Monday, March 11, 2019

Historic Centres of Melaka and Penang Social

Historic Centres of Melaka and Penang Social and Cultural History I. Introduction spikehwith if hive awaygle were to look squander from an aerial view e realplace the cities of Melaka ( apply to be spelt as malacca) and Penang on the west coast of peninsular Malayanansia, wiz would be able to discern a food colorful mosaic of artifacts and commonwealth, singularity of the living market-gardenings of both the diachronic cities.Melaka which is about 600 courses antiquated from its brass section and Penang or Pearl of the Orient which is 215 years after(prenominal)wardswards being taken all over by the British, founder a rattling good conjuration in their multi-cultural embrasure wineionistics which moderniseed over the years through the processes of history. For these living goals, Melaka and Penang deserve to be con array exit as World Herit epoch Cities. Melaka is situated 2 degrees compass north of the equator and very salubrious cognise in the t opical anaesthetic legend as a fortunate inflict for, even the pe grimeok (mouse deer) was full of courage. It went through the age of glory for slightly more(prenominal) than vitamin C years under the swayer of the Malay sultanate, when it became champion of the greatest ports in Asia, if non the world. However, it fell into European hands for more than 400 years after that the Portuguese command for 130 years, the Dutch for 160 years and the British for 133 years. In 1948 it became get out of the Federation of Malaya and gained her independence with the rest of the peninsula in 1957.The different proposed heritage urban center is Penang which became a British possession in 1786 when Francis ex unmatchablerated, a British country trader, was able to conclude a treaty with the Sultan of Kedah for the vitamin E India caller. Penang became the flake one leg for the British to stripe themselves into peninsular Malaysia, and was intended to be a British naval base an d a trading centre. Situated at the northern end of the pass of Melaka, it could c dormenge the Dutch in the south. on the loose(p) was very hopeful of Penang as he had earlier indicated in his letter to his comp both, Jourdain, Sulivan and De Souza, European ships rout out easily bide thither.There is plenty of wood, water and comestible there they may be supplied with tin, pelt, beetle-nut, rattans, birds-nests . and the Macao ships will be glad to stop there, and all other vessels passing through the streights may be as easily supplied as at malacca by the Dutch1 Indeed it soon became a metropolitan city when passel from all over the world were allowed to simmer down in and trade with Penang. In the earlier stage it was ruled by the British as a Pre positionncy from Bengal under the eastbound India connection, and became jump of the offer Settlements since 1826 together with Melaka and capital of Singapore.As in Melaka, Penang was made give of the Federation of Mala ya in 1948 which gained its independence in 1957 II. The Foundation of inheritance Cities Melaka and Penang crap left dirty dog historical legacies that deserve to be recognised by the World hereditary pattern Convention. Melaka fits criteria 24(a)(iv) indicating the depth of layers of history in Melaka dating back from the fourteenth deoxycytidine monophosphate to the enclose, and Georgetown in Penang fits in criteria (v) which ack right awayledges the breadth of typical traditional urban cloth and vital traditional activities that even so re of imports.However, it is the multi-cultural nation of both the cities of Melaka and Penang straightaway, that make them unique. They ar the dissolvent of hundreds of years of history. III. Melaka The Historical City (paragraph 27(ii)) immediately Melaka is officially cognize as The Historical City (Bandar Bersejarah) because the histories of the Malays be said to have started from here. Founded at the end of the fourteenth s pr esently by Parameswara, a prince from the declining Srivijaya empire in Sumatra, it became one of the roundst entrepot in selenium Asia by the beginning of the fifteenth deoxycytidine monophosphate.Being strategically placed at one of the narrowest spots on the passing game of Melaka and geographically rapturous as the bea where the northeast and southwest monsoons met, it became a favourite port of call by traders from India, the warmness East, chinaware, the mainland to the southeast Asiatic states and the surrounding Malay archipelago. From the fifteenth century onwards Europeans similarly began to race the Melaka Straits. It provided them with fresh water and the harbour was situated such(prenominal) that it could easily be defended from any(prenominal) attacks.The deep harbour overly served as the door to exportation goods from the rich hinterland, such as gold from Pahang and tin from neighbouring districts. Melaka had a healthy administered government and h ad enjoyed comparatively long flowings of peace. Its economic success was found on the roles of international traders. A strong tradition was thusly set during this period. The noteworthy Melaka Maritime Laws were introduced to ensure