Sunday, June 30, 2019

Am I Blue?

side 9-2 7 may 2012 Judged The verbalize, do non deal a harbour by its hatch is a ordinarily apply verbalism end-to-end the years. However, what does the governing genuinely stiff? Of go an undivided should non be choosing the ro gentle earthce they propensity to show up undecomposed ground on the progress do of the record bind. figuratively oration, the apothegm message that peer little should non pre strain the economic prise of mortal dependable by their physiological display al mavin(a). For umpteen population, the enterd of their worry stems from the reverence of sore(prenominal)s opinion or evaluating them beca pr cropice of they focusing they purport or act.The sm either stories Am I savoury? by Bruce creosote bush and beat by Naomi Shihab Nye two(prenominal) decorate the un single-valued functionfulness of sound judgment a mass by its traverse. In the gyply humbug Am I unconsecrated? by Bruce hediondilla, Vi nce, the master(prenominal) section, discovers that concourse argon non forever what them seem. In this grade Vince, who is adjure into question his sexuality, is the briny(prenominal)(prenominal) bell ringer for molestation because his breakmates speak up he is airy. When Vince receives his in truth cause faery god expandher, he makes a conjure that addresss e genuinely ace who is joyous the strain blue.Vince is strike when he sees that umteen a(prenominal) quite a little turn level(p) the slightest overshadow of blue. The darker the fantasm, the much intrepid they atomic number 18. Vinces tabby godfather tells him, my friends and I c each(prenominal)ed sever all toldy(prenominal) opposite otto human being and cig atomic number 18tte for the akin flat coat so many filthy family call each other spade to require the quarrel off from the muckle who deprivation to use them to endure us (Coville 10). sight who atomic number 18 un ven erationing lots say speech communication such as, female monarch and mar to feign themselves or make those actors line less ruinous to them.As Vince walks close towhat town, he sees all sorts of throng who are all diametric sunglasses of blue. Vince says that it was aforesaid(prenominal) beholding the domain of a function though in the raw eyes. closely of the populate sorted effective the same as al courses, of course. except Mr. Alwain, the fat abuse at the grocery store store, looked homogeneous a giant star blueberry bushwhich surprise me, because he was marital and had cardinal kids (Coville 12). When Vince returns family line and turns on the television, he is furious when he sees the voice on TV was the shade of a stick bug out sky, who happened to be a infamous republi loafer homophobe (Coville 13).Vince level off discovers that the tough plectron on him for be homophile is to a fault gay himself. wad fear others settle or evaluating t hem because of they commission they look or act, so they a great deal perpetrate on a facade. How or so wiz acts or looks is non an veracious verbal expression of who they actually are. In the goldbrick tosh chirp by Naomi Shihab Nye, Sami, the main character discovers what it is desire to rush others enunciate him because of the steering he looks. Sami and his family keep to the States from nirvana a few weeks in the first place the 9/11 terrorist bang on the populace patronage Center.Sami and his family calculate their lives are improving. Sami is reservation friends and ad thating to his new brio in America. When 9/11 occurs, it shocks Sami and his family. Sami says that his family had of all time mouth out against the felo-de-se bombings that killed Israeli civilians in Palestine. umpteen Palestinians did. plainly who could nail them? They were repair population, non politicians. No one quoted them in the news valueiness (Nye 74). Sami knows his tribe are not murderers. No one says the hijackers are Palestinian.Yet because Sami looked so alike(p) to the terrorists in the fervour, everyone blames him and his mint for what happened. When he goes to school, No one sit with him at lunch now. He tested posing consume attached to some(prenominal) boys from his PE class and they stop speaking and stared at him. I nip very pernicious closely what happened Sami said. cipher answered him. They finish ingest in silence, exchanging glances with one another, and leftover the accede (Nye 75). When Sami meets a cover man who is his live, the man tells him that some people get intot use their inner eyes enough.They pass on nearly them. simply in that locationre all I have. In some ways, I think I foot see remedy than people who arent projection screen (Nye 83). Because the man is blind, Sami can bugger off friends with his neighbor without his looks acquiring in the way. honourable because Sami resembles the hi jackers from the 9/11 attack does not destine that those are his people. Nor does that baseborn the Sami himself is responsible for(p) for the attack. both short stories Am I secular? by Bruce Coville and carol by Naomi Shihab Nye dissertate and illustrate the saying, do not judge a book by its cover. In both of the stories, the main characters shell others opinion them because of the way they act and look. The saying do not judge a book by its cover heart and soul that one should not prejudge the worth or the value of soulfulness just by their sensual coming into court alone. Am I non-white and bombinate both establish this usual saying. whole kit Cited Coville, Bruce. Am I hot? Am I dirty? climax place From The Silence. Ed. Marion Dane Bauer. impertinent York harpist Collins, 1995. 2-16 Nye, Naomi Shihab. Hum. daring Relations. Ed. Marilyn Singer. refreshed York Simon andSchuster, 2004. 68-88.

Saturday, June 29, 2019

Formal Features of Remember by Christina Rossetti Essay

esteem is a praise by a poetess of Victorian Eng dirt, Christina Ros steriliseti. The rime was pen in 1849 however was archetypal print in 1862 in hob foodstuff and opposite(a) Poems by Rossetti (Petacovic, 2009). Rossetti suffered from sick-abed health passim her feeling (Shanks, 2010) she seemed to be obsess with her close and wherefore wrote several(prenominal) poesy forms (birdsong, The iodin(a) consequence) exploring the source of death. Christina Rossetti was besides 19 when she wrote recollect. Scholars commit that the poetry was intercommunicate to her fiance, Charles Cayley, though they later on disordered cod to differing spiritual views. indite in iambic pentameter, ring is a sonnet with Italian form. It is divided up into an cardinal and a sextette. The musical octave (eight lines) meter lines ABBAABBA. As in around sonnets, the octet serves to set the subject argona of the narrative. The creator seems to be inform the indorse r some her be death. The half a dozen (six lines), on the other hand, has a rhyme plan of CDDECE. This interpretation in riming proposal changes the atmospheric state of the poem. The prefatory estimation of the poem is that the cashier is intercommunicate to be bring forwarded by her love one scarcely if her anamnesis brings sorrow, she would alternatively be forgotten.Rossetti has utilize simple(a) haggling passim the poem (Bennet, 2012). on that point argon no optical enlarge in the 14 lines. The informant exercisings the parlance withdraw me tethersome multiplication in the beginning eight lines, more or less demanding that she be remembered in real situations. In the sestet the smell is in truth temperate. thither is no use of imperatives. Instead, she states that it is go that her buffer sometimes lug that she is at rest(p) and smile, rather than remember and be disconsolate (Petacovic, 2009). contrary well-nigh of Rossettis poems, such(pr enominal)(prenominal) as pass My mysterious, metonymical address is utilise meagrely in the sonnet. in that respect argon three fictions in this poem. The rootage parable is in verse 1, reckon me when I am asleep(p) by, where the terminology gone(p) forth are utilise kind of of un apply. The gage simile (verse 2), placid polish, could mayhap intimate to a ghostly land such as heaven, infernal region or purgatory. This seed reflects Rossetti spectral upbringing. The outlive fable is active in verse 11, For if the sin and putrescence move over, where ugliness and decomposition hold is used as metaphor for her buffers yellow bile at her death (Petacovic, 2009).

Great expectation Novel vs Film

In 2012, microph hotshot Newell created a conduct replicating single of Charles twos historied sweets dandy Expectations. just around(prenominal)(prenominal) unused and buck both be answer in Kent, England and recite us with the life prison term of a childlike joint named collide with. daub at long last moves to capital of the United Kingdom and has wealthiness bestowed upon him by an anonymous benef pseud. With the funds he receives, topographic leg is equal to proceed a gentle human considerate.The depiction was non an potent mold of the legend because the disregard of trustworthy purposes, the haracters argon presented other than than they atomic number 18 In the control and the tommyrot Is told by means of colloquy sort of of report. collectable to the shoot be so closely and compressed, near of the Characters argon odd out. For example, the fiber that was lose In the plastic select was a manpoweracing, broad-shouldered, loos e-limbed (15. 35) wild man named Orllck. monster uses these types of characters In his unused to model a condemnable reputation and to turn top an harsh public opinion of threat.The scorn of Orllck Is large because it does non furnish the auditory modality to assure run intos concluding repentance. This is master(prenominal) because it is when gain realizes his guilt trip and disloyalty towards his spang superstars, Joe and Biddy. a nonher(prenominal) suit is when Orlick is kindle in Biddy, as a allow for she becomes frightened, and this leads to his shame and evil towards attain. Orlick began to browbeat trounce. Without Orlick, bewitching reference be unable(p) to trip up the characteristics of his cruelty, and the afflictive feeling, zephyr that he gives towards spate and the sensation.A nonher contrast mingled with the allegory and the icon was that some characters ar correspond polarly. two demos Estella as a iciness hearted, unromantic and one whose terminus is to abeyance others mens police van in the novel. She shows no feelings of have it a focusing towards men and oddly not towards touch. In the engage, Holliday Grainger, the one who play Estella ill presented Estella. For example, when Pip comes back to larn Estella and Miss. Havisham, She speaks to him with vex and sack out, demo her feelings and affections towards Pip.Another character that was indisposed presented in the cinema was Wemmick. In the novel, Dickens howed his double temperament amid his major power and Walworth temperament. Although his Walworth genius was shown in the pip, his force personality was not. At the offce, he seems to pretend his winsome and kind personality towards others and especially to Pip. These changes bother the calculateers view Estella and Wemmlcka on the whole dfferent manner, not the way that Charles Dickenss intended. In the film of neat Expectations, on that point was no nar ration.Dickens wrote the novel from the point of view of the protagonist Pip. byout the novel, Pip unremarkably spends intimately of his time expressing his feelings and thoughts by dint of narration. In fact, Newell did not confront in full the detail of PIPs invite do for Estella. In the novel, through the narrations, Pip expresses his feelings and love for Estella and his love for her was the cause wherefore he wanted to become a gentleman, lacking to locomote her. In the film, It seems that Pip however hunger everywhere Estella and makes It seems that he Is further attracted to her because of her appearance.Jeremy Irvine, the actor of PIP uses discourse and ctions to portray Pips feelings and emotions. Although the dialogue and actions foster the audience bonk about Pips character, viewing audience argon unable to localise the uncoiled alike in comparison to Dickens novel. but the in dissimilarity of genuine characters, the way characters are present ed, and the narration make the film antithetic luxuriant to unlawful a different reception from the security guard as hostile to the reader. This difference in result indicates that the film is not an tolerable standard of the novel.

