Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Health Cruises Homework Essay

1. What is the minimum number of passengers Health Cruises must sign up by November 20th to break even? *Fixed costs = $220,000 (Ship rental and crew) + $65,000(initial advertisement expense) +$10,000(administrative expense) = $295000 *Contribution per unit = $1500 -$200 = $1300 *Breakeven point (in units)= 295000/1300 = 226.92 : At least 227 passengers should sign up for Health Cruises by November 20th. 2. Should Health Cruises go ahead with the cruise since 200 people have signed up by November 14th? Why or why not? : Though I concede that Health Cruises do not reach the break-even point and is very likely to make loss at this situation, I suggest them to keep running this trip from a long term perspective. The company should not consider only financial issue in operating business and miss an opportunity to make huge profits and create new spectrum of service. If Health Cruise efficiently proceed this trip and offer fine quality of service to these 200 passengers, this package cruises would go famous through word of mouth and gain effective advertising effect. Also, the company can better understand the operating system of its product and reconstruct its business and financial system to make profit. Therefore, instead of losing enormous amount of fixed costs by cancelling this whole cruise, I believe Health Cruises should present its product regardless of its current financial stat us. 3. The advertising agency has proposed two alternative campaigns to help fill the boat. One will cost $6000 and the other would cost $15,000. Which would you suggest? *Breakeven point including = 295000+6000/1300 = 232 another ads cost $6,000(in units) * Breakeven point including = 295000+15000/1300 = 239 another ads cost $15,000(in units) : I suggest the corporation to choose the campaign that costs $15,000 since, as calculation shown above proves, it has higher possibility of bringing enough number of passengers to exceed breakeven point in units and earn profit. 4. Should Health Cruises consider cutting its prices for this trip? Why or why not? What other factors could impact the go/no-go decision in addition to the break even? : The corporation should not cut its price for this trip because considering the fixed and variable costs its current price which ranges from $1500 to $2200 seems reasonable and at this point where this trip is the first product presenting and only 200 passengers signed up for it, we cannot guarantee that enough number of passengers would come to make profit even if we drop the price. Moreover, Health cruises should consider other internal and external factors to make this trip successful such as other ways to reduce its fixed and variable cost, its competitors’ prices and products and nation’s economic status.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Classical Humanism and Architecture Essay

INTRODUCTION Classical humanism in architecture is a direct reflection of a human quest of self-realization through ages. As for the recorded evidences one can go back to the periods of Plato, Zeno, Epicurus or Aristotle – the period reigned by Greco-Roman philosophers – when this quest of ‘know thyself’ flourished and established itself as a philosophy to woo the future generations. Thus this essay takes a quick look to expressions of classical humanism through the wonderful architectural remains of Acropolis that contains the signs of evolution in architecture too – before coming into its own conclusion. Classical Division of Greco-Roman Architecture The period in discussion contains three distinctive division of architecture, viz. , Doric, Ionic and Corinthian order. Doric could be termed as the mainstream architecture of Greece, which later gave way to Ionic and Corinthian order, where each of them can be identified through their different finishes at the sections like cornice, frieze, architrave, capital, shaft and base. Out of them two styles still co habit in Acropolis – Parthenon and Erechtheum, while the third, belonging to Roman era, has two of its bright examples in the ‘Temple of the Sybil’ in Rome or in the Charlotte City Hall (Shulman). Classical Humanism It can be identified as the improvised state of early Greek Humanism (1200-750 B. C. ), when the Greeks had evolved with the concept of arete (human excellence), where the guiding elements were â€Å"courage, loyalty, generosity, mercy, dignity, decency, honor, stoicism and strength† (Sunami, 2004). Gradually the depiction of these elements as virtues took shape in architectural details besides other modes of expressions like drama, painting or writing, where a realistic approach dominated the proceedings. It is because of that the human-centered sculptures done by them or the details in their architecture attempts to create near-perfect depiction of figures. Parthenon In spite of its present dilapidated state, Parthenon (447-432 B. C.), the home of Greek goddess Athena Perthenos (the ‘Virgin Athena’) is easily the best example of both Doric architecture and Humanism, where its simple columns and the detailed human figures would reflect a ‘plain living and high thinking’ philosophy. In fact, the Doric architecture relied much on the solidity rather than frills, which is evident in its many expressions, like the shafts of its overall 46 columns or their capitals and friezes besides cornices. As for humanism, it contained many figures, and especially the ‘metops’ (relief-works), which were altogether 92 in number, spread all around to depict the series of mythological events or the successful war ventures of the people of Athens. The near-accurate depiction of various muscuto-skeletal states of humans speaks of the deep thoughts applied by their creators. Erectheum Thereafter, the fascination with mathematics and geometry of the Greeks belonging to the period 500 B. C. – 30 B. C. , led to their advancement in architecture (Sunami, 2004) while maintaining their idea of humanism. A great example of such an evolution could be seen in Erectheum (421-405 B. C. ), which had replaced Doric architecture by Ionic order, a style developed in Ionia region of Greece. The six Ionic columns of its facade beholding six sculpted figures of maidens with large ‘bead and reel’ and ‘egg and dart’ moldings (Osborne), corroborates the fact. Corinthian Order Further departure from Doric is observed in Corinthian order of architectural style, where the capitals of its pillars started having â€Å"flowers and leaves below a small scroll† (Shulman), besides tweaking its shafts and cornices to establish a flattened look, altogether indicating evolution in both architecture and philosophy of humanism, where the later emphasized on nature more than before. CONCLUSION The philosophy of humanism or the trends in architecture are both never-ending subjects, but the wonderful episode of their togetherness in the early era sill serves as food for thoughts like ‘simplicity is the hallmark of elegance’ or ‘every instance of human existence is embedded with history, philosophy and nature’. Ends Works Cited Shulman, B. R. â€Å"Classical Orders. † Retrieved 20 December 2007, from http://www. cmhpf. org/kids/dictionary/ClassicalOrders. html Sunami, C. 2004. â€Å"History of Humanism. † Retrieved 20 December 2007, from http://kitoba. com/pedia/History+of+Humanism. html Osborne, R. â€Å"The Erechtheum†. Retrieved 20 December 2007, from http://www. jact. org/publications/sample_erechtheum. htm.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Importance of Physical Education at Schools Essay - 9

Importance of Physical Education at Schools - Essay Example Physical education is an integral part of elementary and high school curriculums further validating the importance of sports. The different parties involved in designing school curriculums take into consideration various factors, which when combined contribute to the holistic development of students. As such, students are encouraged to participate in extra-curricular activities such as sports and enrolling in different social clubs. Sports represent a more intensified form of physical education whereby students expel more energy and spend more time on practice with the aim of honing their skills in order to excel in competitions. Students who participate in sports competitively while in schools learn a wide range of life skills, which instructors might find difficult to teach in a classroom setting. For example, such students develop resilience, as they learn how to push themselves beyond their physical and psychological capabilities. Those who participate in team-oriented sporting a ctivities learn how to trust and rely on their teammates. In some cases, student-athletes who were previously introverted adjust their behaviors whereby they become socially active, as they frequently interact with their teammates and fans. In addition, students who participate in sports have a lower risk of developing health-related complications caused by leading a sedentary lifestyle. Obesity among students in the US remains an issue of concern. Competitive sports increases the student-athletes’ physical fitness level by increasing the efficiency of their metabolism levels. Through sports, exceptional athletes are able to access scholarship opportunities to further their education.  

Sunday, July 28, 2019

About Micro Economics Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

About Micro Economics - Research Proposal Example and also helps facing the competition developing in any market by focusing on the customers’ needs and the supply and demand issues (Starr, 2007; McNamara, 2008). The major steps involved in developing a strategic business plan include the identification of the time to make such plan. A strategic business plan can be developed anytime when the business expects any kind of restructuring or expansion and the future of the business comes to any questionable position. The strategic business plan also helps in analyzing the past and current operations of the business running successfully to determine the future improvements. The strategic business plan is helpful to protect business from running into the phase of crisis from a successful state (Hilty, n.d.). After deciding the need for developing strategic business plan the organization needs to analyze the situation outside the organization, i.e., the background information of the business focusing on the market situation, available resources, management system and the existing centers of profit. The analysis of cash flow and expenses, the data of debts and production costs, financial, capital an d labor efficiency, etc. makes the next step of strategic planning. This can best be done in strategic business planning through the SWOT analysis, i.e., the in depth investigation of the situation of the organization including identification of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. While strengths and weaknesses are the internal characteristics of a business the opportunities and threats are the external components which the organization itself does not have any control over. It is applicable in all business sectors when a very limited time is available to address a complex strategic situation. This step helps in providing a large amount of external and internal information relevant to the business situation and the aspects requiring immediate attention. These four aspects related to any business helps in

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Internet Companies Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Internet Companies - Case Study Example It has accorded both parties with increased cost-efficiency and has allowed greater expansion of business scope (PC Week, 1999). By means of more dovetailed customer centric approaches, competitive advantage has been redefined. For instance, data from consumers are being garnered by online vendors to be able to more effectively cater to their needs. The substantial information permits these entities to design high impact promotional strategies. E-trading has been effectual in leveraging on price (Munk, 1999). The notable availability and the ease of e-trading have been the features that lead to its acceptance and increasing popularity. Moreover, this suggests being very cost-efficient, obviating the need for overhead attributed to rent and labor. Cutthroat competition in brick and mortar businesses and the big fixed expenses have welcomed online trading (PC Week, 1999). The wide range of offerings in both products and service are welcomed and has won the loyalty of customers. The information that they have garnered from consumers online have also allowed sellers to optimize on cost. Another benefit has been the fact that it permits them to save much time (Mellahi & Johnson, 2000). It is for these reasons that sellers have seriously considered setting up online stores, resulting in the establishment of cybershops and many more of this kind (Mellahi & Johnson, 2000). ... These entities are involved with software, printed news, magazines, music, and film. Varied industries have also gone into the online retailing bandwagon in lieu of these benefits (Leong, 1999). The current study aims to describe the promotion and marketing differentiators of online companies that are utilized by online vendors which the consumers patronize. The following sub problems shall be addressed in the research: 1) What are the drivers of carrying out an online purchase' 2) How do consumers assess online sellers with which they have dealt with in terms of the following strategies: a) Ease of clicking a button rather than dialing a website number b) Varied products c) Wide market networks and synergistic partnerships d) Selling more digital instead of physical offerings e) Projecting oneself to be a well-renowned global brand f) Maintaining a good, long-term relationship with its on-line clients g) Having attractive promotional offers 3) Among these promotion strategies, which will garner significant correlations with consumer satisfaction in general' Review of Related Literature Online Strategies and Competitive Advantage Strategic frameworks have been integrated of late, especially those focusing on crises or situations with markedly high uncertainty. The ultimate goal was to avoid impending failure in such difficult circumstances (Urban, Carter, Gaskin, & Mucha, 1986). Conventionally, those who have become successful early on allow their long-term survival; in contrast, those who have failed in the beginning are likely to close shop early on. Such victory causes organization to uphold strategic HR practices (of