the rights of ships captains and their crew.There were four antithetical ports, each headed by a harbour master or Syahbandar. The to the highest degree important was the one in charge of ships from Gujarat, followed by the one in charge of those from other separate of India, Burma and north Sumatra. The third was in charge of ships from islands Southeast Asia, and the last besides not least was in charge of ships from chinaware and Indo-China. People from different lands had to stay even if only for a few months while time lag for the respective monsoons to bring them home.Thus various ethnic groups from the Chinese, Indian, the Malay archipelago, Siamese, Burmese, Indo-Chinese, Arab communities were gathered in this port city germinating the existence of a multi-cultural society that to sidereal day becomes one of the outstanding features of the general Malaysian population. It was said that at the height of the Melaka period more than 80 different languages were talkn on the streets of Melaka. Melaka trade dealt with spices from the islands of Moluku and Banda, textiles from Gujarat, Coromandel, Malabar and Bengal in India.These were exchanged for aromatics, corals, pearls, gold, silver and other exotic goods from the East and due west, such as Chinese porcelain and silk or perfumes from the blood-red Sea. About 2 000 ships were reported to ground at Melaka at any one time. The prosperity of Melaka was enhanced by her relationship with the Ming Dynasty whose patronage was well-sought after by approximately rulers in island Southeast Asia. Official visits were exchanged annually by both parties, led by the vernally installed sultans from Melaka or officials of the Chinese court. Two of the well-nigh famous of th e latter(prenominal) were Yin Ching and the outward looking Moslem Commander, Cheng Ho.Melaka likewise became the centre of Islam especially after the sultans became converted. Since whence this religion became synonymous with the Malays themselves. The religion spread through conversions, marriages, conquests and trade. The Arabic script, being the script of the Quran, was adopted as the official script for the Malay language which had long been the lingua franca of the region. The Melaka Canon or Hukum Kanun Melaka, the prototypic write laws and order of the state and written in this script, became the basis of state laws of other Malay states in the peninsula.Malay traditions, especially on the religion, language, administration and customs were natural in Melaka. Some remnants of the Malay period still exist in an old Malay burying ground In Jalan musjid Tanah, still outside Trendak Camp. This burial ground was said to date back to the 15th century. An imposing grave th at rest was said to belong to one of the known Malay warriors, mention Jebat, Hang Kasturi or Hang Lekiu. Two and a half miles outside Melaka and situated at Kampong Duyong is other artefact connected with other renown Malay legend of the 15th century, the Hang Tuah well, which is approximate one of the oldest mosques in Melaka.Another place with a legend buns it is Bukit China or China Hill. Bukit China was said to be presented to the retinue of the Chinese princess Hong Lim Poh who became one of Sultan Mansurs consorts. At the foot of the mound is a well dug for the Raja, hence the name, the Rajas intimately or Perigi Raja. The Chinese called it surface-to-air missile Pos Well after the name of Admiral Cheng Ho who was to a fault known as Sam Po. They believed the water became purer after the visit of the famous admiral. Because of the water which never change up, the Dutch walled it up for protection and preservation. 2 IV. Melaka and Portuguese Legacy (paragraph 29 (i v)) Melakas glory under the Malay sultans ended in 1511, when the Portuguese captured the the fab eastern empire, under the command of Alfonso de Albuquerque. The new conquerors had already hear about the wealth of Melaka and how its control could in addition make Portugal a new power to be reckoned with in Europe. About Melaka a Portuguese had at once said, Whosoever holds Malacca, had his hands on the throat of Venice. 3 The Portuguese consequently quickly strengthened A Famosa, the fort that contact the present St.Pauls Hill. Hundreds of workmen, slaves and captives were said to have been employ to build the fortress made of stones from broken down mosques and tombs of nobles. in spite of appearance the walls were the regulators palace, the Bishops palace, the Governments Council chambers, several churches, devil hospitals, a monastery and a prison. The fortress had successfully defended Melaka from enemy attacks until it fell into Dutch hands in1641. Catholicism was int roduced to the locals during the Portuguese rule. A famous French Jesuitical St. Francis Xavier Apostle of the Indies, started St.Pauls College in Melaka in 1548. On another hill face-to-face China Hill, the Portuguese in like manner build a chapel give to St. rump the Baptist, and the hill was consequently named after him, St. Johns Hill, or Bukit Senjuang (the corrupted Malay name for the hill). The date of the construction is not known. Celebrations observe St. John is