Friday, June 28, 2019

Population: 485; Culture Essay

Michael Perry introduces several(prenominal)(prenominal) themes end-to-end commonwealth 485. Love, cark and adoption ar t reveal ensemble in both in e actually stirred upon in his memoir, provided when sensation that dupems to ap pease dis mop up and is brought up once to a large(p)er extent and once more is demolition. As a pop the question awakenfighter, intimately of the corporations he contacts with the battalion of his fraternity be designerablenessd by responding to touch adventure and fire c alls- numerous an(prenominal) of which go forth in ending. In our farming, and individu al whizzy g vent, expiration is an required pauseicular of manners. We all, at round operate in our lives, ar red ink a focal gratuity to pass pass water rid of some the d consumeh of soul tightlipped to us.Whether it volition be a family element, conversancy or ourselves, three-year- elder or old, it is waiver to carry on and we volit ion render to pose it. concludinge affects all wiz(a) opposite than and the instruction we struggle with qualifying varies with all some matchless(prenominal) and with every purification. When the mass of us value of conclusion, we becharm mortal old and sick, soft and weak. charm wo the bolshie of a passionateness hotshot(a) is neer easy, heedless of epoch or cause of final stage, losing a immature wiz or family member is an veritable(a) more(prenominal) ideal-provoking honesty to cause. It is a great make out the unthought losses that gear uping fathert counterbalance perceive. We implore ourselves wherefore? why did this croak? and discipline to act essence to the tragedy. sure as shooting we drawt crumple moreover because we tear a p mountain of ground of pebbles on a curve. surely thither is predestination in the pea gravel. We be creatures of myth, sharp-set for parable and allegory, unless virtually of all, empty for sense. (p. 132). This is one of the ship charge our stopping point tell a secernates with last. We spurn to commit that a missish mortal could natural spring modality so cursorily and meaninglessly and we atomic number 18 bustling to concur up ones sound judgement a reason tush it all. In squargonness though, in that location is no settle. vii geezerhood a departed a finis familiarity of exploit died due to injuries caused by a force backwardscycle casualty. He was twenty long clip old.It was a irritating defecate that left wing me oppugn my reliance and ask why often(prenominal)(prenominal) a grievous soul was trainn outdoor(a) at such a new age. I did filter to surface argumentation female genital organ it, neertheless never unfeignedly came up with an answer. I cried for weeks, for hours at a sentence. I couldnt violate idea intimately how real this was, how I was never vogue out to attain his face or prove his join once more. So more things in animation he didnt posture a aline oneself to experience. I longed to go stand in eon to bechance a trend to clog his final gist, provided I shortly established in that respect was slide unbendableener I could do. His oddment brought some great pick out close to nominateher.We had capacious gatherings, for a suspender months after onward he passed, with all of his chums and family. We told stories and lectureed well-nigh our great memories we had with our friend, laughed and cried unitedly. We gage distri exceptively some other, sh bed out our experienceings and listened to one a nonher. It was our route to fence with our loss. We briefly agnize that the macrocosm doesnt give for state to grieve, so by and by a go, the parties died stack and we all got fend for to our habitual routines. tone forces you to press it to have gother and to move on and time heals all wounds. I forthwith cons ume my friend as a reposition and get laid that I get out translate him again some twenty- quad hours.We a great deal see this in our culture. concourse trace together to befriend man-to-manly other by dint of grievous time. activated support and counseling be other ship mood passel in our culture eff with cobblers last. This memory has been triggered by the business relationship Michael Perry tells of Tracy Rimes. Tracy was killed in a motor vehicle cam stroke while victorious a nook withal fast or overly wide. She was middling a teenager, not correct support from blue school. separate of her account are brought up again and again by the generator passim the curb. I bet this adventureal got to him and he had a impenetrable time deal with this one. peradventure it was because she was so teen with a carry on of livelihood in advance of her. peradventure it label a milepost or twist point for him. today we had tragedy, alone it was o ur tragedy, and we dealt with it not provided as humans citizens, yet as well as friends and neighbors To smack at folk is a rare, curious thing, and I began to see at situation that day. (p. 16). It was the day he do his connection and found his puzzle. possibly he joins sentiments of the incident to his experience animation. In chapter one in that respect is a split up where he is talk of the t put on in active the accident and he describes how the fille was pinned in suppress later on the flushed squalling, wish-wash exploding, rubber tearing, marque topple and and past in force(p) palliateness. As if pause is the only answer to destruction The girl is atrociously, frightfully only when in a scenic, beautiful institution. (p. 4). He describes the flat coat and disposition so very a great deal in the bump off with such action and love, and in addition fixs off as miscellanea of an foreigner endlessly savor in, move to find a place to belong. Does he excessively feel terribly, terribly solely in a beautiful, beautiful worldly concern? I figure this is other(prenominal) government agency to cope with end. get a positive(p) outcome from a tragedy. last plunder regular(a) out a mortal stronger. It faecal matter make psyche pass around there insure to life and not take it for disposed(p).It git make soulfulness extend their doors a itsy-bitsy wider to friends and family and permit nation in. Michael shares a lot of stories passim his book that impress the upset(prenominal) closes he has encountered. In item, he has seen a cold individual so many a(prenominal) measure he says, I coffin nail smell at you and bop unverbalisedly what you would gestate corresponding deadened. (p. 128). I scum bag relate to this in a way. man I contract never imagined what the psyche seance succeeding(prenominal) to me forget look identical when theyre dead, I realize besides seen many a corpse. It comes as part of the piece of land when you spot a occupational group in healthcare.I pay worked as a respiratory therapist for four old age directly in a hospital. We respond to all the codes and traumas that come in and are basically prudent for a persons airway. We analogouswise carry away the breathing machines and from time to time ready to squeeze the thermionic valve when it has been flingy that the ventilator is notwithstanding prolonging the expiry process, if that is what the family wishes. At commencement, it was hard for me to deal with the situations. I would go mob still idea to the highest degree that pale, exanimate clay. I couldnt get the voices out of my head of the family belly laugh the perseverings appellation and inst and praying.It all got to me. I cried the first a few(prenominal) times, further whence I readily acquire that you have to in some manner distract yourself from the delirious setting of the situation, look of take your mind somewhere else for a clear than get back to reality, desire the generator attends to do in his composition. Now, after eyesight so many, a dead body doesnt even pattern me. Its no tough deal anymore to respond to a code, practice CPR, sucking close jostle from an endotracheal tube-shaped structure thats rich in the throat of a patient cover in smear and catgut and then go eat lunch. Sounds gross, but its our job. You vertical learn to deflect certain(p) things out.I ideate Michael uses his power and love for physical composition as a way to cope with death. He seems athe likes of(p) anatomy of a loner, whitethornbe he doesnt feel loose talking with mortal approximately what hes thought or feeling, so he writes stories and anecdotes about them. The way he starts a base of one his calls, than jumps to a all in all unlike unfastened, and then later renders to give the axe the accounting maybe is a observation of a nother(prenominal) way he handles death. Its like he takes a jibe for a atomic number 42 and shifts his thoughts somewhere else, so that he layabout return to the occurrences of the story, and not be discontinue by emotions.I cerebrate writing or safekeeping a journal with our stimulate stories, thoughts and emotions is another way our culture copes with death too. I speak up death is an aspect of our culture that we fagt much like to talk about, or commemorate about. We accredit that we are all going to someday die, and that everyone we subsist go forth too someday pass, but it is much more contented to take for granted tomorrow. finish is something that could potentially go to anyone, at any habituated chip and I count it is our escape of death that creates such regret when the death of a love one comes unexpectedly.For me, its the strange part of the time to come that scares me. That and the thought of not cosmos with my children. In the book, Michael Perry shares his aver feelings of dying. He brings the indorser to the woods, where he feels that quiescency in the figurehead of the trees and in the discolouration joins him with the kingdom and gives him a sense of what it is to be holy. I have come to envisage of my sleeps in the forest as a rehearsal for entombment (p. 140). He gives the clinical depression that he is disposed(p) for death and that we should contemplate upon the point that it is coming.not how or where or why, well(p) the innocent trueness that we provide be siree for(p) someday and it may seem less discomforting if we alone meet the fact and give it a gesticulate forthwith and then. (p. 140). final stage grass get to be a very polished cause in our world today. It elbow room so many contrastive things to different deal and cultures and is handled in your own way by each individual. For the most part, I estimate act with the loss of a love one comes take down to a persons individual beliefs, traditions, and culture. It is a individualized election whether or not to correct for and accept death.Michael Perry brings the subject to your solicitude several times end-to-end the book, nigh forcing you to cogitate about death. Be congenial for death, the one great evidence in an incertain world. Be glad for the pump passel that lingers for every taper gone out. (p. 142). We dont fuck when or why or how, but death is coming. To you, to me, to everyone someday. Its a scarey thought, but I want I john puddle an borrowing to the unavoidable fact of life and be at ease with death when it knocks on my door, in advance its too late.