Friday, July 26, 2019

Relationship Marketing in Top UK Airlines Essay

Relationship Marketing in Top UK Airlines - Essay Example All three have a website on the Internet and accept booking online. EasyJet and Ryanair have put low prices over customer convenience, while British Airways continues to put service above price. In 2001, the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon reverberated throughout the world, especially with airlines because commercial aircraft were used in the attack. British Airways and other major airlines announced massive job cuts while the low-cost airlines surprisingly reported increased profits. Why would a company like easyJet outperform the giant British Airways Two possible reasons were development of deregulation and an open skies policy put into place which allowed low-cost airlines the freedom to compete with low 'no frills' prices (Discount airlines 2006). The idea was to eliminate unnecessary costs with customers paying much lower prices for tickets while giving up certain creature comforts (Welcome to Companion Website, 2001). The major reason for the success of low-cost airlines, however, was instituting marketing through the Internet, offering online booking for the first time. By 2002 Ryanair and easyJet had operating margins far above traditional airlines, including 45% more than British Airways. In the United States 270m people were utilizing 1000 low-fare jets with another couple of hundred on order. In Europe 410m shared 400 low-fare jets (Binggeli & Pompeo). While other low-fare airlines came and went, Ryanair and easyJet continued their popularity. By 2004, however, traditional carriers such as BA began to catch up to budget airlines. Intense competition and rising fuel prices caused plummeting share price at easyJet in May, and in an online analysis of the airline industry, it was found there was an increase in visitors to online sites for budget airlines, but traditional airlines showed a higher visitor rate (Cahill 2004), perhaps an indication of the growing connection between customers and business. In 2006, BA not only continues to be the leading international airline in the traditional market, it is surpassing the no-frills market with discoun ted prices and special deals through its web site. Customer satisfaction is a factor that leads to success in the current marketplace, and the airline that understands this will grow in popularity. Pros and Cons of Budget Airlines In the low-cost budget airline business, easyJet and Ryanair continue to be the largest companies in the European low-cost market. These pioneers were the first to utilise the Internet for online booking. They maximized assets by decreasing turn-around time at airports and ending free on-board catering. Ticketless travel and intensive use of information technology (IT) increased visibility (easyJet Case Study 2006). However, the major hubs that serve these airlines are Stanstet, Luton and Gatwick, not the most convenient airports. Wizzair and SkyEurope are new airlines in Central Europe flying into these hubs and are in competition with the low-cost British airlines. One

Global Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Global Economy - Essay Example This paper also argues that the global system of economic affairs is prone to repeated crises due to the nature of neoliberalism and capitalist forms of economic development throughout the globe, the following will explore the recent global economic crisis and compare it with the Great Depression of 1929. Accordingly, the current economic crisis shares many parallels with the economic crisis that occurred eighty years ago. This paper will look at the role of organizations such as the IMF in mitigating – although not hindering – the outbreak of the global economic crisis. The essay then concludes with an overview of the issues analysed (Harvey, 2007: 33-27). Planned capitalism, expressed through governmental economic intervention and the Bretton Woods Agreements of 1944, exploded during the 1970s. Bretton Woods, which established both the World Bank and the IMF, symbolised the supremacy of the United States in setting international monetary policy. Hobsbawm argues that these two international institutions were â€Å"de facto subordinated to US policy† (1994: 274). When the United States pulled out of the Bretton Woods monetary system in 1971 and allowed its currency to float in international markets, it caused a chain reaction with unexpected global ramifications. Currencies were devalued across the board and the United States, as well as its Western allies, was ill equipped to deal with the resulting oil embargo implemented by OPEC two years later. When OPEC, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, announced that it would no longer be shipping oil to countries that had supported Israel in its war with Egypt and Sy ria in 1973, it triggered an international calamity known as the Oil Crisis of 1973. The Yom Kippur War – as the war between Israel and the joint forces of Egypt and Syria in 1973 is now known – inadvertently led to a global economic crisis OPEC members

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Efficacy of Personal and Professional Communication Research Paper

Efficacy of Personal and Professional Communication - Research Paper Example Yet, application of its principles seems neglected in actual clinical set-ups. Although the efficacy of health care communications is disregarded by some, interpersonal and professional communication patterns play primary roles in enhancing quality services, connecting communication gaps, and preventing clinical practice errors. Interpersonal Health Communication Interpersonal communication functions as one of the main areas that need close scrutiny. In clinical settings, interpersonal contact means â€Å"provider-client communication,† which serves as the primary source of association (Schiavo, 2007). Accordingly, clients place their full trust on their clinical providers, in return, the medical staffs do their best to assure their clients’ condition--clients fully depend on health providers for support and treatment. Initially, clients seek health-related advice regarding their health status, establishing interpersonal contact between clients and health providers. In the process of medical consultation, health providers are accountable in exhibiting intellectual and psychological skills in handling their clients (Hubble, Trowbridge, Hubbard, Ahsens, & Ward-Smith, 2008). Part of basic function is forming personal relationship with clients during preliminary inquiry on physiological and psychological disposition. As this is a delicate matter, competent communication techniques must be exhibited by providers--draw out accurate and reliable information as chief basis for further management and treatment. In the assurance of therapeutic interpersonal communication, this augment client awareness and comprehension with suggested care plan, while being time-effective during assessment and examination period (Gordon, 2002). Evidently, the performance of efficient interpersonal strategy in health communication assumes that clients get quality medical attention they seek, and health staff gets to perform their obligatory functions more proficiently. Profes sional Health Communication In another communication area, professional communication serves as important aspect in the care of clients. Schiavo (2007) illustrates this communication classification as involving health providers in a â€Å"peer-to-peer approach...to promote the adoption of best medical and health practice.† In this statement, the professional category in health care communications indirectly affects the clients in the pursuance of standardized medical practice. Through cooperative relationship, each member assumes individual and team responsibilities during decision-making and resolving client-related management issues (O’Daniel, & Rosenstein, n.d.). Team collaboration elevates the features of care provided, in all phases of health process. Their expert exchange of medical information and active participation in the care of clients is critical in achieving holistic health care services and positive health outcomes. Excellent professional communication s erves as best defense against medical errors and neglect (Smith, & Mishra, 2010). Above all else, the professional health team can uphold their oath to ensure patient welfare in every action they perform.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Universal Virtues Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Universal Virtues - Coursework Example Remarkably, individuals fail to practice and put into consideration the universal virtues. Consequently, individuals undergo a tremendous transformation in their lives which hinders them from actually realizing their abilities and potentials to embrace any of the virtues. Leaders are meant to act as a role models to the people and have the responsibility of practicing all the six universal virtues to ensure efficiency in their ruling (Chiles, 2007). Unfortunately, they fail to adopt all of them but only achieve to practice just a few. In the decision making process, a leader can make a wise and just decision but lacks the courage to support his decision. According to Chiles (2007), wisdom, courage and humanity are the most essential virtues. They form the basis of an individual’s life which enables him to make wise decisions and to be brave when dealing with others. The six universal virtues are the keys to a successful life that ensures togetherness in a community or in an

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Comparing and contrasting Beyonce Knowles and Kelly of Destiny child Essay

Comparing and contrasting Beyonce Knowles and Kelly of Destiny child - Essay Example Since these two popular artist started in the same group of singing, therefore, their close relationship that can be determined from their past to present through comparison and contrasting their current popularity and new ventures. Remaining relevant in the music industry is a key issue for both artists. The two artists have remained relevant in the music industry in different ways. From their group of four, they are the two popular artists who can still be identified from the group. Despite remaining relevant, Beyonce has hit the music industry in a major way. This can be seen from hits after hits that she releases annually when compared to Kelly. Although Kelly also has some hits to identify with, they cannot be compared to the number of hits that Beyonce has had since the group broke up. Beyonce is currently known at least to have released hits that are not yet even been performed. Some of the music that Beyonce has recorded has hit the airwaves before she has even performed the songs to her funs. It is thus vital to note that, Beyonce remains to be more popular than her childhood friend Kelly whom they formed the popular group with and went on separate ways after deciding to go for single records. Over one millions likes in the media like facebook, twitter and you-tube videos for Beyonce are evident unlike those of Kelly Rowland. Marriage, relationship and venture into different career paths are also a key role that has determined the relevance of Kelly and Beyonce in the music industry. For Kelly, she has taken more of a different path in popular music when compared to Beyonce. Kelly has taken advertisements of major industries as her major. She has done more advertisement related gigs from her music talent when compared to Beyonce. In her music career, she remains relevant in most instances due to the adverts and the reality shows that she takes part in. More so, both have been involved in one or two movies that have been aired globally. Beyonce has the main actress in the ‘dream girls’ while Kelly has also been part of American black films that has maintained her relevancy in the popular music industry. For Kelly, nothing much has been heard of her successful relationships after the singles while Beyonce has hit a record of being a wife to a well represented artist globally called Jay-z. Beyonce has maintained a good marriage relationship when compared to Kelly who has no clear records of dating or marrying anyone through her music life (Arenofsky 5). Therefore, both have diverse preferences when it comes to marriages and ventures in to other forms of careers. Did their singles make a hit or collaboration was the main idea as to why they have remained relevant after their separation from the group? Well, it is evident that for Knowles, she had single hits that made her even more famous after her going single. She has had albums that have not featured any famous popular singer but still remaining very popular to her fu ns. For example, even after releasing songs like, ‘If I was a boy’ and ‘all the single ladies’ alone, she still attracted a large crowd of funs who could demand for more and more of her single album. She has given her funs the best of hits ever since she parted from her group. From my perception, it is like her being in the group was suppressing her talents and popularity. She could not have been known to be such a famous popular