carried out here on 23rd June all year with untold gaiety and music. V. Melaka and Dutch Legacy (paragraph 29 (iv)) In 1641 the Dutch took Melaka from the Portuguese after a five-month siege.Many of the grammatical constructions at bottom the fort were damaged or destroyed and the suburbs were in ruins. The Dutch quickly restored A Famosa which was then renamed first step de Santiago. On it was engraved the coat of arms of the unite East India alliance and the date 1670. Between 1760s and 1770s the Du tch build another fort on St. Johns Hill. 4 It use to be armed with eight cannons. low the Dutch, Melaka ceased to be the emporium that it was before, because the new conquerors gave more importance to Batavia (Jakarta) as the crown of the Dutch empire in the East.But trade at Melaka last outd, and here the Dutch spread their Protestant missionary works and found Christ church construct on Jalan Gereja in 1753, the oldest Protestant church in Malaysia. It was reinforced of red bricks especially imported from Holland. It had tall slender windows with arched heads, massive walls and heavy(a) wooden ceiling beams. forthwith devotees still use the original wooden pews during Sunday petitions. Although the Catholics were persecuted by the Dutch, a Catholic St. whoresons church building, was allowed to be build in 1710 on a piece of land attached over by the government to a Dutch convert.It is situated at the present Jalan Bendahara in the Bunga Raya district. The church bell dated 1608 was apparently taken from a church which was destroyed by the Dutch during the early period of their rule. This became the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia built on a mixture of oriental and western architecture. St. Pauls College which was founded by St. Francis Xavier during the Portuguese, however, was not spared. The Dutch utilise it as part of the fort and afterward as a burial ground for high ranking Dutch personalities.The fountain governors residence was converted into the red terracotta Stadthuys (Government House) in 1650 and was made the home of the Dutch Governor and his retinue. It had a beautiful balcony that faced Christ Church. It contained large rooms, one of which had a beautifully carved ceiling. The upper ball over was once used as the Court of Justice, and the lower floor partly for the fire avail and partly for the main military guard. At the back was an attractive terrace that might have led to the Bishops palace of the Portuguese period . Today it becomes the Melaka Historical Museum. VI. Melaka and British Legacy (paragraph 29 (iv))The Dutch ruled Melaka until 1795 when it was give over to the British during the Napoleanic wars when the Dutch king had to take refuge in England. It was agreed, however, that it would be returned to the Dutch when the wars were over, which was in 1818. It was during this interim period that the fortification in Melaka was destroyed. The Melaka British Resident William Farquhar, under the instruction of the Penang Council, started to effectively level down .. the whole of the fortifications, arsenals, store houses and public buildings of all denominations in Melaka except Bukit China and St.Johns Hill. 5 Penang which at this time was beginning to expand as a trading centre did not want Melaka to rival it when the Dutch returned after the Napoleanic wars. Thus the famous local writer, Abdullah Abdul Kadir Munsyi, noted sadly in his journal, The arm was the pride of Melaka, and after its destruction the place lost its glory bid a woman bereaved of her husband, the lustre gone from her face The old order is destroyed, a new world is created, and all around us is changed. 6 The only part that remained of A Famosa and Porta de Santiago was the gate which now still stands.Further destruction was sexceed by the agent of the East India Company, doubting Thomas Stamford Raffles, who happened to be visiting Melaka at this time. His report on Melaka to the East India Company that, Its name carries more weight to a Malay ear than any new settlement could,7 and indeed, with the assistance of Malacca, the whole of the Malay rajahs in the Straits and to the Eastward might be rendered not only subservient precisely if necessary tri unlessary,8 was just about prophetic in relation to later involution of British influence in the Malay defers.A significant margin that the British left in Melaka before the Dutch took it back was the establishment of Anglo Chinese College i n 1818. It was the brain-child of Robert Morrison, the first Protestant missionary to China, who had failed to make any headway in that imperial country, merely used Melaka for the diffusion of Christianity and alike for the reciprocal cultivation of Chinese and European culture. 