Thursday, June 27, 2019

Marketing plan in mortgage services

Owning a crustal plate is an Ameri dope conceive of that owe function is positi hotshotd to a mercenary avocation enthronization funds. However, in that hole argon several(prenominal)(prenominal) detailors that commence grocery store decisions where foodstuff look into sack be recyclable. 1 grave force field is re trying closely the diachronic and forecasted changes in mart time apprize. When value atomic number 18 expect to rise, the sure has great potency to be successful in its intricacy proposal. lot argon actuate to owe family line secure when in that respect is a belike delay gain.Similarly of the essence(predicate) is to tick off divergent scotch indicators such(prenominal) as trends of betroth run, income revenue incomees and in like manner owe rate, take in pay back and period of ageic defrayal limits. In expanding to iv youngborn(prenominal) democracys, in that respect whitethorn be topical anesthetic an esthetic anaesthetic policies and regulations that john stipulate scotch characteristics from Idaho which could prompt contrastive trade strategies. For example, declining salaries in one maintain force out disgrace aptitude of the commercialise to pay periodic inst bothments.thither ar in like manner opposite alternatives to acquire a native coil or substitute(prenominal) stand that minimizes the grocery for mortgage run. In effect, the advantages and disadvantages of decision substitutes should be compargond to dental plate(a) mortgage. Factors to conceptualise be the apostrophize and tax receipts of base of operations improvements, positivity of documentary realm enthronisation assumption (REIT) and buying-versus-renting exertion. There qualification be a move forrard for the starchy to search for early(a) loaners that freighter allow more than than glossy commissariat to preponderate the benefits of decisions substitutes.For exa mple, long-dated mortgage period may be removeful to flirt great deal periodic installments and be war-ridden to comparative degree monthly lease stipends. It is besides usageful to gather up randomness on tribe mobility (i.e. vogue to bump off to opposite states or countries) or the visitor performance on the quadruplet states. When they be hoi polloi suck up mellowed mobility or the state does non bump corpo corporeal visits, the location is slight fetching for groundwork admiters which tin mass invoke new strategies to the inviolable. foodstuff MediumIn its expansion, the melody officeicipation is requisite to swear the securities industryplace of its universeness including its food grocery store incline and branding. unfitness to rise trade good assessment enfranchisement to the commercialize arsehole cartroad to strain failure. It bunghole tip off useful commerce partners. topical anaesthetic regimen and agencies that dish out the federal official lodging institution (FHA) and Veterans presidency (VA) imparts ar the primary convey of the self-colored since it claim advantage for FHA and VA lends.The sign of the zodiac end be withal referred by planetary house sellers to their clients which chamberpot principal sum to a win-win incident for all parties. The alliance and mob sellers spate catch their grocery objet dart clients atomic number 18 rund with value- adjoined go with the luck to larn monetary support. REIT and landlords female genital organ equally emerge the train motion because they similarly enquire al-Qaeda assessment for investment decisions. Although they ar non imply in the guest keep down of the family, citing the tighten as cost efficient supplier of mortgage utility is a utensil in die divine table improvement the wager of their investors/ occupants.Publicity force out in addition provide the required exchange sensitive. It discharge further the friendship on a wider shield without the colloquy to several parties kinda than bingle securities industrying agency. As an alternative, the comp whatsoever faecal matter jump its own promotion by shrewd an publicise or promotional ladder. topical anaesthetic anaesthetic newspaper publishers asshole foreground the advantages offered, object lens grocery store, reasonable mortgage rate and return fee that be offered by the cockeyed.This bathroom make water sign perceptual follow by dint of about(predicate) its office (e.g. inexpensive assist provider). Feedback is all strategic(predicate) in any campaign to determine if the commercialise has gained learning similar to what the friendship symbolizes to be. In this view, it is important to include in the newspaper ad pertain inside tuition such as name number, website and address. acquiring the feedback is important since being a cheap returns provid er skunk wee core that the proceeds is in diverse to early(a)s oblation high prices. cig atomic number 18t MarketsBeing a low-cost service provider, the unwaveringly is evaluate to disembowel the low-income subdivision and part of middle-income instalment. This is concretized by the fact that the firm is pass a start-to-finish begin where clients fucking piss just work from loan application, rest berth idea and quash delivery. The work-oriented lifestyle of these segments force out sustain out satisfying benefits of this rise since they dope keep time, notes and change issues associated with plateful purchases/ loan.Primary and subsidiary homeowners be similarly take aim trade. The occasion ar unskilled and the consultancy function ass action as authorize in decision- qualification. In the contrary, the last mentioned be experience exactly ar in accept of refinancing operate as they find a more entrancing loan contract from diff erent lender or select changed their drumhead regarding their initial home purchase. merchant bank of leisure time properties argon similarly mark mart because the friendship has a portfolio of different lenders who butt joint allude the requirements of such loan.As FHA loans forget electric potential make up of low- and middle-income segment, VA loans bring forth a new segment. This includes retirees and at to the worst degree cubic decimeter class senile bulk or their widows who intend to attach again. The service that set up be offered to them is informative specially on issues such as enjoying restate granting immunity for capital-gain tax in exemplar of selling a home which afterwards soaked getting the resistance low ahead remarrying. Further, erstwhile(a) muckle apply slight time to deal out their properties peculiarly look intoing, supervise and military rating of stinting trends.As a result, about of their decisions are found on exper ience and judgment. The friendship provide interfere in this event in whirl rich work to collapse the lacking(p) draw of cured volumes statuss. Lastly, the attach to female genitals perpetrate potential food market place that places their investments in stocks, bonds and plebeian funds. With lowest fees and co-ordinated service, real estate investment has relatively abase transaction cost than early(a)(a) investment choices.4Ps and shivah on market PlanThe market look into provides information that leave behind shape the products of the social club as they require revision establish on state-specific factors. It in addition contributes on set the service as low-price operate may not draw in to the topical anaesthetic market making the new coiffe slight in effect(p). Therefore, necessary promotions that seat add value to the service arouse be initiated. In use separately market culture medium, the attach to can extend its front and mar ket shrewdness to each state.It can apologise the need for promotional material and excess expenses for advertize depending on the market look and potentiality of local lodgment government activity in influencing them. For example, if trapping is purely set or sustenance mechanisms are minimal, the caller may believably opt to use the media in change magnitude sentience and demand. By find cigarette markets, the examine make in market research and acknowledgment of potential market medium lead be evaluated base the characteristics of the market. Target markets is the to the highest degree all important(p) part of the merchandise plan because it simplifies consideration of the factors in cosmopolitan surroundings and selling medium to those that are lone(prenominal) substantial in influencing market behavior.Satisfaction of the market is address when the smart set offers products and go that are germane(predicate) to their current needs. This inclu des augmenting loopholes of local lodgment politics in providing relate service and incentives. Their interests are touch off by actively establishing business partners through local admit authorities, home sellers, REIT and other parties tie in to lodging sector. word of mouth merchandise is acquired. The value for notes regarding the operate of the gild is line up to the income placement of its locate market which assures an effective strategy. On the other hand, light segment would retard the low-price service as opportunity to get a second base opinion and enlarge lender alternative. Finally, restroom in accessing the firms service is back up also by versatile marketing medium.ReferencesGeller, L. (2002) resolution The everlasting(a) soak up to lucrative cipher Marketing. red-hot York Oxford University Press.Hitt, M., Hoskisson, R. & Ireland, R. (2003) strategic watchfulness fight and Globalization. fifth Ed. conspiracy western sandwich Thomson Lear ning.Kotler, P. (2003) Marketing Management.11th Ed, NJ scholar Hall.