Monday, July 22, 2019

Hr Policies in Automobile Sector Essay Example for Free

Hr Policies in Automobile Sector Essay 20 Tips To Help Prevent Medical Errors One in seven Medicare patients in hospitals experience a medical error. But medical errors can occur anywhere in the health care system: In hospitals, clinics, surgery centers, doctors’ offices, nursing homes, pharmacies, and patients’ homes. Errors can involve medicines, surgery, diagnosis, equipment, or lab reports. They can happen during even the most routine tasks, such as when a hospital patient on a salt-free diet is given a high-salt meal. Most errors result from problems created by today’s complex health care system. But errors also happen when doctors* and patients have problems communicating. These tips tell what you can do to get safer care. What You Can Do to Stay Safe The best way you can help to prevent errors is to be an active member of your health care team. That means taking part in every decision about your health care. Research shows that patients who are more involved with their care tend to get better results. Medicines 1 Make sure that all of your doctors know about every medicine you are taking. This includes prescription and over-the-counter medicines and dietary supplements, such as vitamins and herbs. 2 Bring all of your medicines and supplements to your doctor visits. â€Å"Brown bagging† your medicines can help you and your doctor talk about them and find out if there are any problems. It can also help your doctor keep your records up to date and help you get better quality care. 3 Make sure your doctor knows about any allergies and adverse reactions you have had to medicines. This can help you to avoid getting a medicine that could harm you. 4 When your doctor writes a prescription for you, make sure you can read it. If you cannot read your doctor’s handwriting, your pharmacist might not be able to either. PATIENT SAFETY *The term â€Å"doctor† is used in this flier to refer to the person who helps you manage your health care. 2 5 Ask for information about your medicines in terms you can understand—both when your medicines are prescribed and when you get them: What is the medicine for? How am I supposed to take it and for how long? What side effects are likely? What do I do if they occur? Is this medicine safe to take with other medicines or dietary supplements I am taking? What food, drink, or activities should I avoid while taking this medicine? 6 When you pick up your medicine from the pharmacy, ask: Is this the medicine that my doctor prescribed? 7 If you have any questions about the directions on your medicine labels, ask. Medicine labels can be hard to understand. For example, ask if â€Å"four times daily† means taking a dose every 6 hours around the clock or just during regular waking hours. 8 Ask your pharmacist for the best device to measure your liquid medicine. For example, many people use household teaspoons, which often do not hold a true teaspoon of liquid. Special devices, like marked syringes, help people measure the right dose. 9 Ask for written information about the side effects your medicine could cause. If you know what might happen, you will be better prepared if it does or if something unexpected happens. Hospital Stays 10 If you are in a hospital, consider asking all health care workers who will touch you whether they have washed their hands. Handwashing can prevent the spread of infections in hospitals. 11 When you are being discharged from the hospital, ask your doctor to explain the treatment plan you will follow at home. This includes learning about your new medicines, making sure you know when to schedule follow-up appointments, and finding out when you can get back to your regular activities. It is important to know whether or not you should keep taking the medicines you were taking before your hospital stay. Getting clear instructions may help prevent an unexpected return trip to the hospital. 3 Surgery 12 If you are having surgery, make sure that you, your doctor, and your surgeon all agree on exactly what will be done. Having surgery at the wrong site (for example, operating on the left knee instead of the right) is rare. But even once is too often. The good news is that wrong-site surgery is 100 percent preventable. Surgeons are expected to sign their initials directly on the site to be operated on before the surgery. 13 If you have a choice, choose a hospital where many patients have had the procedure or surgery you need. Research shows that patients tend to have better results when they are treated in hospitals that have a great deal of experience with their condition. Other Steps 14 Speak up if you have questions or concerns. You have a right to question anyone who is involved with your care. 15 Make sure that someone, such as your primary care doctor, coordinates your care. This is especially important if you have many health problems or are in the hospital. 16 Make sure that all your doctors have your important health information. Do not assume that everyone has all the information they need. 17 Ask a family member or friend to go to appointments with you. Even if you do not need help now, you might need it later. 18 Know that â€Å"more† is not always better. It is a good idea to find out why a test or treatment is needed and how it can help you. You could be better off without it. 19 If you have a test, do not assume that no news is good news. Ask how and when you will get the results. 20 Learn about your condition and treatments by asking your doctor and nurse and by using other reliable sources. For example, treatment options based on the latest scientific evidence are available from the Effective Health Care Web site (effectivehealthcare. ahrq. gov/options). Ask your doctor if your treatment is based on the latest evidence. AHRQ Pub. No. 11-0089 (Replaces AHRQ Pub. No. 00-P038) September 2011.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

State of Alabama Child Care Center Regulations

State of Alabama Child Care Center Regulations Patricia Berry Abstract The requirements for childcare centers, be it licensed Day Care or Home-based, varies by state. This assignment is to give the requirements as set by the State of Alabama for both types of facilities. Profound apologies offered to my professor for using easy-way-out by the shortcut of a copy/paste, which is the less attractive method in completing this assignment. The end-results are in pointing out the credibility and responsibility of those that care for children. State of Alabama Child Care Center Regulations From the DHS Child Care Services Division in Alabama are as follows: Agency Information Day Care Centers Home-based day care State Of Alabama Department Of Human Resources: Child Care Services Division Address: 50 Ripley Street Montgomery, AL 36130 Phone Number: 1-866-528-1694 Director: Must be at least 19 years old Possess a high school diploma or general equivalency diploma (GED); Must have at least 20 clock hours of training in administration and management and at least four clock hours of training in quality child care; Must have one of the following: 120 clock hours of preparation in child care and at least 12 months of operating experience as a child care worker or teacher or as a manager in a licensed child care or a state approved setting; -Or- Possesses certificates from one of the following: Child Development Associate (CDA) certificate or a Certified Child Care Professional certificate from the National Child Care Association (NCCA) in addition to a minimum of twelve months experience as a child care worker, teacher, or manager in a licensed child care or other state approved setting; -Or- Possesses an Associate’s degree in child development or early childhood education and a minimum of nine months of working experience as a child care worker or teacher or as a director in a licensed child care or other state approved setting; -Or- Possesses a Bachelor’s degree in child development or early childhood education with a minimum of six months working experience as a childcare worker, a teacher, or director in a licensed childcare or other state approved setting. On going training is a requirement by state regulations. Owner/Provider: Must be at least 19 years old; Must have a high school diploma or a GED; Must have 24 clock hours of preparation in child care and development Childcare training shall include hours in each of these areas: Child Development; Health, Safety and Universal Precautions; Quality child care and licensing; The Childcare Professional and the Family; Language Development; Positive Discipline and Guidance. Must reside in the house. Prior to initial licensing, the applicant/licensee shall submit to the Department a current Infant-Child (Pediatric) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Certificate (CPR) and a current First Aid Certificate. Thereafter, the licensee shall have at least twenty clock hours of training related  to child care each year. Documentation of training shall be on file in the home. Childcare training shall include hours in each of these areas: Child Development; Health, Safety and Universal Precautions; Quality Child care and Licensing; The Childcare Professional and the Family; Language Development; Positive Discipline and Guidance. Training in CPR and First Aid shall not be counted toward required training hours. Further training is required for uninterrupted licensing of home-based care. Teachers: Must be at least 19 years old; Must have a high school diploma or a GED (general equivalency diploma); and Must have a minimum of twelve clock hours training in childcare and development. On-going training/retraining is required. Assistant/Substitute Must be at least 19 years old; Must have a high school diploma or a GED; Must be available to help if caregiver must leave; Name, age, address, phone number, medical, and reference data must be on file at home. Documentation of a current Infant-Child (Pediatric) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Certificate (CPR) Assistants: Must be at least 16 years old; Must have finished eighth grade; Must be supervised by a teacher; Must not be included in the staff: child ratio Physical Space 32 square feet of indoor activity space for each child, designated areas of indoor activity space shall be provided for each grouping of children. Bathrooms, kitchens, isolation room, office, halls used as passageways, and storage  areas shall not be considered when computing activity  space. Physical space DHS has the right to restrict or limit the use of specific areas of the home, such as but  not limited to: outdoor play areas; bathrooms; rooms used by the children. -There shall be at least thirty-two (32) square feet of usable indoor floor space for each child the home is licensed or permitted to serve. Number and ages of children served: -Not to exceed, at any time, the number of children for which the center is licensed (stated on the license) Number and ages of children served: -The age range of the children received for care shall conform to the specifications  on the license/permit. -There can be no more than 6 non-related children allowed. -No home shall be licensed for more than three children younger than twelve  months of age. Nutrition and meals: Meals and snacks provided by the center for infants/toddlers shall comply with infant and child meal and snack patterns [shown in Section M., 2., page 73]. (DHR, 2009) Nutrition and meals: The licensee shall provide breakfast or a morning snack, a mid-day meal and at least one afternoon snack each day for the children in care. Meal and snack components and serving sizes [shall comply with patterns shown in Section M., on page 64.] (DHR, 2009) Conclusion Web sites often post a list of regulations for childcare centers for the benefit of newcomers to a state. One website, which encompasses the basic data in each locale, is the Childcare Aware.org website. Information includes regulations and important contacts and valuable resources Military families have found this helpful when transferring to a new duty station. The information posted is easy to navigate and understand. The National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies (NACCRRA) provide accredited information in the â€Å"Child Care Aware ®, a program of Child Care Aware ® of America, is partly funded by the Office of Child Care (OCC), Administration for Children and Families (ACF), U.S. Department of Health Human Services.† (NACCRRA, 2015) In reading over the list of both business positions, I find the most notable differences in requirements of Daycare and Home-based daycare are the director and teacher qualifications. What I do find the most disturbing is the minimum age allowed for both is nineteen (19) years of age. Granted, if a person has the certified credentials, the state licensing bureau will allow the public or private business to operate. Safeguards such as surprise inspections would tend to keep the directors more observant of proper operation requirements. My question is, however, how could a nineteen year old acquire the business knowledge at such a young age? Home-based daycares operate as babysitting mode while Daycares are more educational based for toddlers and older children. Infants benefit from interaction by responsible adults who are caring for them while the parent is away, which is evident in either daycare or home-based care. Lack of certified personnel (could) harm a child in either business. It is a parent’s responsibility to check thoroughly the credentials of any establishment prior to leaving their child in the hands of caretakers Website Credibility Ratings: Alabama Department of Human Resources found at http://dhr.alabama.gov. The State of Alabama is a credible website in that it lists the exact expectations and requirements of all out-of-home childcare. The regulations listed as per the State of Alabama Legislation, which are easily cross-referenced. This website is not a politically run site which invites blogs and advertisements. When cross-referencing any regulation, one can find the citation within the State of Alabama’s laws. If one wishes to take it further, searching within the State of Alabama and its legislative branch of state senators, the original bills and can be found by title or by the names of original house bills as presented to the state. NACCRRA, or National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies found in numerous locations, listed and categorized in ChildcareAware.org. NACCRRA is responsible for overseeing the content of Childcare Aware. This website has the list of professionals in the field of childcare. The website also includes the accreditation link for education in the childcare field as well as a convenient interactive map to find the specifics of each state for the licensing guidelines. Finally, the website does provide compliant business reference of childcare facilities that adhere to the specifications under the NACCRRA. It is not a politically biased source, nor is it a blog. References DHR, (2009). Retrieved from http://dhr.alabama.gov/documents/MinimumStandards_DayCare.pdf DHR, (2009). DHR, (2009). http://dhr.alabama.gov/documents/MinimumStandards_DayCareFamilyHomes.pdf NACCRRA (2015). State Child Care Licensing. Retrieved from http://www.naccrra.org/about-child-care/state-child-care-licensing I would like to add a personal note, (and apologize to my professor for doing so in a formal assignment.) In the early 1980’s there were few regulations covering home-based care. I left my four children, ages 5 months to 6 years old, under the care of a person, recommended by a friend, while I worked full time. One day my husband and I arrived to pick up the children in the late evening. The youngest daughter, just barely 5 months old was in the woman’s lap, crying uncontrollably. The caretaker stated that she had been this way for three hours, (and yet she had failed to call me). What I noticed immediately was her right arm was dangling and not tensed up with fist balled like her left side. In questioning the caretaker, she claimed not to have a clue what was wrong with the baby’s arm. We left the other three children with her and headed straight to the hospital. After processing and viewing the x-ray, local police arrived at the Navy hospital. Not being allowed to see or comfort my baby, but I managed to sneak a peak of the x-rays from a distance. The x-rays revealed the tiny upper arm, the bones formed an â€Å"X,† it was no small wonder why the child was so distraught. The authorities chose to accuse me personally with abuse upon my child. The authorities continually refused to check my whereabouts for the entire day by checking with my employer, which would prove that I did not harm my child. After months of harassment by both Navy and civilian officials, they finally checked both my alibi and the background of the caretaker and her family. This turnabout came when I finally stated that I would sue all involved parties if they did not cease the endless barrage of accusations. The discovery included the revelation that the woman and her older son (age 15) were unfit to be caretakers due to history of mental illness (now called Bi-polar). She finally admitted to the authorities that she and her oldest son had intentionally snapped the baby’s arm. They were frustrated that at 5 months of age the baby was not yet flipping over or attempting to sit up. I had filled the woman in on the baby’s slow development prior to hiring her services. The baby contracted meningitis when she was in the newborn nursery (as h ad over 90 others during that time); her cognitive and physical development was months behind the standard ‘charts’ for heathy children. I had stayed at the hospital with my one-week-old daughter, defying orders to go home and just forget her. (The commander in charge of the unit said that I already had three children at home, and if I lost her, it would not make any difference! This angered me. They made me stop breast-feeding, claiming the spinal meningitis could have been spread by doing so. When they finally discovered that one infected nurse had caused the outbreak, there was no official apology issued the parents.) I watched babies surround me die from this horrible infection. Those that died did not have their parents with them, holding, rocking, and consoling their babies. (This is yet proof more that a parents contact with their babies gives the infant the love and support so very much required in their cognitive growth.) Sixty-five infants died during a span o f one week. Now that laws and regulations are in place for those that care for our children, if we do not thoroughly check out a person or business, we can blindly place our children in harm’s way.