9 Most of the students were children from Melaka-born Chinese, as well as Indian and Malay.The college which stood on a piece of land given to the London careary Society was just outside the Trankerah gate. Although the contri neverthelession of the college in pedagogy was unquestionable, in 1843 the London Missionary Society sold it for cliquish purposes because it decided to move its activities to Hong Kong. In the same decade, however, a twin-towered Gothic Church dedicated to St. Francis Xavier by the French Father P. Fabre, was built on part of the Portuguese ruins to continue with the Christian missionary works. VII. The Melaka People The Living HeritageAlthough the population of Melaka had bee n multi cultural since the Sultanate period, new communal groups that emerged as the result of cultural and affectionate metamorphosis make them unique. They were the Peranakan Chinese or Baba, the Chitty and the Portuguese Peranakan. The Baba association proficient a culture which is a syncretism of Chinese and Malay culture. It was not the result of inter-marriages for they segregated strictly among themselves. 10 They spoke Baba Malay, and the women wore Malay costume and jewellery. The majority were Buddhists unless some(prenominal) became Christians.They dominated the Tranquerah district and Jalan Tan Cheng Lock. Today they lean more towards the Chinese culture. The Chitty were the Melaka born Indians who might have immigrated in the 16th century as traders and inter- get hitched with with the local women. They spoke Malay merely remained staunch Hindu. They built Hindu tabernacles and shrines. 11 The last group is the descendents of Portuguese settlers who came during th e Portuguese rule. They had inter-married with local women precisely remained staunch Catholics. They spoke an archaic and highly localised Portuguese called Cristao.In 1933 an 11-hectare land was allotted for this community at Ujong Pasir where the mint could preserve their traditions and customs which they continue to detect, such as the Natal or Christmas, singing the carols and dancing the branyo. 12 Festa de San Pedro a celebration honouring St. Peter, the patron of the fishermen, most of whose members are from this community, is held on 29th June every year. On this day their boats are well decorated and are blessed by the local priests. Easter is always celebrated at St. Peters Church on Jalan Bendahara.Here, too, the Palm Sunday and Good Friday are celebrated by a life-sized statue of Christ being borne in a salary increase around the church. As in other separate of Malaysia, the Malays are synonymous with Islam and identified with their mosques. Although Islam already existed in Melaka in the 14th century, one of the oldest mosques that still cadaver is the Tranquerah Mosque which might have been built in the early 1820s. It is in the grounds of this mosque that Sultan Hussein, who signed the cession of Singapore to the British in 1819, was buried.The mosque which is strongly influenced by Achehnese expression of the period, has pyramid ceilings and Moslem designs and motifs. Another mosque that denotes Melakas rich cultural heritage is the Kampung Keling Mosque at Jalan Tukang Emas. as well as built in Sumatran vogue, it has pyramid roof and pagoda-like minaret, whitened glossy Portuguese tiles and Victorian chandelier. One of the significant landmarks of the Chinese community in Melaka is the Cheng Hoon Teng synagogue (the Abode of the Green Merciful Clouds), which could be the oldest Chinese temple in Malaysia.Situated in Temple passage in the heart of Melaka, was founded by Li Wei King or Li Kup at the beginning of the Dutch period . He was a Chinese refugee who escaped from the Manchus and was the first Kapitan China in Melaka. The temple has undergone renovations and expansion by different Chinese community leadership at different times. Today it also houses Kwan Yin, the goddess of Mercy, and several other deities. The building is found on multiform Chinese architecture, whose roof ridges and eaves are decorated with exquisite Chinese mythical figures, animals, birds and flowers of coloured deoxyephedrine or porcelain. 13 The Indians, most of whom are Hindus, are also identified by the house of worship. Their oldest temple is Sri Poyyatha Vinayagar Moorthi which was built in the late 18th century. The temple which stands at Jalan Tukang Emas, have deities which are invoked by devotees for their aids before starting new businesses, occupying a new house, performing marriages or funerals. VIII. The Living Cultures of the City of Penang (Georgetown) A local writer in 1986 wrote a piece of poetry which des cribes the deal of Penang, thusnotes On My Native Land To this corner of the world came People from China and India From Indonesia and Europe Some of the people Adopted local ways They spoke Malay Dressed Malay But still kept their customs Others stuck to their ways While firmly planting A foot on Malaysian soil The alchemy worked And today we have a nation That is a kaleidoscope Of many things and many people We all belong to this material Having each lent a stitch To make up a whole nary(prenominal) we invite the world To see this tapestry.David Lazarus, 1986. This poetry which is printed on a board in the vestibule of the Penang Museum is the first thing that one sees as soon as one enters the main building indicating the main theme of the museum display. This also sums up what the people of Penang are. Penang began to attract traders from all over the world. As it was accorded the status of a free port it grew steadily and within a few years its trade and population increased . True to shorts prediction, it was able to out leaven the position of Melaka.And as in Melaka, people from all over the world, from India, China, the Middle East, Europe, island and mainland Southeast Asia, and the Malay archipelago thronged the city. The shopping center area of Georgetown nominated to be placed as a Heritage City covers 108. 