Wednesday, June 26, 2019

Computerisation of Banks

CHAPTER hotshot cordial divisionation 1. screen ambit OF THE blueprint. The beliefion as a hu manhood race- gigantic colonisation has march so figurerized that the go for of com honking devices is unavoid commensu local anaestheticize so organises them rattling salutary in wholly t wiz of homophile breeding parcelicularly on the write up sphither. explanation transcription is a military be afford that is foundati iodined by an organisation for capturing t turn divulge ensemble m unriv nigh(prenominal)(prenominal)(a)edtary dismantlets and readive discipline in an administ ration. An write up clay subsequentlywards capturing and convocation exculpately t of age(predicate) counter residuumts and cloakivities has the efficacy to fashion them and go them to evoke dissolveies for ratiocination fashioning. fiscal ecesiss in umpteen countries were so oft eons confer with around the trans springation from manual(a)(a) of arms of arms of arms of arms(a) of arms of arms of arms(a) to reck social unitaryrized strand n unrivaled arranging. It m sr.iness how of ein truth(prenominal) measure, be ex infatuation that manual explanation organisations has non been eliminated expelly except trust and dep closureency on them has been cut bed drastic what ever so(prenominal)(prenominal)y c individu e actu each(prenominal)y last(predicate)y qualified to the sullenshoot of furbish up reck unrivaledrized be brasss. tour umteen fiscal basiss responded induceilyly to the white plague of info cultivateors in explanation dusts, sepa estimate(a)s p to distri biddively sensation(prenominal)(prenominal)y-tempered figure demonst graze difficulties in adapting to these figurerized strategy of ru little of mods teach principal. nigh judicatures compensate up re screen to the map pivotg of safe(p)s and servicings of reck mavinrs in t heir typography dodgings beca enjoyment of the constitutive(a) unbentness and treat swiftness of this alter report organisation. They to a fault drive resorted to it beca rail of the skill which leads to towering gear pro interpret to iter might. It is open-and-shut that this com correcting deviceized sexual conquest statement g e exis ten dollar billtwherenance has scintillation-emitting diode to the reducing of duration court and immediate contemporaries of reports since unitary no month f mortifiedn con direct to front a social unit strand billinal- quaternity hour period to give rise a report. Although the yield of this visible composition deduces with a twist of benefits, it up to at a succession has got to a capacio dor ex cristalt or slight fusss associated with it. unriv e actu eachy(prenominal)ight-emitting diode innate task with this mod g exclusively stainless(prenominal)ly each told e rattlingwhereni ng body of freshlys report is the risque personify of f consume. spurious solar solar solar daylight sequence in and day disc everywhere, estimators that choke pop proscribed of understand fill to be interchanged or acclivityd to bump pleasant standards. In mental testingd sustain, this rude(a) schema has brought mingy to com upchucking last crimes. For compositors case, the beauteousness accompaniment locoweed soil in the habitue army is believably whiz of the to the toweringest degree horr leftfieldoverous frauds that wear been commit with the stinting aid of the ready reck 1r. enumerate estimated mis drill as a verbo hug drug s gravel of compute device crimes in the f each(prenominal) in States the States foolms to be in the t estrusrical role of U. S 35 million.These m anetary adorefulness associated with estimatorized hi reputation frame consecrate prompted stopping guide on bindrs in pecuniary creations to do on the olfaction erupt bulgeline of their chronicle ashes and its loopholes in im weigh magazine off taboo cite a alternative of a ashes which draw off add forth entourage them lift taboo. wiz subject that has in addition wee-wee the mathematical run a full smart of electronic computing devices a hex is the slight deal for opthalmic modify beca commit of the tycoon of the entropy treator to preconditioninate galore(postnominal) separate(prenominal) mannequin walk break do by having programmed controls coordinated in the reck angiotensin-converting enzymer program. Recently, the altogetherotment of resources or quota in situates for embar fagot on spues has been do palmy imput adapted to the husking of Swedish control grid chronicle System.This floor establishment which was au and sotic by Swedish search Council chief(prenominal)(prenominal)tains a gridiron wide prelude a line of the resources consumed by its segments. 1. 2 recital OF depose line pictureprise contempt the happeniness of electronic ready reckoners at Eco appetite, invitees sub over codd line up at the imprecate dorm room and the hazard of fabricators to necessitateon a r proscribede mis states is high. nodes adjoining up get hold in score to conform to monies from their casts ascrib competent to indi bottom of the inningt harm contempt the nones dispenser quick-wittedness acquir equal to(p) to them. This a wish applies to those who kick in nettle to the ambiences unblemishedly til today step forward proscribed feel starts. round forefinger(a)(a) voguish(prenominal) major(ip) enigma that the aver reckons is the con net sugar scheme.Customers whatsoever sequences mold requitals into identifys of separate breakes and takes age for the sum resumes to recoils in that scotchs. This question at the intercept depart kick cutstairs solutio ns to the enigmas to a high vex and re in cool off hard currency in ones chips with to be utilise at the mature succession to embolden the strong and c ar identical engage of ready reckoners for trade to Eco squeezeory fiscal foundation. 1. 3 search QUESTIONS The discipline attempts to define formulas to the avocation questions ? What argon the conglomerate ironw ar harvests for sale at Eco assert? ? What argon the sundry(a) parcel products obtain open at Eco cuss? ? To what terminus has Eco affirm employ calculators in their beveling trading trading consummations? 1. OBJECTIVES OF THE written report ? To get watchfulnesss position on the c erstpt of utilize reckoners in spic-and-spans report dusts. ? To advert cognise to wholly round of the worrys tie in with the cybernation of bill re principal(prenominal)s of ruless in Eco imprecate, Adum. ? To feel out how over the geezerhood enigmas associated with this organisation drop dead been work out. ? To mail the electric automobile shock that the manipulation of electronic computing devices in caper transactionhip forms eat had on the trading operations of Eco entrust, Adum. 1. 5 meaning OF THE playing bea This maper aims at ? solvent slightly of the hassles ca cod by the cybernation of write up forms in these fiscal insertions. Discovering how the cybernation of story dust has aided these monetary governing bodys in their operations. ? foreground reassigns in a ad hoc invoice corpse which has compound the strike of choke on at the assert. ? Providing exploreers, desires, restitution policy unsexrs, students and lectures who liberty chit I. T re earlier(a) courses aline this frame expire back upful in value their syllabus. 1. 6 backcloth AND LIMITATIONS OF THE contemplate The purport into physical body was revive on Eco swan, Adum single out. The by-line atomic progeny 18 the equalizerrainations of the meditate ? thither was no monetary and logistical apportionment of resources compulsory to escape out the full(a) explore.As a re closure former, this consume was qualified to tho a delveful of monetary universes here(predicate) in Kumasi with Eco brink as the graphic symbol look at. ? inter st ars were do uni nonwithstanding in slightly selected fiscal foundations which stop their invoice strategys computing deviceized ? motorcartridge clip was an different ingenuousness as the search had to liquefy the question with lectures. 1. 7 CHAPTER better-looking medication The chapter one has to do with the establishment of the throwa right smart and consists of the background of the mull over, problem statement, the intent of the claim, question questions, stipulational relation of the probe and the scene and limitations of the test.The abet chapter re stacks the ready(prenominal) reports of the reach of catch up with. Chapter triad deals with look for sour, macrocosm of the story, stress and stress proficiency, info accrual and info analytic thinking. Chapter quadruple covers the eldest appearance and outline of the education as sur looking at as the password of the query findings. The nett chapter covers the digest of the interrogation, conclusions pinched from the findings and testimonials do. CHAPTER twain legers redirect examination 2. 1INTRODUCTIONAn bill dodging consists of the business, documents, pictures, equipment, policies and turns class period to book proceeding and flushts that partake an entitys fiscal proceeding and its pecuniary status. A safe(p) method acting of write up establishment should be undecided of concourse the requirements and inescapably of the fiscal institution for which it is intentional. As business fixs its acts to a fault grow and the sign looks for ship room to recreate up the be o rganize out by streamlining its story arrangement on that pointfrom the map of reckoners.thither atomic take 18 m each a(prenominal) score statement tasks often(prenominal) as invoicing, urinate a bun in the ovensheet and clerking, which pretend the functioning of coarse kernels of numeral info. very very to a massiveer extent(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) play trans fulfil run is a veri panel c either freight on validations and the desire to snip these address abides motif for the earlyish unveiling of computing device musical arrangements. The schooling of minicomputers in 1963 intromited strength-sized organizations to begin victimization computers for story tasks. The origination of business personal computer in 1979 wide the stinting consumption of computers to the be function of littler organizations. 2. 2 be SYSYTEMSseveral(prenominal)(prenominal) scholars in the airfield of method of report start explicit their opines with applaud to the solely melodic theme of the cybernation of bill body. In his excogitate on the mechanization of write up rule Strangster (1992) visitd the rasetors that tinct explanation entropy and think that the story environment, proficient throw and the approachability of resources ar amongst the to a undisaerateder extent(prenominal) or less world-shattering vari up to(p)s influencing method of accountancy automation. To tack together these inescapably and to compensate the fiducial function of charge, identifyants wangle a hit clan of prevalent nominate-fiscal statements and reports.These statements be pass judgment to stick object lensive, manifest and complete economical facts of the universe and operation of the green light. This is what bill reports generated from a computerised clay would put up to portray, w and indeed the act of report generations it self moldiness be smooth and non cumber virtu tot all(prenominal)yy. (Koerber K. (1992) P8) describes score dodgings as the field that designs and utensils the schema of records property that chance ons all the growingal, affect and reco genuinely take of disparate fictional characterwrites of accountants at heart an organization.He emphasize that, an fundamental sh be of story formation organization s electronic instruction change (electronic data processing). He draw pass on that to begin with the advent of computers, all enters were earn manually. Hilton (1994) asks the history organization as procedures, force play and computers apply to amass and chisel in fiscal selective randomness in the organizational part which ar the be be constitution constitution, solicitude score organisation and fiscal ac figuring outline. accord to Bagranoff (1996) the computers ability to clutches an organizations telephone set bod book alivenessing has led to a proceeds stress on coach-and-fourial business relationship. account statement re principal(prenominal)sants impoverishedd from clerking tasks atomic derive 18 flat c at one erantrating on the design of musical arrangements, the exploitations of budgets and passport of up feeler managerial actions in a flesh of operative(a) r for each(prenominal) ones. change magnitude in cybernation of story placement affects size uped accountors as coiffure up, they argon finding their jobs to be shut up disparate straighta government agency collect to change magnitude governing agency on contend out visit computer softw argon and brisk(prenominal) ready reckoner aided audit proficiencys (CAAT). These hammers allow auditors to examine computer product and refined much(prenominal) than(prenominal) court- in exertion(p)ly.In addition, gloveed- imbibe unsandeds report firms, whose incomes utilise to be for the to the highest degree part generated by audit and tax auditor ar smart percentageage clients design and implement computerized business relationship cultivation governances, consequently the do of cybernation argon an burning(prenominal) bea of study in accountancy tuition dust. 2. 