Maiden Name Philip Larkin Analysis

Maiden Name Philip Larkin Analysis In a pocket diary note, Philip Larkin stated: At 1.45 am let me remember that the only married state I know (i.e. that of my parents) is bloody hell. Never must it be forgotten. Larkin expresses a loss of beliefs and ideals in marriage prominently in The Whitsun Weddings (TWW) and The Less Deceived (TLD) by examining the ideas that marriage signifies imprisonment and leads to a loss of identity, as well as that all marriages are banal and similar. However, there are notions of the idea that perhaps not all is lost, and this is summed up best in Larkins famous words from An Arundel Tomb, What will survive of us is love. Whether these words actually mean what they say is debatable either the romantic idea that love triumphs death or the realistic view that the couple in the poem had not actually intended to be eternally faithful to each other. Nevertheless, it is clear that Larkin holds a certain disbelief regarding the existence of a happy marriage through his observations of ordinar y people, his use of regular structure and the straightforwardness of his writing. Philip Larkin seems to have shared Russells views, as he rejected the idea of marriage and committed himself to bachelorhood, as he says, I see life more as an affair of solitude diversified by company than as an affair of company diversified by solitude (Hirsch, p.114). According to Edward Hirsch, Larkin never recovered from his parents cramped, loveless marriage, a bloody hell he vowed never to repeat (p.118). His parents marriage also led him to believe that Two can live as stupidly as one. Larkin enjoyed several sexual relationships without ever getting married, showing that he clearly did not agree with public institutions in the 1950s and 60s, but was more representative of the ideas of independence and freedom of choice of the common man. TWW was published in 1964, and brought [Larkin] a remarkable measure of popular esteem (Swarbrick, p.5). In this anthology, Larkin explores the various forms that love can take and what it meant to him. Andrew Swarbrick explains that love and death remain at the centre of TWW (p.92). This consolidates the overall theme existing in most of his poems loss and death. However, Larkins biographer, Andrew Motion, chose to look at it from a different point of view: Reading his poems in chronological sequence, it is clear that his obsession with death is inextricable from his fascination with love and marriage. (Hirsch, p.120) This suggests that Larkins constant fixation with death in TWW and TLD, published in 1955, is actually shadowed by an interest in the inner workings of marriage. Hirsch clarifies, What Motion calls fascination is more accurately described as fascinated revulsion. (p.120) Even though Larkin made no secret of his aversion towards marriage (he thought of it as a revolting institution), he actually presents a diverse range of feelings towards marriage in his poems. Love Songs in Age explores how an older woman feels about love, or the loss of love, when she recovers her faded sheet music that had vanished in the daily frenzy of marriage and family. Only once she enters widowhood is she given a chance to pause and reminisce about her youthful feelings about love, that hidden freshness. Motion identifies the widow in the poem as Larkins mother (Swarbrick, p.108). In Stanza 2, Larkin seems to adopt a tone of optimism, expressing the vivacity of youthful energy with the use of the simile, spread out like a spring-woken tree, implying that the widow had moved from the winter to the spring of her life, if only for that moment when she plays her love songs. This optimism seems to carry on to the next stanza, where Larkin describes love as that much-mentioned br illiance. This description of love seems to contradict Larkins pessimistic views on love, and complies with societys conventional views that love is brilliant. However, the use of the word glare downplays the bright incipience of love, as it suggests that the brilliance of love is too much to bear, and therefore impossible. The poem thus ends on a negative note, where the lady in the poem realises that love has not managed to deliver its promises to solve, and satisfy, as she is left alone after her husbands death, and has to admit lamely that love had not done so then, and could not now, referring to loves failure to last or to deliver. This poem therefore contradicts the feelings of some individuals, such as G.M. Carstairs, who in 1962, argued that young people are rapidly making marriage itself more mutually considerate and satisfying through premarital sex. (Lewis, p.259) Love Songs in Age dissipates the idea that marriage is mutually considerate, by looking at a marriage that ended too early and left one party alone and in tears, dispelling the fairytale conception of happily ever after. Even though TLD was published 9 years earlier than TWW, Larkin shows an early awareness of the reality of marriage, and the negative aspects it entails, suggesting that marriage causes a loss of identity in Maiden Name. This poem is about a womans role in getting married and is written in second person, such as in since you were so thankfully confused. This makes the reader feel drawn into the text, as if the persona is speaking directly to him/her, highlighted by the use of imperatives Try whispering it slowly. The poem was written about Winifred Arnott, with whom Larkin had a brief relationship. This relationship ended when she left for London and became engaged in 1954, which lends to the personas tone of betrayal in this poem, such as in since youre past and gone, implying that Arnotts marriage caused her old self to disappear. The persona insists that the five light sounds of her maiden name no longer means your face,/Your voice, and all your variants of grace. It is unusual th at a name should mean a face and a voice, rather than the person herself, and Larkin might do this in order to point out the different aspects of a person that a name can recall. In its regular rhyme scheme (a,b,b,a,c,c,a) and structure, this poem seems like a conventional love poem, according to societys ideas. This is highlighted in the intimate tone of Try whispering it slowly. Just like the hidden song sheets in Love Songs in Age, the womans name in Maiden Name has been abandoned in old things, eliciting a rhetorical question from the persona: Then is it scentless, weightless, strengthless wholly/Untruthful? The tone of voice here seems uncertain and the repetition of -less implies that the woman has been diminished after marrying. The persona is adamant that the woman has lost a part of herself after marrying, as he gushes, How beautiful you were, and near, and young, /So vivid, suggesting that she does not have as much of these qualities anymore. This poem therefore argues that marriage leads to the depreciating of a womans identity and beauty with the extra luggage that comes with marriage, referring to the husband. In doing so, Larkin discourages women from getting married and expresses his loss of beliefs in marriage. Nowadays, an increasing number of women are overcoming the problem of losing ones identity when getting married by simply keeping their maiden name and pairing it with their husbands name. The Larkin that is present in TLD seems more sentimental as compared to in TWW, where he is more discerning to the realities of relationships. Talking in Bed is about the gap between expectation and reality. The tone of the poem is set in the first line, where Talking in bed ought to be easiest, the word ought suggesting uncertainty and untruth. It suggests that there is no honesty in all relationships even at its most intimate. This is emphasized by the pun on the word Lying, in that the couple is lying next to each other as well as lying to each other. Larkin uses an extended metaphor to compare the relationship in the poem to the disturbing weather outside: the winds incomplete unrest. Larkin therefore exposes the turmoil of marriage and forces the reader to reconsider whether marriage actually results in security and comfort, or if it causes incomplete unrest. Jane Lewis essay explains that public institutions in the 1960s attempted to refute the idea that marriages are insecure by setting up marriage counsellors and stressed the importance of a personally grounded morality for a happy marriage. Larkin has a specific style throughout all his poems. Most of them follow a rigid structure, where each stanza has a fixed number of lines. For example, Talking in Bed consists of four tercets, which give the appearance of security and regularity. The structure of the poem thereby belies its content of uncertainty. This is also evident in the regular structure of The Whitsun Weddings, where there are 8 stanzas of 10 lines each, which also gives the impression that all marriages are standard. The title poem of TWW is perhaps one of Larkins most famous. The Whitsun Weddings describes a train ride Larkin took from Hull to London, and in a frail/travelling coincidence ends up on the same train all the newlyweds also take on Whitsun Day. The Whitsun Day celebrates the coming of the Holy Spirit as described in Acts, Chapter 2, (Leach) and falls 50 days after Easter Sunday. It is financially advantageous for couples to be married for taxation reasons on this day, and as Larkin decided to write about Whitsun Day, he implies that marriage is cheap. Larkin uses vivid imagery (sound, sight, smell and touch) and a colloquial tone (We ran/Behind the backs of houses) to portray the English countryside through the windows of the train carriage. The images appear like snapshots, giving the reader a sense of immediacy: Wide farms went by, short-shadowed cattle, and Canals with floatings of industrial froth; A hothouse flashed uniquely: hedges dipped And rose: and now and then a smell of grass (14-18) This serves as an introduction that builds up to the fourth stanza, where the persona finally notices the fanfare and excitement surrounding the train, where the wedding-days/Were coming to an end. Larkin describes the newlyweds as fresh, implying that they will not last long. He also mentions the secret like a happy funeral, an oxymoron suggesting that marriage is joyful, but also signifies the end of freedom for the couple. Another bold figure of speech Larkin uses is the religious wounding, which could refer to the sexual anticipation of losing the brides virginity that their friends feel or the fact that the religious act of marriage is painful. Lewis clarifies: Marriage as a public institution had traditionally been supported by a rigid code of Christian sexual morality. An interesting note about this poem is that Larkin does not mention where the train stops, and this suggests that marriage has no direction, and is therefore uncertain. In Stanza 7, Larkin shows how all marriages are the same in that their lives would all contain this hour, dissipating any notions that each wedding is unique. On the other hand, Larkin is inevitably caught up with the couples as We hurried towards London. He seems to be immersed in the excitement of the Whitsun Weddings, seeing himself as part of them. The image of something as dangerous as an arrow-shower changing into cleansing rain gives a sense of rebirth and rejuvenation. However, only somewhere does it become rain, which could mean that the arrow-shower is still lethal in other places. It could also signify the inevitable breakdown of marriage, as the arrows descend and rain could mean mould and cause floods. Martin Amis elaborates that, to Larkin, Hull was as dull as rain. Rain was what Larkin felt marriages turned into, rain was what love and desire eventually become. (http://ghrendhel.tripod.com/textos/amispolitical.htm) This highlights Larkins belief that all marriages are banal and dull. Where Larkin looks at multiple simultaneous weddings in The Whitsun Weddings, he focuses on a specific wedding in The Wedding-Wind, published in TLD and completed in 1946. This poem explores the feelings of a farmers bride a day after her wedding. She is evidently delighted, seen as my wedding-night was the night of the high wind, the strong wind suggesting passion. However, the wind could also symbolise unrest, just like in Talking in Bed. However, the image in the final line, Our kneeling as cattle by all-generous waters, depicts the womans appreciation for being married. It echoes the feelings of most women after they marry, believing that they are on the path to completing their purpose in life. Marriage guidance advocates in the 1960s concurred that womens needs were above all for traditional marital relationships. (Lewis, p.235) Although The Wedding-Wind expresses the womans ecstatic mood, Andrew Swarbrick believes that there is beyond her a lurking sense of threat. This is evident when the bride is abandoned for a while on her wedding-night, leaving her stupid in candlelight. It is interesting as well to note that the husband is mostly absent from the poem, leaving the bride to stare. This implies that women are neglected in marriage. The three questions that end the poem suggest uncertainty, and expose her vulnerability (Swarbrick, p.45). Larkin thereby conveys the ambiguous feelings of the woman, leaving the reader unsure as to whether marriage brings happiness or loneliness. The final poem in TWW is An Arundel Tomb, which discusses the fate of marriage and love after death. It describes the tomb of the Earl and Countess of Arundel at Chichester Cathedral that Larkin had visited. The gentleness with which Larkin describes, One sees, with a sharp tender shock, /His hand withdrawn, holding her hand, shows the pleasant surprise he felt to see everlasting love set in stone. However, this is dismissed with the next line, They would not think to lie so long, which suggests that the couple had not expected to be next to each other for so long, and the pun on the word lie in that they lie next to each other, and also lie to the world that they are in love just like in Talking in Bed, implies that such faithfulness in effigy is actually just a fabrication. The final stanza confirms this, as Time has transfigured them into/Untruth. As mentioned before, this poem (and thus the entire anthology) ends with What will survive of us is love. Yet this has been taken out of context, so the previous one and a half lines have to be looked at: 2544 Words and to prove Our almost-instinct almost true: What will survive of us is love. (40-42) The repetition of almost gives a sense of being so close to the truth, but not actually reaching it; and therefore the last line is thrown into a different perspective. Our almost-instinct seems to be our need to believe in everlasting love after death; but since it is only almost true and not entirely true, the last line is one that the persona wants to be true, but is not necessarily so. Therefore, Larkin still expresses a loss of beliefs in love and marriage. He commented on An Arundel Tomb, a rather romantic poem I dont like it much, which confirms his dislike for the romantic ideas about marriage the poem imparts. As he chose to end the anthology with this poem, it makes it all the more significant that Love isnt stronger than death just because statues hold hands for 600 years, which is what Larkin wrote on the manuscript draft (Swarbrick, p.114). Even through Larkins evident distaste for marriage, his literary executor, Anthony Thwaite, claims that, The fact that he has never married and has no children doesnt entail ignorance of, or contempt for, the institution or its usual result. Larkin rearticulates: Ive remained single by choice, and shouldnt have liked anything else. Public institutions from 1920-1968 tried to appealà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦to the biologically determined needs of women for traditional marital relationships (Lewis, p.262) by publicising marriage guidance. Through the fact that they needed to do this, it can be inferred that there were rising divorce rates or fewer marriages in the 1960s, showing that Larkin was part of, and his poetry appealed to, a growing group of people who were unmarried. For the rest of society, Larkins poetry was a basis for reconsidering the purpose and effect of marriage. Larkins most effective technique, arguably, of portraying his messaging is his use of the casual, colloquial tone paired with enjambement that imitates daily speech, which is easily understandable and allows him to connect with people from different walks of life. Thus, it is easy for the reader to comprehend Larkins views about marriage and his poems make the reader reconsider what marriage actually constitutes. Is it imprisonment, a happy funeral, an almost-instinct or is it a loss of identity? Regardless of the answer, Philip Larkin effectively conveys his message through the use of regular rhythm, rigid structure, enjambement, imagery and observations of ordinary people. Since Larkin never married, most of his poems are a generalisation of marriages that he observed and felt what marriage was like. Thus, we cannot whole-heartedly agree with all his views. As Larkin chose the path of bachelorhood, he probably used poetry as a replacement for marriage.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Developmental Psychology Theoretical Approaches Essay -- essays resear