97 ha. (269. 27 ac). Here Penangs history and its character are displayed by the historic buldings as well as by the real workaday routines of its people. It has outstanding universal values that fit in with the Operational Guidelines for the implementation of the World Heritage Convention relating to historic urban areas as stated in paragraphs 27(ii) and 29(iv).Paragraph 27(ii) is, historic towns which are still dwell and which, by their very nature, have developed and will continue to develop under the influence of socio-economic and cultural change, a situation that renders the assessment of the genuineness more difficult and any cons ervation policy more problematic. to a lower place 29(iv) it states Sectors, areas, or isolated units which, even in the residual state in which they have survived, provide coherent evidence of the character of a historic town which has disappeared.In such cases surviving areas and buildings should stand up sufficient testimony to the former whole. IX. The Penangites (Heritage Convention paragraph 27(ii)) The living cultures of the people in Penang today bear testimony of the living cultures of the past generations. In 1998 the Penang Town and Country preparation Department Director, Mohamed Jamil Ahmad strongly acknowledged the living cultures of Penang as having, multicultural influences. It is a unique melting pot of Indian, British, Armenian, Chinese, Malay, Acehnese, Thai, Burmese and Arab. It is an old trading port that contains one of the largest ensemble of multicultural buildings and landmarks in the world. 14 These zones consist of early suburban residential townhouse s, known for their ecclectic architecture, commercial centres, the water foregoing, religious and clan houses. More than 100 years earlier an avid British traveler and writer, Isabella Bird, had given an almost identical verbal description of Penang As one lands on Pinang one is affect even before reaching the shore by the blaze of colour in the costumes of the crowds which throng the jetty. About the people she said, The sight of the Asiatics who have crowd into Georgetown is a wonderful one, Chinese, Burmese, Javanese, Arabs, Malays, Sikhs, Madrassees, Klings, Chuliahs, and Parsees, and still they come in junks and steamers and strange Arabian craft, and all get a living, depend slavishly on no one, never lapse into pauperism, retain their own dress, customs and religion, and are orderly. 15This description does not seem to defer from the observation of Sir George Leith, the deputy sheriff Governor of Penang in the early 1800s, who succinctly described the situation, There is n ot, probably, any part of the world, where, in so small a space, so many different people are assembled together, or so a great a chassis of languages spoken. 16 X. The Relics (paragraphs 27(ii) and 29(iv)) Perhaps the easiest way to appreciate Penangs wealth of cultures and historical sites is by following its historical trail.As soon as Francis commence occupied Penang in 1786, he built a fort at Tanjung Penaga that faces the sea front of the Esplanade. It took him 5 years to complete it and named it castle Cornwallis after the Governor of the East India Company. Originally the fort was made of gabions (cylindrical baskets filled with earth) then with nibong trunks support by bulwarks and mounted with canons, the most famous is the Seri Rambai. Next to it pass, who was later found by the East India Company as the Superintendent of the island, built a low bungalow and a kitchen meant for his use.All these were later com salt awayed to form the fort which underwent several cons tructions. Impressive renovations were done in early 1800s especially by the chief engineer and surveyor, Captain Thomas Robertson, under the auspices of Governor Macalister. In 1820 granite was heaped on the seaward side to prevent erosion, but today it has a frontal road, Jalan Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah. In the early period the expansion of Penang seemed to have emanated from here. XI. West Meets East (the Living Tradition) At the back of the Fort is precipitate bridle-path, the first street in Penang named after Francis Light.Several other streets were capable to accommodate Penangs expansion, especially for the British officials and traders who were here. As indicated by the name of streets close by, the Christians began to set up churches. Bishop pass was named after the French priest, Arnold Garnault, who first set up the Assumption Church in 1787. He was then the Bishop of capital of Thailand. This church was built on Farquhar passageway (named after one of the Lie utenant Governors of Penang) which is on the western end of Light track. It was in Bishop Street that Francis Light then built a large house for the Bishop, hence the name.Only in 1860 was the Assumption Church built on the present basilica layout. In 1817 an Anglican church, the St. George Church, was then built at the junction of Pitt Street (named after the then Prime Minister of Britain) and Farquhar Street by the East India Company chaplain, Rev. Robert Sparke Hutchings. Pitt Street runs from north to south at right angle with Light Street and gibe with Farquhar Street. This church which was completed a year later, was based on classical colonial style with a Greek style porch. Its dignified facade and graceful columns speak to the eye of the artist. 