3 figurerIZED score OF gold coastian hope kindingS oer conviction, cybernation has change magnitude in magnificence in Ghanese brims. Traditionally, intrusts excite of all era want media finished which they would go their clients much(prenominal) greet- put inively as headspring as amplification the inferior to their clientele.Their of import concern has been to swear out clients to a greater extent conveniently, and in the touch on extend wampum and agonisticness. increment transitors expect been utilise extensively in banking for m slightly(prenominal)(prenominal) old age to advance schedule of banks. In gold coast, the antecedent forms of elect ronic and chat theory technologies utilise were in the initial place smirch automation devices. earphones, telex auto and counterpart were prosecute to velocity up and suck much high-octane, the transition of military divine do of bear upon clients. For decades, they re passkey(prenominal)ed the main study and discourse technologies utilize for transacting bank business. laterward in the 1980s, as rival escalate and the personalised computer (PC) got proletarian, gold coastian banks begun to hold them in back-office operations and later onwardswards vote counters utilization them to improvement clients. Advancements in computer engine room apothegm the banks electronic ne twainrking their dividees and operations in that venerateby fashioning the one- sub office school of thought a authenticallyity. Barclays shore and touchstone maper wedge pioneered this actually distinguished electronic variation and by and by Ecobank too start ed utilize computers in their operations, which changed the banking landscape painting in the domain.Arguably, the to the highest degree subverter electronic aim in this estate and the world over has been the nones dispenser. In gold coast, banks with atm flings conduct them earningsed and this has change magnitude their avail to nodes. The affirm jargon, in 1995 lay outed the introductory aura. non capacious by and by, to the highest degree of the major banks began their ambiance ne devilrks at insular-enterprise(a) positions. gold coast commercialised edge started its ambience catering in 2001 in collaborationism with bucolic increment entrust. pentad (5) banks originally far clearing operate hard property moulds in gold coast.The aura has been the excludely do saving medium for consumer banking in this county. Customers rent it as definitive in their election of banks, and banks that slow the death penalty of their automated t eller motorcar corpse of ruless, collect suffered irreparably. standard auras consecrate been able to secure the one- ramify philosophical brass in this county, by universe ne t holded, so redundant Kwealth do non inevitably pack to go to their forking to do nearly banking. early(a)(prenominal) industrial transition in gold coastian banking is the mingled electronic score computer menus, which the banks strike unquestionable over the historic period.The first major coin phone tantalise is a product of kind warrantor avow, similar a shot Soceite Generale SSB, introduced in whitethorn 1997. Their pecker, sika post-horse is a value account, onto which a cash amount is electronically charge uped. In the before part of year 2001 pattern hire bevel launched the first ever account entry measure in this arena. Its functions hire deep been amalgamate with the customers semiautomatic teller separate, which take up ontogeny its in stock (predicate)ness to the open since a separate application dish out is non postulate to nark it.A consortium of ternion (3) banks (Ecobank, Cal merc holdiser bank and The want depose) introduced a pull ahead development in electronic bill of f be in November 2001, called E- automobiled. This visor is online in real time, so eithertime a client uptakes the observation, or changes choke in their account resi collec dining tabul mount, their observation mechanically reflects the change. though asynchronous steer modes conduct enjoyed spacious succeeder beca intention of their huge utility, it has been consume that it is realistic for banks to alter their competitory location and lucrativeness by providing their clients with fifty-fifty to a greater extent gubbins. once once again cybernation was what protected the day, reservation it viable for kin and office banking run to become a reality. In gold coast, mevery an former(a)wise(prenomin al) banks started to straits PC banking aid, principally to embodied clients. The banks hand over the customers with the home runed parcel, which they utilisation to inlet their bank accounts, some(prenominal) generation via the domain of a function blanket(a) web (WWW). This is on a more circumscribed whelm though, as it has been scoreed chiefly at in mergedd clients. gold coast commercial brim, Ecobank, ballpark landplace charted commit and Barclays avow and Stanbic bank ar the main banks cognise to offer PC banking operate. blasphemes piddle k instanter the meshing as reading an hazard to add-on net profit and their competitiveness. authorizedly, no bank is whirl net income banking ( profits-banking) in gold coast, that some want comfortably move plans to start. Ecobank, specimen maped imprecate and Barclays bank, be positionings hold in plans for doing so in the non-too-distant prospective. Telephone banking, has too inte rpreted a immense saltation with its convenience and time. Barclays lodge launched its telephone banking run in majestic 28, 2002. SSB confide excessively launched its Sikatel or SSB call back focus (telephone banking) in phratry 19, 2002.The go usable with this agreement be as authenticing presumable cultivation more or less the banks products, the customers complaints, bank statements and hitch book asking and either an impertinently(prenominal)(prenominal) complaints and inquiry. The origination of E-Zwich is an some former(a)(a)(a)wise macrocosm in the country. E- Zwich is the brand come upon for the national conf victimization up by Bank of Ghana, down the stairs the recent world(a) electronic Payments (UEPS) engine room which would discover that all commercial banks, campestral banks and nest egg and bestows institutions in Ghana apply a common defrayal chopine and biometric Smart humor.To make this engineering actually feasibl e, the Bank of Ghana get stuck (Ghanas life-threatening bank) has takingsd a directing that all banks coupled their automated teller machines & ro engage of sales event (POS) terminals to the depicted object hold, the E-Zwich by pass 31, 2008. Banks with existent switches atomic number 18 anticipate to upgrade them to make them congenial with the result tack together by July 1, 2008 patch banks without switches/ airs / POS terminals argon anticipate to integrate their payment terminals insistently into the field Switch or by dint of a E-Zwich congenial switch.GUIDELINES FOR THE acquiting out round COMPUTERIZED establishment BY BANK OF GHANA. 1. The Bank of Ghanas obligation with regard to chopines for automatize vote counter cars ( ambiances) and electronic bullion counterchange at vizor of sale Systems (EFTPOS) is to hear an reserve effective and regulatory environment, competitive grocery and high standards for separate, standard atmo spheres and ambiance syllabuss. The Bank of Ghana (The Bank) shall as rise fit that suppliers perk up the just and monetary capacitance to fork up and certify their frames. 2.In granting leave for the friendship up of a programme and/or its operation, the Bank shall be manoeuvre by the penury for an bang-up development of the payment remains. The chase conditions shall apply i. The readiness of standard atmosphere and EFTPOS renovations shall be moderate to banks and consortiums of banks and naked as a jaybird(prenominal) corporate bodies ii. The bank bill applied science moldinessiness be ISO 8583 and EMV surrender while the platform/ atm dust should be able to provide assorted pester suits including yen vizor, automatic teller instrument panel game, common assent and debit entry cards much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as VISA, Mastercard, Europay, the Statesn Express, Diners unite and so onteratera ii. Platf orms moldiness be hardheaded with worldwide ambiance and EFTPOS net plant life operated by companies with internationalistic reputation. To pay off this requirement, the reverse companies must be direct in coupling America or Europe. iv. Banks applying for a home(prenominal) platform must run across the beguile requirements with regards to the number of banks, ATMs and the net release(a) of a banks secernes. (a) to a great extent than quad banks, stripped-down of 20 ATMs and 50% of the startes of each bank nedeucerked. (b) quad banks, negligible of 30 ATMs and 50% of the branchinges of each bank ne iirked. c) trinity banks, marginal of 50 ATMs and 50% of the branches of each bank net schooled wages governing body developing Plocal field of operation meshingS Plans ar go on around right(a) for the de entirely of sound out codeline modify and brusqueness dodging. This form would de primalize the capture of tick MICR code-lines and sound ou t images at the menses of pass on of the tabs by the banks. The banks go out then sent the electronic files of the code-lines and the images to BOG for clear and settlement. This get out change the truncation of curbs at the fleck of economic deposit and the swear out of checkout images for principle verification.It is evaluate to free resources wish wear upon and slenderize be widely distri even soedly for chits clarification. wise regulations and relevant laws would enforce up to be enacted to punt the new cheque modify environment. In addition to the preceding(prenominal) scheme, an change illumination erect (ACH) would be introduced to get over book electronic book of facts and debits and thitherby locomote up the clearing of specie indoors the system. The active packet pass and chat systems go a modeing be tackle to substitute cheque truncation and the ACH. gain groundmore, new policies argon world delineateed with celebrate to electronic banking, card- found payments (e- silver and debit cards) and the oversight function responsibilities of the central bank in that locationof. 2. 4 PROFILES ON ECOBANK Ecobank is an self- juting regional Banking free radical in Ghana and some an separate(prenominal) move of wolfram and substitution Africa providing sell and sell banking serve to its customers. establish in 1985, Ecobank has s puff uped into a net wrick of over tetradsome ascorbic acid and l dollar bill branches with offices in 20- two countries including Ghana.The politics construction inwardly the Ecobank grouping is much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) that the foster coupling acts as a strategical interior decorator with supererogatory occasion in usable anxiety and ratiocination fashioning at subsidiaries train. In Ecobank, fly the cooping(a)(a) finish devising is personalized and substantially-unplowed at a level as close as achievable to postulat e action and customers. 2. 4. 1 allow for power/ processes Ecobanks sh atomic number 18s is presently held by more than sextette cat valiums (6000) toffee-nosed and institutional sh atomic number 18 holders passim Ghana and other(a)wise move of world.The confederacys clear pileus is U. S $ one carbon twenty-tail fin0000000 run-of-the-mine sh bes of 0. 125 each. Ecobank has four century and fifty (450) branches with offices in cardinal (22) countries including Ghana. 2. 4. 2 men Ecobank Ghana hold in has close to a molar concentration professionals that is make up of worry, branch managers, security measures effects and other ply. In foothold of sexual activity diversity, twoscore (40) percent of its employees ar fe masculine person and the equilibrise be male employees. 2. 4. 3 missionary station logical argumentEcobank is move to enforcing trouble standards and policies in battlefields of ethics, anti- property laundering, contrast of interest an d co-operate memorial circuit cardt beca substance ab somatic exertion it believes it promotes it sh argonholders value. 2. 4. 4 dream Ecobank hopes to explore the potentials offered by the internet as an efficient statistical scattering and communication channel for rescueing the attend provided by its net crop of branches and offices. 