented at the exhibition impressed different people and he was accepted into the society of artists in the country. The artist had further creative and innovative developments and moved to var ious counties with his home based in London. He developed portraits of important persons in the colonial New England. Most of his works are kept in the National Gallery at Washington, D.C. Copley later died in his home in London in 1815 following a stroke (Olga’s Gallery, para.21). Watson and the Shark, 1778 The works of Copley could be a regarded as an important milestone in the American portraiture. Ideally, the portraits

Friday, August 23, 2019

Use of Fear Appeal Messages in Advertising Essay

Use of Fear Appeal Messages in Advertising - Essay Example A harmonious and catchy tune ensures that the brand remains synonymous with people’s wishes and desires of the product that is being discussed. It also guarantees that it remains close to their heart and thus associations are built with the brand whenever there is some form of linkage with the brand in one way or the other. Another effect that can be had from these messages is that they build a solid and heart warming relationship with the consumers and the rapport is rock solid when it comes to the potential users of the brand. The message is a significant milestone in the marketing communications philosophy. This dissertation aims to investigate the basis of the research aspects related with fear messages that are incorporated into the advertising world of today and how they connect with the target and potential audiences on a one to one level. It will study the shock form of advertising and thus would look to manifest the basis for its plus points as well as the downsides. This is done so as to find a common ground that needs to be reached in order to meet a point of significance for the fear messages that are being published in different media vehicles and types. This would assist everyone related with the research of such messages on a global level and hence a lot of incentives could be drawn up for brands and/or organizations. These brands and/or organizations are the ones considering these people are thinking on the lines of investing on fear form of messages for the particular brands and/or organizations. Also, the ethical and moral constructs would be discussed so as to give the other side of the picture – a side taken by the societal norms, values and belief hierarchy. The conclusions and recommendations that could be drawn from the analysis of the research done on the fear aspect of messages in advertising is that they are beneficial for the brands and/or

Family Structure and Support Issues in the US and the Egypt Essay

Family Structure and Support Issues in the US and the Egypt - Essay Example As a result, these two societies have different settings for marriage. In Egypt, marriage has remained to be a social contract between two people from the opposite sex without underestimating the place of polygamy (Amos & Howard 2). On the other hand, marriage in the USA can be defined as the union between two parties of the same or either sex. Divorce in Egypt discredits one of their social standings while in the USA one gets viewed like a hero (Abrams 61). Nevertheless, divorce exists in both societies.  American culture got created out of a mixture of people, the majority being Christians, this gets evidenced by the national holidays of the USA and also in the national anthem. Egypt, on the other hand, is formed by a majority of Muslims. Religion governs a people's political, economic, legal and personal lives (Wertenbruch 43). The American culture is thus more of the German culture than it is of the Egyptian culture since Germany got founded on a Christian religion. There are a number of similarities between, German and American cultures. To begin with music, folklore, dressing and literature are all affiliated with each other. Secondly, the two also share values and norms (Lepenies 39). The American value system got founded on investment more than any other country it can be characterized by, efficiency, neatness and cleanliness, volunteer- ship and honesty. Egypt on her side upholds a value system characterized by integrity, transparency, unity, and hard work.... Divorce in Egypt discredits one of their social standing while in the USA one get viewed like a hero (Abrams 61). Nevertheless, divorce exists in both societies. Question 3 American culture got created out of a mixture of people, majority being Christians, this get evidenced by the national holidays of the USA and also in the national anthem. Egypt, on the other hand, is formed by a majority of Muslims. Religion governs a people's political, economic, legal and personal lives (Wertenbruch 43). The American culture is thus more of the German culture than it is of the Egyptian culture since Germany got founded on a Christian religion. There are a number of similarities between, German and American cultures. To begin with music, folklore, dressing and literature are all affiliated to each other. Secondly, the two also share values and norms (Lepenies 39). The American value system got founded on investment more than any other country it can be characterized by, efficiency, neatness and cleanliness, volunteer- ship and honesty. Egypt on her side upholds a value system characterized with integrity, transparency, unity, and hard work. Question 4 A secular society has no state religion. A secular society is heterogeneous and highly individualistic. Statistics show that America has all religions inclusive of atheists. A sacred society on the contrary is one that has a state religion and is primarily homogeneous, perfect examples of sacred societies are Vatican and Madina (Allen 77). During the time of ousting Hussein Mubarak, all people in Egypt participated but due to the extent of religion women live with deprived freedom. For instance, women cannot make decisions for themselves even unto a lifetime spouse in marriage. To expound on the extent of religion in Egypt is the