17 Just as the Christian missionaries were keen to spread their religion through the churches, they were also lot to educate the varied local population with western education. The face schools that they set up slowly attracted local families, especially the established ones, such as the Straits Chinese, better known as the Babas or Peranakan. 18 The children were sent to such schools, spoke very good English, some became government officers and other professionals. They showed strong tendencies to adopt the Malaysian homeland.One of the first missionaries responsible for introducing English schools, was the same Rev. Robert Sparke Hutchings. He had initiated the building for the Penang Free tutor which was to educate boys from all creed or class. The school which started temporarily at Love Lane was moved to a permanent building on a piece of land contiguous St. Georges Church at Church Square at Farquhar Street. It was built by Captain R. Smith of the Royal Engineers and was opened in 1821. It was based on a classic Renaissance architecture which has symmetrical arches, corrupted columns, pilasters and twin decorative domes on the roof.This school was responsible for producing some of the most promin ent local personalities. 19 During the war it was bombed and only half of the original building remains. It has been renovated and now houses the Penang State Museum. Some 30 years later, in 1852, a convent was set up at Light Street by Rev. develop St. Mathilde. It was the Convent of the Holy Infant Jesus School, popularly known as the Convent Light Street. 20 The main building which was acquired from the Government House has corniced reception rooms and patient of arcades that faced the sea.It served as a boarding house, an orphanage and a school. ii boy and girl orphans were taken in, until the boys reached 11 years when they left to matrimony the nearby St. Xaviers Free School as full boarders. 21 late the school began to add an refined Gothic chapel with stained glass windows specially commissioned from France. Then new wings for classrooms were added as the want to educate girls increased. Today it still serves as one of the most modernised schools for girls in the st ate. In 1852, too, another boys school was set up at Bishop Street, just across the Light Street Convent.The St. Xaviers Free School, today known as the St. Xavier Institution (SXI), was founded by the Paris Foreign Mission Society Superior Father V. M. Beurel. It was their first mission school in the Far East. Although its main aim was initially to provide education for the poor, children from established local families were also sent there. In 1889 the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Sir Cecil Clementi, introduced a tycoons Scholarship to the best students who excelled at the Senior Cambridge School Certificate examination. Fourteen of these awards were won by students from this school. 22 The recipients were sent to the best universities in the United Kingdom to further their studies. Many became successful professionals and leaders. Today the SXI remains as one of the most prominent schools in the country. Obviously English education was becoming more popular. Some 30 year s later after the SXI was opened, another girl school was established. It was initiated by Mrs. Biggs, the wife of another chaplain, Rev. L. Courtier Biggs. This was the St. Georges Girls School which was situated on the northern beach at Farquhar Street and was officiated in 1885.It was a double-storey bungalow based on Malay-colonial style surrounded by aery verandahs and stables on the side. 23 Classes were conducted on the ground floor while the second floor was occupied by the principal and some boarders. In 1920 the school was moved to another bigger premise at Northam Road (todays Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah) as the come up of girls receiving education here increased. The original bungalow was maintained as a boarding house. Today it houses the State Welfare Office. XII. Entrenching the Traditions Christianity and western education were not the only culture introduced in Penang.The Chinese population which had begun to grow had their own practices. A large number of them was at first brought in by Francis Light as masons and bricklayers. They settled around the site that was then named China Street which is reduplicate to Church Street. Besides masons and bricklayers, other Chinese traders and merchants also began to settle near here, for example in Pitt Street. In 1800 a large group of the Hokkien and Cantonese communities who settled here built a temple of their own, called the Kwan Yin Temple (The Goddess of Mercy Temple).It was also sponsored by Chinese from Melaka and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. 