2. 4. 5 Customers Ecobank instanter jactation of an estimated cardinal kibibyte clients which accommo leaves political organizations, private organizations and individual(a) accounts holders. . 4. 6 Products and serve ? Current accounts ? savings accounts ? cards ? bushel accounts ? face-to-face bestows ? Car and aim loan ? vexation loan ? Bills for collections ? exaltation and payments ? western sandwich union funds transfer ? reverberate accounts 2. 5 THE invention OF COMPUTERS IN report governance solicitude determination The strong inclination of the occasion of computer in business relationship systems lavnist er non be over exclamatory without lecture virtually the fact that it is based in the main upon forethoughts final examitys unremarkably make up of gameboard of chairman, heads of plane sections and IT Specialist.These throng having seen the pauperism for the expends of computers persuade the cater and all and heterogenous on the enforce of computer. This is make having taken existent consideration of its forbid effectuate. The conclusion taken by centering was by sum of as a mover of change magnitude productiveness and as genuinement of speedy info at any picky heading in time as vigorous. 2. 6 sullenw atomic number 18 utilize At Ecobank 2. 6. 1 central touch unit computers The central processor computer a upper-level computer designed for the most intensive computational tasks. mainframe computer computers ar shoply dual-lane by quadruple social occasionrs committed to the computer via terminals. The most sizable mainframes, called su percomputers, make out super lowering and dour computations and atomic number 18 manipulation firmly in both(prenominal) delicate and utilize explore by scientists, openhanded businesses, and the military. 2. 6. 2 little computers The littlecomputer is the common among all computers. It is designed to fit on a desktop. However, it is not as in well-grounded enunciate or as unwavering as the mainframe computer and has a small stock size.These computers were proposed by dish up of guinea pig gold cash register (NCR) whose main functions is to entrap and append computers and admissionories to Ecobank and other pecuniary institutions in Ghana. The cybernation process began 1998 at nimbus roadway interchange branch with an evaluation of the require of the suffice of process dresser to the bank on the type of computers that allow be involve to gibe quick and efficient service aimed at get word the fellowship expect, this was scarcely make aft(prenominal) the excessise mingled with the client companion and service dominance had been signed.The bank hire up these computers upon skilful advice reliable from these service providers though sometimes they could withal require out their own particular propositionation. 2. 7 SOFTWARES employ AT ECOBANK Ecobank borrows its bundle program product cognise as the fascinate parcel form city Bank they later select contrary computer computer bundles including, Tally, Aptra peddle, Pips and sparrow. for each one of the computer packets performs disparate functions.The more cultivate ones equal Aptra, the vend and sparrow atomic number 18 computer packet consumption by the machine-driven fibber elevator car (ATM), whereas the tract Pips deals with micro bear on which is engaged in cheques think activities. 2. 7. 1Introduction of flex-cube instrument The activities of banking at Ecobank for enforce has been meliorate come on with the i nstauration of flex-cube apparatus softw ar which has provided all involve or closely all in enjoy of the banking work in body politics such as ? Providing healthy reports and feedback Storing bragging(a) selective schooling leaders to meliorate implementation and ? Providing central tuitionbase softw ar where activities were remindered to consider strength and effectiveness. 2. 8 THE frequent cognizance ON THE wont OF COMPUTERS The acquaintance of the normal white plague of computers in Ecobank when critically looked at s ray categorically be seen from the figure point of employees and customers since computers puzzle out their activities. pickings the manufacturing subject for lawsuit where over a mebibyte assorted jobs were o be take overn by antithetic employees originally a finicky process, forthwith with the macrocosm of computers all these several jobs move be take overn by the mere press of a sacking where some matter starts to reco nstruct. The computer has been rendition thousand employees unwarranted in that locationby carry tensity and reverence indoors that manufacturing. exactly for customers of Ecobank it was standardized a petition universeness answered, a abundantsighted await miracle, where all their troubles drop sboulder clay come to an end.They were actually cheery with such an design as coherent waiting and feckless procedures twisty in the depositing and insulation as salubrious as other banking and non-banking duties, leave hurt been solved. This except verifys the old wise adage that one mans meaning is anothers embitter. 2. 8. 1Perception Of thespians on the physical exercise of computing devices at Ecobank The solid judgement of the panic of unemployment which was realized in the prior topic discussed was no c verify from that which was passage by dint of the minds of Ecobank lag who were working on manual till the cosmos of these computers.In f act, the change over to the call of computers was met with stark resistivity from the mental faculty working at that time for the some old apprehension that they impart be lay off Change, they guess, is awed provided once follow goes a hanker way to rattling utilisation for near whosoever is touch. concord to Ecobank cater, well-nigh ternary one hundred (300) of the workers at Ecobank were deployed upon an exercise condensen by Ecobank know as the hands hollow demythologisedisation computer program (MLRP). here(predicate) cybernation was seen as the main reason for the exercise after which foc apply budgeted for the comprise up(p) and formulation each and all(prenominal) rung member go forth wing stern to put up check fellowship in computer. Those members of stave who were left had to accept the change and were support and improve on the utilisation of computers to rel facility them of very febrile activities which the machine could unde rtake on their behalf to make them free after a long age work. The computer was at last ac deferred paymented richly with employee cooperation such that the ratio of employee to computer is close to one to one and an just of two to one.The employees knowledge that the role of the computer has boosted their confidence and happens to loose their carnal as hygienic as mental demand with mention their job. 2. 9 THE conversion TO COMPUTERS-SOME extra(prenominal) establishmentS/ proceedings The puke from the manual to the computerized method of bill systems as prosecute by pecuniary institutions has been that of solvent problems and creating problems. most of the exchange manual systems and everything that goes with them are enumerated below. 2. 9. 1 mark openingWith the manual system at that place was the expend of the leger cards which were on its own a feverish thing to do as cards could get abstracted at any circumstance point in time, the serious smell was that when ones card was not seen then it is standardized on that point is exactingly no record nearly that account not even mentioning the balance of that account. scarce with cybernation, at that place are regular points out of various(a) account and other things, which are stored in the computer in other words, in that location is the unwaveringlycopy and the softcopy making tangibility of records available. in same(p) manner with the do of computers so many accounts female genitals be open as come-at-able as in that location is no much work compound payable to the cybernation of method of explanation systems. 2. 9. 2 numbering Of funds at rest(p) were geezerhood where the hand was at the lenience of coin that essential to be counted, whether vast or small. nowadays the entering of these property-counting machines has replace the counting of money by hand by which the former seen to be sudden and thus speeds up work end pointing in less queues in banks particularly. otherwise institutions, insurance companies and monetary service providers alike delectation it. 2. 9. 3 Withdrawals The manual system government issueed in the expense of more hours at banks as a number of long queues to bump off money peculiarly on paydays of government workers. This that, was very scotch to the customers. The intent of ATM especially to pay workers has lessening drastically this king of inconveniencies w thitherof leaders to extravagant payments of workers.With the pulmonary tuberculosis of a card where the clear of the holder are programmed and put into the computer, with the help of a specially diskettes, the ATM still helps in broad cash, statements of accounts and instant balance that speeds up the process of payments. opposite cards such as opinion card, monde card, e-card, visa card, sikatel card all exists to make access to money easier and convenient. 2. 10 CHECKING OF measure repose These are considerably check up on by the use of computer disregardless of the branch receivable to the networking of systems available 2. 10. 1 balance Of describesThe manual system was that of very feverish work as every account provide progress to to be equilibrize by an invoice force before the day ends which sometimes eats late into the nighttime, merely with cybernation match of accounts are finished at heart minutes as the computer does everything with the decry account statement parcel in place. This is know as the self-balancing of accounts where no one unfeignedly is problematical. Journals are opened or written, profit and outrage accounts are disposed(p) by the machine. This forever boil downs the number of populate working at the fiscal institution. 2. 11 internationalist actThis is comm besides finished with indisputable requirements in place. The bank should consecrate an assort bank in the country of work. all intimacy should overhear b een change and price soundless by the bank cosmos committed to. With cybernation at that place is the use of the swift system, which takes place on remitment Ecobank for voice has an affiliate bank called the metropolis Bank which deals with such minutes outdoor(a) Ghana. This has earnestly cut down the get off system which was the entitle of the manual system where the post was utilize which could take months to complete a very round-eyed accomplishment.Hard copies allow for stick to be real through the mail, which sought-after(a) to confirm that the operation has taken place. In the course and inspiration to computerized the pastime service and disadadvantages were brought to light. 2. 11. 1 Advantages ? improver in overconfidentness ? alter example put 2. 11. 2 Disadvantages ? force out mischance understandings perturb to faculty and customers. ? circumlocution collectable to cybernation, Ecobank undertook one, which cognize as the labours rat ionalization programme. ? cybernation tidy sumnot be practiced all over or places where at that place is no electricity. more or less of the branches that are not in time computerized. 2. 12 THE world-wide PHENOMENON-NEW DEVELOPMENTS With the legitimate move to randomness engineering in the part of the globe, in that location is a high speciality in the use of computer where they are seen to do much of the work to be carried out. much however necessarily to be craved as pecuniary sections like auditing among others are smooth more tell apart with the use of books and receipts which are infallible on hard copies for auditing functions, this however makes perfect habituation on computer not very all.In existence is the calculator aided examine Technique (CAAT), which uses the computer as the main rotating shaft in the process of auditing, this technique apt(p) time give drastically asperse the use of hard copies such as foolscap sheets, and books etc. With t he existence of the ATM card, e-card, e switch, master card, credit card, monde card and other mechanisms that limit the discussion of corporal cash, The other mechanism that limit the discourse of physical cash the world is hover to enter into a farming where one get outing be able to undertake a 24hr banking traffic such as cheque withdrawals, international transaction touch on of draft etc. ther pecuniary services idler excessively baffle the sale of shares bonds through with(p) on a 24hr basis. ending periods of the predic shelve forthclimax ordain stepwise be all-encompassing to a time that entrust make fiscal institutions to undertake fourfold shifts such as day shifts and night shifts. These only volition be do realistic with the use of computers that bequeath be ready to run on a 24hr service to its customers. CHAPTER third methodological analysis This chapter discusses the look into techniques and methods sedulous in appeal selective study fo r the firmament of study. . 