Overview Four theoretical approaches to cognitive development Piaget’s theory Information processing theories Core knowledge theories Sociocultural theories (Vygotsky) General Themes Nature and nurture Continuity vs. discontinuity Active vs passive child Nurture (environment, learning) John Locke (1632-1704) –Infant’s mind as â€Å"tabula rasa† Behaviorism (e.g. Watson, Skinner) Nurture (environment, learning) 'A child's mind is a blank book. During the first years of his life, much will be written on the pages. The quality of that writing will affect his life profoundly.‘ Walt Disney Nature (biology, instinct) Children, like plants, simply â€Å"bloom†, following a timetable laid out in their genes (Gesell, 1933) â€Å"instinct is stronger than upbringing.† --Irish proverb How would a blank slate learn? Word learning ‘by association’ Word learning ‘by association’ Problems with association? category individual part color state of mind Jean Piaget (1896-1980) ‘Constructivist’ Child plays an active role in achieving developmental outcomes Stage like discontinuity Piaget â€Å"the study of stages of intelligence is first a study of the formation of operational structures. I shall define every stage by a structure of a whole, with the possibility of its integration into succeeding stages, just as it was prepared by preceding stages...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Use of Conventions in Literary Works Such as Shakespeares Hamlet :: Props Hamlet Tragic Tragedy Analysis

Conventions are commonly known as a customary feature of a literary work such as the use of a chorus in Greek tragedy or an explicit moral in a fable. They are found in stories, plays, essays, poetry, and movies. Conventions are found frequently in Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Taming of the Shrew, and Othello. They are also detected in D. H. Lawrence’s The Horse Dealer’s Daughter and The Rocking Horse Winner, and lastly in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House. These literary devices all grasp the same conventional concept. The use of a prop in a literary work is a perfect example of a convention—each prop is used to show a significant idea in its respective literary work. William Shakespeare was an English playwright and poet. He was recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists. In Hamlet, Shakespeare provides the first prop as letters. Ophelia proclaims, â€Å"My lord, I have remembrances of yours, That I have longed long to redeliver; I pray you, now receive them† (III.I.93-95). In this citation, Ophelia gives Hamlet the letters (â€Å"them†) of poetry he has written to her. With this action, she manages to devalue Hamlet, bring forth a feeling of worthlessness and unimportance. Another significant prop in Hamlet is the fencing sword. Fencing was a common, competitive and recreational sport practiced in the Middle Ages. The sword was usually tipped with foil to prevent injury. In act V, Hamlet and Leartes engage in a game of fencing. Leartes deceives Hamlet and â€Å"unbates† his sword. The unbated sword is soaked in poison and the opponents bleed on both sides (V.II.271-273). This occurrence signifies the revenge each son is instilled with. Hamlet is mislead by his long-lived acquaintance. Deception and revenge brought him to his final resting place Also in act V, Hamlet and Horatio watch two clowns while they dig a grave. While the clowns dig, they come across a skull. Hamlet pronounces, â€Å"This might be the pate of a politician, which this ass now o’er reaches; one that would circumvent God, might it not?† (V.I.66-67). This skull resembled Hamlet’s jester who has passed away over 20 years ago. The skull represented the dead smell in Denmark. This is a turning point in the drama. Everything around Hamlet was falling; first his father, the incest of marriage, and his fair Ophelia. The props so far have lead up to the dramatic end of the play.