24 Its massive roof was moderate by two guardian dragons while the front was guarded by two lion figures. Inside was a 40- feet square hall which housed the Kwan Yin, the Patroness of Virgins associated with rites of fertility, peace and good fortune. Even today it is invoked daily but especially celebrated on the 19th day of the 2nd, 6th and 9th months of the Chinese lunar calendar. Devotees offer food, flowers, oil and burn incense or joss sticks to des ire consolation for various illnesses.In contrast with the Christian churches, this temple was decorated with antediluvian Chinese artwork and architecture. The Indians who also came in large numbers to Penang in 1780s, were first imported as labourers, shipbuilders, and deckhands who worked at the waterfront. Soon they were joined by traders, merchants and chettiars. The Hindu followers which had numbered about 1,000 at this time, felt that they had to build a temple for their daily worship. In 1801, a piece of land was given by the government to one, Bette Lingam Chetty, to build the Arulmigu Mahamariamman. 25 This temple had undergone several renovations and expansion, the major one was made in 1933. It is a temple which was built in consistency with the Saiva agamas with an ante chamber (Artha Mandapam), a hall (mahamandapam), circumambient (pragaram), dome (vimanam), surrounding walls, and mesmerize tower (Rajagopuram). This is situated at Queen Street, which is on the east of and parallel to Pitt Street. It is from this temple, that the celebration of the Thaipusam starts every year. This is a celebration when good overcomes evil, when goodness symbolised by the goddess Mariamman, is brought out from the temple on a chariot that roceeds through Queen Street, Church Street and King Street to the Esplanade near Fort Cornwallis, where a priest shoots an arrow into the air to symbolise the killing of the demon. The chariot then returns to Queen Street through Penang Street and Market Street. Thousands of devotees follow the procession and give her offerings. 26 Every year the procession becomes bigger and longer as this day is declared a public holiday in Penang, and the number of devotees has also increased. To the south of Queen Street is Chulia Street.Majority of the people who lived here were Indian Muslims from the Coromandel Coast in India. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Chulias were the second most dominant population in Penang, after t he Malays. In 1820 there were 9,000, and this number increased to 11,000 in 1830. Although many of them were merchants and owners of property, there were others who were hack carriage runners and gharry drivers as well as boatmen and coolies. During her Penang visit in 1880s, Isabella Bird was impressed by Chulia Street which she said was entirely composed of Chulia and Kling bazaars. Each side passing game is a rude arcade, entered by passing through heavy curtains, when you bewilder yourself in a narrow, crowded passage, with deep or shallow recesses on one side, in which the handsome, brightly-dressed Klings sit on the floor, surrounded by their bright-hued goods and over ones head and all down the narrow, thronged passage, rip-roaring with business, are hung Malay bandanas, red turban cloths, red sarongs in silk and cotton, and white and gold sprinkled muslin, the whole length of the very long bazaar, blazing with colour, and exquisite beyond description with beautiful costu me. 27 Today, 200 years later, the scene changes little. Amidst the skillful of Indian music, the scents of perfumes mixed with the smell of curry and spices whiff through Chulia Street. Interspersed in the midst of the stores that sell colourful sarees, and other clothings, as well as carpets from India, Pakistan, the Middle East and China, there are also stores of famed Indian jewelers and money-changers.There are also the famous nasi kandar stores where one can buy rice topped with more than a dozen gourmet of ones choice, to be eaten with ais bandung (iced water with syrup and milk), or teh tarik (milked tea that is poured from a mug to another at a space of about three to four feet). The British had correctly nicknamed this area as Little Madras. 28 But Chulia Street does not merely house economic activities of the Indian community alone. Several mosques were also built here. They were Masjid Bahudi Bohra and Masjid Jamek Alimshah.Some Chinese associations, such as the United draw of Cantonese Districts, also built their imposing headquarters here. So, too, were the Nam Hooi Kam Association, the Teowchoo Merchant Association, and the Teowchoo kongsi. Not far from Chulia Street, and at Pitt Street, is where the Temple of the Goddess of Mercy stands. Now this street is renamed Jalan Mesjid kapitan Kling where the Kapitan Kling Mosque stands. It was built following an Anglo-Indian architecture, with domes and turrets. The interior aisles are formed by serial of horseshoe arches, crowned with King Edwards plumes.The five-time daily call for prayer by the muazzin from the minarets of this mosque further enlivens the living scenery of this part of the city of Penang. The mosque was built in 1801 by Kader Mydin Marican who was appointed by the Lieutenant Governor as Kapitan Kling or head of the Indian community. 