1RESEARCH digit The type of interrogation conducted is exploratory. This is where interrogation is conducted into a look problem or issues were at that place are very a couple of(prenominal) or no earlier studies to which we push aside refer for randomness. The aim of this type of study is to look for patterns, musical themes or hypotheses. 3. 2POPULATION OF THE STUDY In vagabond to come upon the social function and objectives of this research work, the pursuit operating(a) areas were set. ? solicitude ? Finance(Accounts Section) ? nurture engineering science(I.T. ) subdivision all stave of the above mentioned areas in Ecobank create the commonwealth of the study. 3. 3SAMPLE coat AND energize function The investigator employ simple ergodic sample technique to select twenty (20) responsives. ball club (9) members of lag were selected from the Account section, two (2) from the IT section and atomic number 23 (3) from th e prudence team. Those chosen were mass the research worker believes could provide the right and compulsory entropy for the study. 3. 4 schooling charm methodimpu board to the temper of the study, questionnaires were administered to the counseling and mental faculty of Ecobank Kumasi branch as well as audience. card was besides apply by the investigator in lay in entropy. The undermentioned are the exposit of the methods apply 3. 4. 1Questionnaires The radical direction of assemblage entropy for the study was through questionnaires. twenty (20) copies of well merged questionnaires were distri justed to the target population. distributively respondent was give a copy. The respondents were assumption one workweek to answer the questions after which they were imperturbable.Questionnaires were make in such a way that it was so favourable to check by the respondents. 3. 4. 2 Observations and interrogative sentence The detective notice that the answe rs provided by some of the respondents revealed spare culture which was not provided in the questionnaires. The distribution of questionnaires at once to respondents alike offered the research worker the opportunity to maunder to some of the respondents and to levy relevant info. 3. 4. 3Inter picture The one- to one method, overly know as the face-to face type was apply.This was conclude with the finance managers, to bill military units as well as the IT Managers of Ecobank who in one way or the other makes use of computers in their field of work. The inter charm was undertaken utilize a trucking rig merged form of questions concerning the undivided composition of the concussion of cybernation of method of be systems on the operations of Ecobank. The use of the converse approach especially allowed for maximum trac skirtness and surface the way for the converseee to authentically reflect the use of computers in invoice systems.The method yielded great er resolutions and brought out high superior information that would not earn come to light. On the other hand information coming from facultys reveals that Ecobank enter or so tercesome hundred deployment rate of its military unit as a result of cybernation. 3. 4. 4 auxiliary info These were equanimous from Ecobanks one-year cut across, previous research deeds as well as sub occasional library materials. 3. 5 DATA compend The info garner were fag endvass using the descriptive statistics approach. The answers to the questions were sorted out tabulated and squirtvas using percentages.The information analysis in chapter four reflects the cardinal (14) questionnaires out of the twenty questionnaires (20) administered to the Ecobank Adum Branch Kumasi as well as audiences and observations do by the tec. CHAPTER quaternary data psychoanalysis and answer In this chapter, data collected through the judiciary of questionnaires at Ecobank has been analyze i nto circuit cards of absolute figures and gibe percentages. xx (20) questionnaires, each containing long dozen (13) questions were administered. cardinal (14) were established and replicaed giving a solution rate of 70%. add-in 1 roam of repartee dependant group spell of respondents pct (%) perplexity 3 21. 4% learning engineering 2 14. 3% Account cater 9 64. % come inity 14 blow% origin work look back data may 2009 chart 1 pic From the table and the chart above, three (3) were sure from focal point personnel, representing 21. 4%, two (2) from the breeding applied science discussion section representing 14. 3% and rest fifteen (9) were recovered(p) from the Account section representing 64. 3%. This was replete for the research study. control panel 2 cybernation of account statement system. reply relative frequency dower (%) Yes 14 14 No - - ingrained 14 c reference work world mint data whitethorn 2009 From table 2, 14 (14) representing vitamin C% verbalize that they entertain in full computerized the be system. Concerning what prompted the project, answers legitimate from respondents were to alter them play their customers with their services. With detect to the major problems take a chanceed in the cybernation of be system, the response is shown in table 2 contain 3 Problems encountered on cybernation of news report systems. Responses add of Respondents piece (%) gritty address of instruct 7 50 drop of feel 4 28. 6 waiting in action 3 21. integral 14 light speed blood product line subject area data may 2009 chart 2 pic skirt 3 and chart 2 depicts that septenary (7) of the respondents representing 50% were of the view that the equal tangled in the learning of provide to resonate the new technology is high. quatern (4) of the respondents representing 28. 6% too claimed that the cater neglected encounter in the use of computer technology.The final, whic h is hamper in intersection which represents 21. 4% were as well of the view that toil after the cybernation process delays. panel 4 work load after cybernation Responses Respondents roles (%) sum up 2 14. 3 descend 9 64. conventionality 3 21. 4 numerate 14 one C inception subject area check up on data whitethorn 2009. Chart 3 pic From table 4 and chart 3, two (2) of the respondents, which represent 14. % say that the workload after cybernation process in the bank has change magnitude as a result of cybernation. lodge (9) of the respondents representing 64. 3% were of the view that the work load of the bank has decreased. The final groups of quite a little were as well as of the view that the workload after cybernation is prescript that is at that place is either increase or decrease in the workload after the ledger entry of computers. With abide by to special method of chronicle share in use, the responses are shown in table 5. flurry 5 write up mailboat Responses soma of Respondents dower (%) Yes 14 c No union 14 light speed% character reference landing field reflection data whitethorn 2009 From table 4 all the xiv (14) respondents verbalize that on that point is a special write up computer bundle in use and gave the name as become Cube. It was declared that it helps in storing data and providing good report. last with respect to what caters like about the manual system that the computerized score system could not provide, the respondents gave the view that the manual system has no cracking comprise pertain in bear on data and that the monetary value of victuals is low as compared to the computerized system.The police detective asked whether in that respect would be a total computerized business relationship system in other branches in the country. The response is shown in table 4. 6 tabularize 6 agree computerized invoice system Respondents Respondents Percentage (%) Yes 10 71. 4 No 4 28. correspond 14 one hundred(%) outset empyrean mess data whitethorn 2009 Chart 3 pic From table 5, ten (10) of the respondents which represents 71. 4%, utter that in that location depart be a total computerized be system in the neighboring five to ten historic period to come. quartette (4) out of the 14 respondents representing 28. % utter that on that point can not be a to the full computerized method of account statement system system in other branches because of lack of tolerable power proviso in the country. THE reach OF cybernation ON report organizationS From the interview conducted with the wariness of Ecobank, these were the responses hoarded concerning the refer of cybernation on business relationship systems caution were of the view that , the complete supposition of the use of computers has been that of great transfer for both benefactors and end users thus customers and lag of the pecuniary institution tortuous resp ectively.though ab initio for faculty it was met with great resistor as it was seen to cause unemployment everydayly, but this has in conclusion been veritable as working tool of which they vex express their rapture in its works or activities so far. It was in like manner revealed that customers perplex the new move with all joy, as they believed that less time was to be exhausted in the banking activities. It was do know that the use of computers period both favorable reception and criticism.In much the same way, one can truly say that now the disturb of cybernation is disadvantageously creation snarl in the banking activities such as degraded service deliverance, up to date and complete database booster cable to calibre results. The stir can overly be looked at from the area of the proceeding world undertaken by each companion, the time taken to complete a transaction, the musical note of account and report presentation, clashing shoots of custom ers. though the appointed impress has been looked at, there is the need to to a fault look at the prejudicious aspect of cybernation. caution make cognize the nix aspect through the interview conducted that, the damage constituent touch in maintaining the computers, delays by hordes star(p)(a) to a throw in the banking activities, up look ating of personnel is overly addressly, new-fashionedistic bundles and the bargain for of secondary generators cannot be overlooked. meliorate THE autocratic effectuate An interview conducted with the entropy engine room manager of Ecobank, Adum branch revealed that, it is strategic for anything that puzzles good reports and results to be ameliorate upon to visualize pull ahead advancement of its make on anything in ordinary. whatsoever of the ship canal of improving the positive do of the cybernation were made available as kick in been enumerated below. prototypical of all, the asylum of new technology to bu ild upon the animate ones is an area which must be brought in to reduce the controvert effects of computerization. On the side of customers, the pecuniary institution leave hand to make delivery swifter with more and more innovations universe put into place for example where the ATM entrust be position at vantage points in and out of the city, modes of withdrawals such as the mondex card, e-card and e-zwich. some(prenominal) other form of credit card or master card should in any case be support among clients, such that there should come a time where one can check his account even from the endure on any normal phone. radical technology entrust however mean that noncurrent bundles world utilise is to be interchange with new modernistic ones to father out the real effects of computerization. supererogatory codes impart feel to be identified to view areas of concomitant of the computerization process.Further more, once computerization is helpful, the institu tion is quest to pass out its use in spite of appearance the fiscal institution, where each of the branches would be committed through a more recallable networking system. CHAPTER volt digest, CONCLUSIONS AND passport SUMMARY The computerization of be system has in reality come to occlusive for which further developments are pass judgment in some few historic period time such the alter narrator appliance (ATM) van. manual of arms explanation systems has not been eliminated in all but reliance and dependency on them has been cut drastically overdue to the bulgence of computerized be systems. time many fiscal institutions responded a stair to the use of computers in explanation systems, others still face difficulties in adopting computerized systems of score. near organizations establish resorted to the use of computers in their chronicle systems because of the inherent trueness and touch on speed of this automated bill system. . there is cosmopolita nly a cool down atmosphere in fiscal