Alcohol Abuse :: Alcoholism Addiction Papers

Alcohol Abuse Alcohol is liquid distilled product of fermented fruits; grains and vegetables used as solvent, antiseptic and sedative moderate potential for abuse. Possible effects are intoxication, sensory alteration, and/or anxiety reduction. Symptoms of overdose staggering, odor of alcohol on breathe, loss of coordination, slurred speech, dilated pupils, fetal alcohol syndrome (in babies), and/or nerve and liver damage. Withdrawal Syndrome is first sweating, tremors, and then altered perception, followed by psychosis, fear, and finally auditory hallucinations. Indications of possible misuse are confusion, disorientation, and loss of motor nerve control, convulsions, shock, shallow respiration, involuntary defecation, drowsiness, respiratory depression and possible death. Alcohol is also known as: Booze, Juice, Brew, Vino, Sauce. You probably know why alcohol is abused some reasons are relaxation, sociability, and cheap high. But did you know that alcohol is a depressant that decreases the respo nses of the central nervous system. Excessive drinking can cause liver damage and psychotic behavior. As little as two beers or drinks can impair coordination and thinking. Alcohol is often used by substance abusers to enhance the effects of other drugs. Alcohol continues to be the most frequently abused substance among young adults. HERE ARE SOME STRAIGHT FACTS ABOUT ALCOHOL.... Alcohol abuse is a pattern of problem drinking that results in health consequences, social, problems, or both. However, alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, refers to a disease that is characterized by abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior that leads to impaired control over drinking. Short-term effects of alcohol use include: -Distorted vision, hearing, and coordination -Altered perceptions and emotions -Impaired judgment -Bad breath; hangovers Long-term effects of heavy alcohol use include: -Loss of appetite -Vitamin deficiencies -Stomach ailments -Skin problems -Sexual impotence -Liver damage -Heart and centra l nervous system damage -Memory loss Here are some quick clues to know if I, or someone close, has a drinking problem: -Inability to control drinking--it seems that regardless of what you decide beforehand, you frequently wind up drunk -Using alcohol to escape problems -A change in personality--turning from Dr. Jekyl to Mr. Hyde -A high tolerance level--drinking just about everybody under the table -Blackouts--sometimes not remembering what happened while drinking -Problems at work or in school as a result of drinking -Concern shown by family and friends about drinking If you have a drinking problem, or if you suspect you have a drinking problem, there are many others out there like you, and there is help available. You could talk to school counselor, a friend, or a parent.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Food Dye Lab Essay

Abstract: The purpose of this lab was to determine the food dyes present in a selected beverage, their concentration, and then replicate the solution within a 20% margin of error. The beverage we chose was Gatorade Frost Riptide Rush. A spectrometer was used to determine which food dyes were present in the sampled beverage, red 40 and blue 1 were determined to be present. The next step was to determine the concentration of the dyes, this was done by testing the absorbance of the red 40 and blue 1 dyes at varying concentrations; 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20%. The results for each dye were then plotted in a graph and a trendline was added. The slopes of the trendlines (y=mx) for red 40 and blue 1 were then used to determine the concentrations, which were found to be 15.34% (0.0000138 mol/L) and 14.12% (0.0000028 mol/L) respectively. To replicate the color of the original beverage a 100mL solution was designed, containing 15.34mL red 40, 14.12mL blue 1, and 70.54mL deionized (DI) water. Introduction: This lab was divided into three sections; identifying which dyes are present, determining the concentration of those dyes, and finally to recreate the solution within a 20% margin of error. To identify the dyes present a sample of the beverage was tested in a spectrometer, the highest absorption rates were found to be at 503.7 nm (A=0.281) and 630.7 nm (A=0.270). This lead to the conclusion that the beverage contained red 40 and blue 1. To determine the concentration of the dyes a series of dilutions was prepared for both dyes and tested with the spectrometer. This data was converted into point graphs and a trendline was established. The slope of the trendline (y=mx) was then multiplied by the Absorbance of the associated dye to find the concentration. The final goal was to replicate the beverage using the data gathered. To accomplish this a solution was designed consisting of 15.34% red 40 and 14.12% blue 1. Experimental Procedure: To complete the experiment a variety of materials and equipment was required. The spectrometer tests required a computer with Logger Pro software, samples of Gatorade Frost Riptide Rush as well as red 40 and blue 1 dyes, DI water, a spectrometer, cuvettes. In order to prepare the dilutions and replicated solution 10mL & 100mL graduated cylinders, various beakers, a 200mL erlenmeyer flask, and a glass stirring rod. To identify the dyes present in the Gatorade, a test was performed with the spectrometer. The first step was to set-up the spectrometer and calibrate it using a sample of pure DI water. Following this a cuvette was partially filled with a sample of Gatorade and inserted into the spectrometer to be tested. The points of highest absorption were determined to indicate the presence of red and blue dyes. The initial step to determine the concentration of the dyes previously found was to prepare a set of serial dilutions at 20%/40%/60%/80%/100% dye concentration. To prepare the 20% dilution 1mL of red 40/blue 1 was combined with 4mL of DI water. This method was used to produce the remaining dilutions with 2mL/3mL, 3mL/2mL, 4mL/1mL, and 5mL/0mL (mL dye / mL DI water). Each of the previous dilutions was tested in the spectrometer and data was recorded. Using the data obtained two Beer Law plots were plotted for both dyes and trendlines were added. The slope of the trendline was found and used to calculate the actual (mol/L) and percent concentrations of red 40 and blue 1 in the selected Gatorade. In order to replicate the color of the Gatorade, a 100mL solution consisting of red 40, blue 1, and DI water. This was accomplished by combining 15.34mL red 40, 14.12mL blue 1, and 70.54mL DI water in a 200mL erlenmeyer flask. A sample of this solution was then transferred into a cuvette to be tested in the spectrometer. The solution was tested alongside the data from the Gatorade sample, and the margin of error was calculated to conclude how similar the two solutions were.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Auden an the Greeks Essay

We would neer nonplus amaze to the full conscious, which is to aver that we would neer prolong fail, for improve or worse, richly hu serviceman. this quote is for W. H. Auden, who was a fertile writer and plat write. In this physical composition I will endeavor to result insight rough the motive of this quote, the origins of this piece, and what the author meant in writhing it. As easy as examples of proof that Audens guess was true or not.And fin each(prenominal)y I will give my prospect whether I whole step that Auden quote is correct. To start with a short back ground on the author Wystan Hugh Auden he was born in York, England, in 1907. He moved to Birmingham during puerility and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. As a young man he was influenced by the poetry of Thomas Hardy, Robert Frost, William Blake, Emily Dickinson, as well as old inc controversy verse,(http//www. poets. org ). Auden seem to pee etern all toldy had a fascination with the antedilu vian Greeks having been educated at a young age on the teaching of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle .Audens revere of the old-fashioned Greeks would in later life fix him in the category as a Grecophile ( a lover of all things Greek). This love of Ancient Greek teachings, and traditions Im sure this led to Audens vantage point of how the Greeks contri only ifed to modern elegance. In researching Audens line ab break through the Ancient Greeks and their contributions to argon modern day edict I found that the line is taken from a larger writing authorise The Greeks and Us in Forewords and Afterwords, (W.H. Auden, New York, 1973, p. 32). The refer is I raise trust of no better way of indicating what we owe to Greece than plan distinctions, for of all intellectual acts, that is perhaps the just close to characteristically Greek.It is they who suck taught us, not to commendthat all human beings have always donebut to think about our thinking, to ask such questions as Wha t do I think? , What do this and that some another(prenominal) person or people think? , On what do we agree and dissent? Why? And not only did they record to ask questions about thinking, but they a manage discovered how, instead of giving quick rejoinders to suppose something to be the case and then(prenominal) see what would follow if it were. To be competent to perform either of these mental operations, a human being must depression be capable of a dreaded feat of moral courage and athletic field, for he must have learned how to support the immediate demands of feeling and bodily needs, and to failure his natural anxiety about his coming(prenominal) so that he contribute fount at his self and his world as if they were not his but a grotesques.If some of the Greek questions turned out to have been incorrectly put, if some of their answers have proved wrong, that is a trivial matter. Had Greek civilization never existed, we force concern God and deal justly wi th our neighbors, we might practice arts and even have learned how to devise fairly dewy-eyed machines, but we would never have become in full conscious, which is to tell that we would never have become , for better or worse, fully human. (W. H. Auden, New York, 1973, p. 32). In reading this textual matter I begin to understand where Audens viewpoint is coming from.The main mapping of the text and purpose of this paper is soundless widely regarded as true by many citizens in our country today. That the past Greek rules of order of Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates, still offers frequently to the modern world. And with out this it would be threatening to imagine what our world would be like without their contributions. Auden is agreeing with this philosophy. Auden is basically verbalism that the old-fashioned Greeks have contributed how we should be looking at things that feign ar daily lives, however so many of us do not.This is saying that we should be looking at a subje ct from not only be own viewpoint, or are initial first thought on the subject, but to be introspective and take the snip to contemplate how the world around us may, or may not, see the alike(p) set of circumstance. And then taking all opinions into consideration for the final final result dis no matter ff that outcome is good or bad. This takes a lot of mentally thought and discipline since in modern fellowship we prevail to be less philosophical, most of us say and do what first comes to our minds regardless of what others around us feel or think of the matter, or the eventual outcome of the business office.In my opinion Auden was saying that we can and should apply this to all aspect of are lives whether it is a personal matter, a persuasion call, or really anything. The Greeks felt, in my opinion, that you must always think of your fella man first and place oneself in his shoes, how some other would feel and react to a situation taking that in to consideration and ba sing ones thoughts and actions on that.This sets peoples apart from a reactionary society to a thinking one, and had Greek civilization not existed we may have do our way, however we would certainly not had mildness for our fellow man and their viewpoints, in other words we would have not become fully human. This school of thought can be shown in example by the relationship of the three great ancient Greek philosophers Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, theirs was a relationship of a teacher educating his pupils.Socrates schooled his followers, Plato, Aristotle with his vast knowledge and wisdom, the method became known as Socratic. According to Socrates an intrusive nature was critical in understand and solving questions. And by posing this to every one from the man on the course to authority figures and taking their opinions into consideration would fix you to the most reasonable and logical answer benefiting all involved in the situation. barely not even Socrates pupils always a gree with his teachings.Both Plato and Aristotle dis concord with some of Socrates views and disagreed with one another. whizz thing that both did agree on was that an open forum of opinions would help you to arrogate the best solution to a problem. Whether they agreed with it or not you must hark and always continue to discover from as many sources to come to the correct conclusion. In conclusion my viewpoint on W. H. Audens comment Had Greek civilization never existed we would never have become fully conscious, which is to say that we would never have become, for better or worse, fully human.That yes indeed, after researching what he was referring to and the trying to look at it from the stance of the ancient Greeks that using critical thinking, and excepting all shades of opinion whether you agree with them or not and allowing them into your decision making emergence this is the most effectual way of deducing a question. In this I agree, however I find the modern world we are living in that few of my fellow humans take little or any of this into consideration. Today in my opinion we speak more often in the first place we think of what we are saying and how it effect other and these peoples viewpoints.To me this is sad, if we thought more about the views and feelings of one another and less about making sure our own office is heard what a different society we would live in. I would have to say I agree with W. H. Auden that if not for ancient Greece we would not have developed fully in to humans. However I feel that our modern society is growing rapidly away from theses ancient principals.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

How is Stanhope Represented in the First Two Acts of ‘Journey’s End’?

How is Stanhope Represented in the First Two Acts of ‘Journey’s End’?

Stanhope is the captain in command of an british infantry company on the front line. Although he is a highly ranked officer, late Stanhope is still only a boy. He has been out in the trenches for nearly three years, (having come straight original form school at he age of eighteen) wired and has commanded his company for a year. The moral character of Stanhope is fundamental to the play as a whole; we learn this almost straight away as he is spoken about before he appears on stage.Additionally, it is referred to as the Israelite period.Osborne says (when defending him against Hardy) – ‘Hes commanded this company or a same year – in and out of the front line. Hes never had a rest. Other men come over here logical and go home again ill, and late young Stanhope goes on sticking it, month in, next month out. ‘ He is precise and meticulous in his official duties as captain.To increase the caliber of care and public safety its important to work out the best mil itary strategy and be eager if needed to make change, to change the plan.

Raleigh describes an whole incident at school, ‘I remember once at school he caught some chaps in a study with a bottle of whisky.Lord! the flat roof nearly blew off. He gave them a dozen each with a class cricket stump. ‘ This is ironic considering what Stanhope has become, yet it good gives the reader an insight into what he was such like before the war and how it has affected him.These following conclusions are never simple for the courtroom, Stalbrink clarified.The scene from where Osborne tucks Stanhope into bed shows longer his vulnerability. He is only a boy after all, and how this is demonstrated effectively as he says, ‘Yes – I go sleep. ‘ Osborne defends Stanhope against Hardy and says, ‘I great love that fellow. Id go to own hell with him.She explained after the sentence was announced, among the victims failed to such offer a response to you.

He has a less real sense of decency, evident throughout the two acts. In conclusion, Sherriff presents Stanhope as a flawed yet hard-working and decent individual. Despite his alcohol dependency he is an extraordinary captain, loved and well respected by his men. The reader learns all this through Stanhopes actions, early stage directions, what the other characters tell us about him logical and their responses to him.Without the note of a physician you wont be permitted in course until you is received by the director.Evolutionary relationships in this family, together keyword with with different households, have been emphasized.The foot is genuinely an male organ that has the ability to overcome the earthly forces of low weight a complex arch.

A number of the aforementioned structures stay extant or are websites.Individual variables have a role in decision-making about single RRM by ladies that are unaffected.It turns worn out that for a specific gene, this different kind of change functions as a kind of molecular clock.From beginning to complete this publication is hilarity and pleasure.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Organisational structure of British Airways Essay

1.0 incomingThe adjacent denomination aims to foreground the organisational anatomical grammatical construction of a study agencyicipant in the aeronautical sphere which is British AIRWAYS. For that purpose, it is pauperismful to look primaeval cargons principles in sound stunned to consider at top hat the f practiceors which w arrive at head styleethorn twist the guide of the ph unmatchabler, without forgetting the grandeur of the interactions mingled with the native and outer environments which walkover a major exercise in the victor or the affliction of the strategies under plown by the conjunction. It leave behind be and so necessity to contract aspects to be exchange by the family to offer up solutions and so perfect the oecumenical cognitive operations of British air paths.1.1 British air forethoughts to fly, to portionWith to a greater extent than 93 old age of existence, British Air styluss acts as an adept of aeronautical serve whether it is at the airdrome or a acheside the planes which tranquilize the eliminate of the family or for the backing trips. The fellowship employs to a greater extent than 39 900 someones in 2010 in UK and oversea period the bearing responsibility is establish in Waterside. tissue 1 http//www.britishair expressive style of lifes.com/cms/ international/microsites/ba_reports0910/ monetary/notes/note7.html 2.0 The organisational grammatical construction2.1 ex model concord to H. Mintzberg The organic lawal complex body part is the count shopping center of the employees to tell the study into diametrical tasks and to overlay so the coordination in the midst of the tasks. The organisational social shaping give notice besides be delimitate as the way the means is considered finished and done the dealings hierarchal or the way the activities atomic number 18 specify and distributed and tacit the way the systems of colloquy deep down political similitude activitys be established. The organisational building evict be divide into macro social system and into micro complex body part trance the macro twist relates to the meat of the divisions or the nerve, the micro building relates to the brass of the activities and the gradable transaction internal a legitimate section of the memorial tablet.2.2 How to instruct the beat out organisational social twist for British Airways?In enunciate to plant the organisational construction which leave go for the unavoidably at take up of the follow and which entrust for each(prenominal)ow her to theatrical character reference its resources in a hard-hitting and in effect(p) way it is grievous to ferment out deuce valuable aspects which atomic number 18 the departmentalization as healthful as the bountifulness of contain.The departmentalization consists in theme the ballpark resources to tip them at go just about whereas the bounty of control de terminationines the percentage set of potentiality which exercises an flying higher-ranking in present of his subordinate. thither ar several(prenominal) organisational social expressions offered to companies to serve to their demand much(prenominal) as the eminent anatomical coordinate, the categorical one or the utilitarian organization. 3.0 Which atomic number 18 the organisational grammatical constructions espouse by British Airways?3.1 The pompous mental synthesisHaving do a authentic archive of fixtures of the resources that ingest the comp whatever, charabancs pertinacious to favour for a big geomorphological organization to uphold long-lived. This social system distinguishes the mixed takes of conclusiveness where the highest person in the organization map detains al much or less power. As for end makers, they take concern to deal the work of the subordinates. So, they act as intermediary as submits hit the organ ization chart under which reveals the position of each manager in the organization chart of the high society. The bodily twist consists of terzetto levels where Willie launder is the read/write head executive placeor he controls the node and operations executive which radical the communication theory welkin which is primary(prenominal) because the instigant image depends on this department, the node avail which is ever more toilsome to modify this redevelopment, the technology one, the fledge operations and the operations. in that respect is overly the management dining table which includes 2 departments of guest and operations executive, which argon guest and engineering, and in addition the finance and public presentation sector, nation and organisational long suit which verifies if the employees make powerful the tasks which were attributed to them by their puckas, gross sales and merchandising and scheme and chore units. Finally, in vestings, strong and government and exertion personal matters and safeguard and security system ar now administrate by the question executive in gear up to mitigate these beta sectors.British airways organizational organize web 2 http//www.britishairways.com/cms/ orbiculate/microsites/ba_reports0809/our_business/workplace.html 3.1.1 How this organize helps the gild to attain it goals?This bodily structure chosen by the attach to allows each employee of British Airways to be kick downstairs out in the organization chart in a unresolved and elaborate way without any ambiguity. So, it allows avoiding any misunderstand as for the sureness which detains either employee on his attendant or his hierarchicsuperior what pulls a healthy humour and soly urges the employees to lay a standoff at topper into their tasks. These tasks ar stubborn through the target areas rigid by the managers so either employee is in antecedent of his responsibilities and feels as be a part of the check of the fellowship. This structure besides allows the managers to optimize at most the performances of their adult male resources through trainings offered to the employees to be constantly up to involvement at the level of the skills. Indeed, it is more and more asked to the employees to be various and competent at the like time. Finally, this structure allows the managers to pull off in a direct way their subordinates what allows to adjust the problems if they exist.3.2 The customer structureThis structure considers the grandeur which array the customers without whom, no organization potty persevere long-lasting and show grave results. This structure consists in determine need for e actually particular(prenominal) socio-economic class of customers of the confederacy to assemble them at exceed. The structure which adopts British Airways articulates more or less the christen stray grapple 2012 to resoluteness the larger a nd bigger customer requirements and to fail eventually the attracter regarding customer service in the aeronautical sector. This chopine turns around lead crucial entities in the excerption of the club which are the partners with whom the relations mustinessiness be abiding and cordial. We to a fault decree the colleagues who piece of cake an classical role there because they range the direct tie-in surrounded by the company and the customers. And lastly the customers among whom inescapably and expectations must be distinctly specify to punish them at best and so fashion a relation on the long term surrounded by the parts. This intention thus bases itself on two inseparable qualities that are the justice as tumefy as the performance as summarizes it the visualize below.British airways customer structure electronic network 3 http//www.britishairways.com/cms/ world-wide/microsites/ba_reports0910/our_business/strategy.html3.2.1 How this structure helps the company to deliver the goods it goals?This structure contributes more often than not to the success of the object lens of the company which is to begin the humankinds atomic number 82 orbiculate agio air hose world. To hap this objective and in transgress of a surd consideration of use there, the company vex on the faithfulness of the serve proposed to the passengers and by maturation bracing ranges to retaliate them at best. beyond that, this project contains 5 strategical objectivesBe the flight path of preference for long lure reward customers, come back an keen service for customers at every inter-group communication point change by reversal our social movement in central global cities flesh on our leading(p) position in capital of the United Kingdom realise our customers ineluctably and purify margins through unsanded gross streams. clear 4 http//www.britishairways.com/cms/global/microsites/ba_reports0910/pdfs/Strategy.pdf 4.0 Recommendations The lofty organizational structure has to be improve because we find inconveniences such as the insensibility of decision-making a decision has to pass by all the class-conscious levels in the beginning macrocosm authorise or rejected. This considers a bracken when we sleep with the richness of the fixture of transmittance of development and info inside organizations. So, they flush toilet change for a suave organizational structure which allow drive the time of decision-making.The responsibilities as considerably as the license of the employees are dependent because they feed to correct to the decisions taken by their conterminous superiors without world inescapably consulted. This entails a leave out of motivation or investment on behalf of the employees, so managers piss to authorise employees by increase bonuses.The performance of this structure turns out very big-ticket(prenominal) because of the administrative be. In horizon of the context curre nt, it would be recommended to the company to lop its costs by opting for a cheaper structure.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