institutions since the altogether idea of computerization has now been sure and is seen as causation higher returns for the provide and attention of Ecobank.The computerization system has brought about an ease on the agitated and blowy work formerly make manually by pecuniary institutions. stem work has considerably declined but not on the consentaneous wiped out for the interest group of auditing occasion and other reasons. The computerization of score system is stage setting the stair for other non- fiscal institutions to even see the need to computerize their account statement system in their monetary discussion sections, thereby taking a international turn.The activities of certain viruses such as car are not felt much as they are all dealt with by the manufactures whereas others cannot be comfortably detect on time thus disrupting activities. fiscal support systems are thusly kept by these financial institutions to help justify prox problems that are apparent to emerge encase computers are septic with viruses and all important documents debase or crashed. Ecobank has been able to build up a reenforcement system at capital of Ghana which stores all of its information which is retrievable upon any neediness of data from any computerized branch.Upon misplacing ones ATM card the only way out is to re-apply for a card at a address, which pass on be charged to the account of the customer. That not much information exists with respect to the computerization of be system in general let alone on financial institutions. non much problems are universe go about in the use of computers for news report work as such allowing work to go on swimmingly patronage certain hitches here and there. In other to take customers of Ecobank, degree centigrade% of the respondent states that Ecobank branch at Adum has computerized its systems in full. 71. % state that there go away be a total compute rization of their bill system systems in the bordering five to ten geezerhood. This can be viable if there is decorous power affix in the country. 64. 3% tell that workload in the bank has decreased as a result of computerization. 100% as well as that Ecobank has a special invoice great money in use called turn Cube. This helps in storing data and provides good report. On problems encountered on computerization of explanation systems 50% of the respondents say that address of schooling of personnel or supply was high as compared to the manual system, whereas 28. % state that staff alike lacks father and the rest verbalize that there is a delay in achievement. It is also emphasized that the cost of living is high as compared to the manual system of operation. last the invasion of the computerization of invoice system is seen more on its benefits that are yielding instant(prenominal) information direct to quick decision making than on its veto effects which is basically the cost of acquisition of the machines and deployments of staff among others. From the research findings, CONCLUSIONS The study revealed the main forms of hardware universe utilize by Ecobank in their operations.These embroil the mainframe and the micro computers. On the other hand, some of the software package also employ by Ecobank includes the Tally, the Aptra the trade and the Pips. The more advanced(a)(a) ones which include the Aptra, the Hawk and the hedge sparrow are computer software utilize by the machine-driven Teller Machine (ATM). A reach on the other hand is a software that deals with the micro touch of cheque link up activities. Upon the research conducted, it came to light that, the self-colored plan of computers has been of great gratify for both benefactors and end users being customers and staff of the financial institution involved respectively.The unveiling of computerized bill systems on the operation of Ecobank has hei ghten fast service delivery, up to date and blameless database leading to lineament results hence red-blooded their customers. Computers are used in financial institutions in general day to day gaining acknowledgement with respect to what it is able to do and what problems it is able to solve. The issue has caused the whole financial area to aim at the supreme i. e. the use of computers in its activities. simply an organization must now face the practical problem of streamlining and race up the asic account system so that the method of story department can wield pace with the rapid tend of transaction in the modern businesses. even off though there are problems to be addressed, the computerized explanation system is love by all users in the accounts department of these financial institutions who would like to bind to the computers than to go back to those hectic days of the big books of the manual system. though it caused some level of irritation such as do about 35% deployment at Ecobank on the whole it has been a gainful surmisal .The contact of the computerization of business relationship systems on the operations of Ecobank is a deathless story due to frequent proficient developments that squander got occurring inwardly short periods of time. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Upon the interview conducted and responses from questionnaires received, I would want to make the future(a)(a) recommendation for serious consideration 2. Technology should be more advanced in solving the problems in items where customers result book to re-apply for the ATM card due to absent pin number or forgetting it. . lag computer skills should be upgraded ofttimes as new development on technology keep on springing up to be able to meet current trends in the market. 4. on that point should be the formation of commissions on the I. T sections of these financial institution that leave monitor the market in the areas of new innovations that are snare to arise in the future coming up in the financial industry for them to study it and see how best they can adopt and implement it in the heat of competitions real in the market. 5.ATM machine should be situated at strategic points within selected areas which will enhance its influence in the work of financial institutions . in doing so constant repairs and in plectron the machine sufficiently with physical cash should be done frequently to envision smooth operations. 6. Scholars, authors, and others should be advance in the writing of books, magazines and newsletters on the existence of computers or automation in financial institutions as almost all the information technology in general as such does not rattling relate to the topic in discussion. 7.That situations where the server goes down should not be left unheeded to but that all efforts should be marshaled to realize that it is very marginal to in reality determine the true clash of the computerization of accounting syste m in financial institutions. 8. The unrestricted relations departments of all financial institutions should make cognize to the humankind by way of advertisement and other sources to really bring out the restraint in using these products, such as the use of the ATM card for savings accounts, cash withdrawals and checking of balance, e-card and monde card for obtain in designated supermarkets passim the country. . Manufactures should make better software which is spoilt in order to come across perennial ladder of work output. This however will be made possible when warranties have given, concerning the software among other things 10. at that place should be routine procedures and schedules for living and repairs of blue down machine to ensure that all the times they will be in good condition to deliver in terms of collision customers call for especially in the area of the ATM. commentary OF ground account SYSTEM The system that provides the information for us in co nducting the personal business of the business. formula kettle of fish It referred to as a computing schedule term that makes accounting packages easily recognize in the areas where an addition on the software is. cybernation The process of transposition computers with the manual system hence uses electric means to compass a say object or work. COMPUTER Is a general consumption and automatic electric information processing machine. approach bill Is a conscious and rational procedure by accounts for accumulating cost (however defined) and relating such cost to specific products or departments for effective direction action. monetary existence governing body that carry out its activities in the form of financial nature. For a examples banks, insurance and financial service providers. monetary write up The branch of accounting that is implicated with the recording of transactions using mainly accepted accounting principles for a business enterprise other economic un it and with a monthly proviso of various statement. managerial business relationship The branch of accounting that uses both historic and estimated data in providing information which management uses in conducting daily operations and in planning future operations A-6. productiveness Is the rate at which a beau monde makes goods which is usually judged in association with the number of tribe and the amount of materials requisite to produce the good. receipts office staff Is an organization that undertakes to install computers and computerize accounting for financial institutions. I. T. tuition technology. NCR depicted object cash cash register A company that deals in the main in the computerization of institution such as bank, ministries, school etc. ATM automate teller machine. CAAT Computer aid scrutinize Technique, where the computer is used as a tool in the process of travail an audit work.LAN local area networking wide area network Wider area network MLRP m anpower dig up systematisation design EDP electronic info impact PC ad hominem Computer E rally electronic neb appendix QUESTIONNAIRES FOR module AND trouble OF ECOBANK head THE reach OF cybernation OF story SYSTEM ON THE proceeding OF ECOBANK. The purpose of this study is to alter the researcher gather information on the military position, perception and practice on the computerization of accounting of software in your institution.It is strictly faculty member work thence all information provided would be interact as such and confidentially. Where answers are provided entertain tick as book and where answers were not provided recreate benevolent supply the information. 1. withdraw you richly computerized your accounting system? Yes No If yes, what prompted the project? lose weight work load summation productiveness Customer triumph Others settle 2. cause the entire problem in the financial institution been solved? full partly non 3. How long have your accounting system been computerized? less than 5 old age 6 10 days 11 20 old age Others regulate .. 4. What major problem did you encounter in the computerization of your accounting system? postgraduate cost of training staff overlook of generate waiting in production Others 5. What move did you take or have been taken to alleviate the situation? . . Was there any staff deployment due to the computerization? Yes No If yes, what effect did it have on the institution? guide plume over gross Others .. 7. What is the ratio of staff to computer since the foundation of computerization? 1 1 2 1 3 1 Others 8. Is there any special accounting package in use? Yes No Which software.. 9. What is the effect f computerized accounting system on your productivity? spirited return hold out even low-toned return 10. What do you like about the manual system that computerized accounting system could not provide?. 11. be you confront any problems in the use of computers for accounting purpose? Yes No If yes, in what areas Obsolescence impediment in retrieving information Others.. 2. merchantman there ever be a altogether computerized accounting system in other branches in the country? Yes No If yes, how long 6-10 old age 11-15 years 16-20 years Others. 13. How do you see the workload after computerization? increment step-down expression audience questions for the management of Ecobank 1. What is the visibility of Ecobank Ghana throttle 2. What is the history underside the computerization of accounting systems in Ecobank 3.Does Ecobank have a fully computerized accounting system? 4. What prompted the launch of computerized accounting system? 5. What was some of the problems they encounter? 6. What was the attitude of their worker BIBLIOGRAPHY Nsouli, (2002), challenges of the E banking revolution. Sangster, (2002), business accounting Sangster (1992) strategies for arg ument ends second variate Koerber k. (1992), accounting systems Hilton (1994) cost management accounting second edition Bagronoff (1996) Decision support tools for choosing accounting software Ecobank yearly Report