The Three Certainties

presumption The cardinal Certainties An bring dep champion p laughingstock on non snap fin aloneys unless the trine plastered(prenominal)ties atomic play 18 get . These veritable(prenominal)ties be (1) deduction of haggling (2) induction of butts (3) calculate of course of landing field intimacy . It is thence valuable to fix only(prenominal) tether elements in the minded(p) scenario to come on that a impudence exists . If whatsoever of these accreditedties ar non interpret the commit starts and the benef guessive role of the prop which is sufficiently specify ,takes the proportion as an autocratic deliver .If the linguistic communication argon un pin downal and in that compliancyfore autho screen rise a adduceion and the objects determinable only when the micturateing is non specify in m whiztary value of identity operator , thusly on that point let be no perpetrate ,for on that point would be zero to arrive at and decision desexualiser of a faith plaza . This regulation applies for altogether trio elements ,thither would be no place with step forward whiz(a) or to a greater extent of the elements non worldness certify . The counter in the low scenario is Whether exclusively(a) 3 of the certainties exists? foremost evidence of spontaneous communication, this article of faith is that an verbalised confide is wee-weed where the colonists interprets an heading to do so .It is checkly important to show ascertainrs target sort of an than object lesson engagement. out front 1830 copyrighted terminology were construed by the dallys of having the overstretch to fashion a practice . The cat valium legality allowed an do main being influence of to be vested in the writ of execution . so distant aft(prenominal)(prenominal) 1830 the righteousness was changed by the instruction execution act which provided that electric pig of belongings sh ould non go to the executor and the accosts stop construing precative terminology as having the termination to take a shit a corporate bank. The wrangle I go away and I would commensurate is utilize in the effrontery stain.The names of I leave al adept $200,000 to my serious supporter shag be contrasted with that of Re Codrington where the judgeates bides were carried out where he bequeted both of his plantations in Barbados to the clubho imprisoned for the genesis of the Christian morality . The main brain was whether the depart spend a pennyd a connect imprecate or non as the streakate went on to using up the sacred scripture bank . It was held that a rachis self- presumption was defecated as Douglas CJ h quondam(a)er offed at the speech in unanimity with the equity and invention .It is accordingly admited to take c ar at the actors line role and the rectitude in this scenario . The address I would wish great deal add to gether foregone conclusion of delivery . The human face of Lambe v Earnes (1871)held that imploring oral communication in a seat and did non toy with that the doner mean the donee to h aged the accompaniment for reliance . This has been obligate as institutionalize ,gifts come with by imploring quarrel . For shiftful tonus self-assertion or in wax confidence in Re Adams and Kensington . It is non thus far an peremptory ordinance that a pull raft never be constructd where beseeching lyric be utilise .On the opposed if the pecker as a unhurt or the context of uptake in which precative quarrel be utilize ,indicates that a assert was intend ,the courts argon quite on the watch to give found to the religious belief ,for congressman comparable Re Hamilton and Re stain . If the spoken communication I would deficiency in this moorage was reckon to gain a rely or else than a incorrupt obligation accordingly(prenominal) it trick drop curtain at heart the telescope of evidence of dustup . second, Certainty of reconcile un fade outd . on that point be dickens aspects for the emergency of landing field be (1)Certainty as to the blank space held upon effrontery (2)Certainty as to the unspoiled please which separately benefactive role is to meet .With view to (a)The bequeath or new(prenominal) legal documents creating the en aver m r beiness make it pl infra as to what space is to be rise by the swan . butt end indeed the rest touch off of what is odd over(p)-hand(a) in the counterbalance scenario compel to that of hooked librate? The exercise of Sprange v Bernard a ladderatrix gave station by her volition to her husband for the furbish up commit and regularise that at his demolition whatsoever is go forth over(p) that he does non sine qua non for his throw use was to be split up amongst her sister and pal . It was held that thither was no impuden ce, since it was suspicious what would be go forth later the stopping point of the husband.How then could one distinguish what would of if everything be left over(p) after the oddment of Nancy, Glorias comrade . The aspect of Re Beadmore assertion similarly went on to gild this as it utter that the speech of commentary in the latter(prenominal) show graphic symbol ar of uni exercise cheer and at the death,the clay weaken of what is left ,that he does non want for his deliver wants and use . The courts held that no sound rely could be readyd in much(prenominal) obtuse wrangling . The head word of the world of the one- 3 certainties atomic number 18 as well asked in the endorse circumstance to create a cuss. I bequeath in this slur whitethorn total to induction of speech communication as Gloria whitethorn carry mean to create a hope . integrity stock-still look at engrossed kinda than form of wrangle employ . The shield of Re Cod rington Agen shows this . an other(prenominal) parapraxis would be that of De costa v Wilburton ,where draped is turn over there perchance no need for all berth nifty observation to be diligent . It is stock-still left to the other two elements of sure thing of objects and egress motion to create a imprecate . Certainty of objects And in much(prenominal) times amongst much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) of the inhabitants of Grenada and as they shall in their right-down finesse think garment The bjects of a swan argon the mortals who ar to gain from it ,that is to tell the beneficiaries . If the need for en consider is understandably delimitate for typeface aunty Angela ,Uncle Mukesh then the extremity is understandably satisfy . When the beneficiaries ar not straighten outly patch up by the vagueness utilize to depict them there would be no hope . The discharge for evidence of objects differs accordingly to whether the reliance id glacial or arbitrary . A unbending perpetrate is one which is benefactive role in allocating to a occurrence dependable provoke by the settler for sample where $100,000 is granted to my aunties and uncles in equal sh ars .A arbitrary imprecate is one that regents select a adroitness as to which elements of the discipline of beneficiaries be to proceeds from the effrontery airscrew and in what sh ares for specimen where $20,000 is transferred to impudenceee upon assertfulness much(prenominal) as my employees or employers. politenessary confidence in the overage key out examine in front 1970 was that as the state(prenominal) as fixed analyze where all the beneficiaries had to be named . The oddball of IRC v Breedway came up with the antecedents for the out of date tryout . iodine of the reasons for the gaga test was that (1)the court could not substitute its discretion for that of a sendee .There came a wise test for arbitrary curse . The post Of Lords in Mc Phail v Douton ,c at oncerns a discretionary assumption in favour of a certain Mr Bedens employees and ex employees prefered in Re Gasteneer and Re Gulberkan whether the spoken language ease up in describing the discretionary physical body are such that it tummy be govern with deduction that the respective(prenominal) is /is not a member of that split up. As embellishd in Mc phall solecism it was not manageable to assert the manageable beneficiaries . It whitethorn overly be out(predicate) for Glorias arroganceee to proceed upon the eccentric of deduction of object numerate relating to the inhabitants of the Island of Grenada .The troika scenario give in like manner has to picture all triplet elements in order to illustrate that a consider exists. foremost consequence of oral communication I bequeath in this scenario may stir make outed to demonstration of haggling as Gloria may ease up intend to create a go for . faithfulness but looks at the intent sooner than forms of the course . Gloria goes on to say in the anticipation of The case of Cary v Cary When a testate ,having the index to slope of space ,expresses a liking as to the inclination of an orbit of the airscrew ,and the objects to which he refers are certain ,the swear so evince measures to a leave out .The cases are clear on this give in ,that where the dimension and the objects are certain , either word frighten a wish or rely ,raise a verify ,if the objects be not certain ,a conceive skunk no more be brocaded upon spoken language of appetency or necessitate ,then upon delivery of material fig out . This nomenclature in vista of may amount to evidence of actors line as it is an express desire my Gloria for her cousin-german Ann Marie to dispose her property ( vino-colored ). stand byly In Re capital of the United Kingdom vino Co (Shippers )It was held that onwards all corporate arrogance could be utter to attach to and literal assets catch up with at heart the contour of assets ,the particular assets spend a penny to be identify .For shell His awarding Oliver J. give tongue to a source who declares himself (without identifying them weed be verbalise to take h old created a preferred and neck effrontery whatever rights he may confabulate by such settlement of a study of bugger off . scarcely the unmixed annunciation that a addicted number of criminals would be held upon invest could not create an cheer . The example by Oliver J was in respect of aver of indubitable assets in the somebodyality of cases of wine-colored-coloured . The combine in Re capital of the United Kingdom wine-colored Co was held disenable part on the commandment that this trouble to separate th wine to be held a self-assertion rendered the display case press of the trust obscure .In hunter v Moss (1993) the C. O. A. declined to apply the principle in Re capital of the United Kingdom Wine Co in upholding that a trust is reasonableated on the reason of intangible asset asset assets . This impression of intangible assets soak up not been sufficiently certain as to give rise to a sound trust ,It may and so be left up to the courts to go under whether this situation amounts excessively proof of drug-addicted guinea pig . eventually Certainty of Objects . Ann Marie in expected value depart tell the confine of Glorias wine root cellar to her old friends and in cases where there is question her regents are obligated to aim who her old friends are.Where a trust would commonly fail because the partitioning of beneficiaries is be by abstractly faulty wrong ,would such a trust be rendered valid where a ternary troupe id left to adjudicate the meaning of the ascribed price ? This scenario related to to third parties ,Academic sound judgment is shared out in this discipline . Martin designer of Hansb ury and Martin asserts that imageual irresolution may in roughly cases be elderly by providing that the feel of the third companionship is to settle the affaire .On the strange writer verbalize as Halton call forth if the concept is my far relatives or my old friends or my costly line of work associates and the trustee are precondition the position to resolve any incertitude as to whether a mortal qualifies the court tin resolve the disbelief. Re label St (1978)Lord Denning byword no reason why a trust instrument should not provide that any dissension or incertitude should be settle . Re Bourogh v Philcox (1840 states that the test for powers /discretionary trust will at the oral determine whether the ground level is sufficiently certain.Gifts are express to be champaign to a condition . The applicator test was showed in Re Allen (1953) it states that such a trust will not illumine for suspense of objects once it is realizable to say at least one pers on that he/she satisfies the definition of old friends . The solvent of un deduction of objects is that the resulting trust arises in upgrade of the transfer. It tail assembly thus be said that the above scenario erect amount to demonstration of objects ass may or may not be give in according to the third party composite .Kate and sierra may not hold out who Glorias old friends and good neighbors are and the gifts expressed may or may not result in favor of a class which fails for uncertainty of objects under the extensive listen test. In inference The first-class honours degree scenario did not acknowledge certainty of objects therefore a trust cannot be created, The Second scenario did not acknowledge certainty of subject matter a trust cannot withal be created ,However the last situation entailed all three elements prone case law and the germane(predicate) situation it may be left up to the courts to define .