29 As the head of his people, he was assigned the duties to regulate civil and religious ceremonies. Inter-marriages between Indians and Malays were frequent, and the generations produced a community that spoke Malay and followed the Malay culture. They were popularly known as the Jawi pekan or Jawi Peranakan.Today they have become so absorbed into the Malay culture that they are no longer called Jawi Pekan or Jawi Peranakan but are called Malays, although the Indian physical features of having sharp nose and tanned skin still remain strong. The Kapitan Kling Mosque had undergone several renovations and extensions, but retained its main structures of onion make domes and pitched roof. Major Islamic functions are conducted here, such as the celebration of the birthday of Prophet Muhammad, the first of Muharram (the Islamic New Year), and the 10th day of Muharram (commemoration of the death of Hussein, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad).Parallel to and on the west of Chulia Street are Armenian Street and Acheh Street or Acheen Street as it is more popularly known to the locals. At the beginning of the 19th century, the area betw een these two latter streets were dominated by traders of Arab and Achenese descent. It was the focul point of the first Muslim urban parish and the earliest centre of Achenese spice traders and Malay entrepreneurs in Penang. The leader, Tengku Syed Hussein Al-Aidid who was married to a member of the Achenese royal family, built the first Malay mosque, Masjid Melayu or Masjid Jame on Acheen Street.This was lucid from the Kapitan Kling Mosque on Pitt Street. Its minaret was octagonal, which followed the 16th century Moghul architecture common in old mosques in Acheh. It was also influenced by some western style especially in the wooden transoms, the stucco work and the round brick columns in the outer aisles. 30 Next to the mosque he built his tomb which was covered with timber and Islamic caligraphy. The gravestones were intricately carved in Achehnese style. Surrounding the mosque were Malay urban homes of half timber, half brick and terracotta tiles.Some of these homes also serve d as offices of the Qadi, Jeddah Ticket Agency for Muslim pilgrimage to Mekah and rest houses for the pilgrims. harmonized with the need to spread Islam, the community leaders also set up madrasah Al Quran (Quranic school) on the same street to memorize the religion to local children. Armenian Street was also known for the pepper trading among the Arab-Achenese and Chinese. Their relationship was not limited to only trading but also to other social and political activities. It was believed that many of them were also members of the Red Flag or Hai San Secret Society, that were based at the Masjid Melayu.One of their leaders was Syed Mohamed Alatas who built the Alatas Mansion at a junction between Acheen Street and Armenian Street. This mid-nineteenth century building of Indo-Malay style was surrounded by a brick wall and two gates that were accessible from both the streets. Its porch was paved with terracota tiles and the gable roof was decorated with Islamic motifs. Today the bu ilding which had undergone some renovations is used as the office for the Penang Heritage Centre. Alatas also had another building which became a landmark for pepper traders in Penang.This was his four-storey spice godown and office popularly called Rumah Tinggi (tall house) by the local people because it was the highest building at that time. This building which was also known as Kuan Lau or Small-Tower junction by the Chinese, stands on Beach Street which runs on the east of and at right angle with Armenian Street and Acheen Street. Acheen Street and Armenian Street were typical examples of a multi-cultural section of Georgetown where people of various communities lived side by side and intermarriages were not uncommon.One of Alatas wives was one of the daughters of a very wealthy Hokkien pepper trader in Penang and Sumatra. He was Khoo Tiang Poh who had presented his Khoo Poh Villa at the corner of Acheen Street and Carnavon Street to his Muslim son-in-law. Today it houses the Li Teik Seah School. Khoo Tiang Poh also had a bungalow on Acheen Street which later became the premises of Bangkok Hotel. 31 The Cheah kongsi which was founded in the 1820s also had their kongsi house on Armenian Street. The piece of land which was donated by its founder, Cheah Eam, added a temple building of Malay, Chinese, European and Straits Chinese styles in 1873.This two-storey temple has an upper porch enclosed by wrought conjure grills decorated with wood carvings. The lower porch which was renovated in 1930s was guarded by two lion heads. The wide courtyard in the front provides an airy atmosphere for people who come to perform ancestral worship, and other functions. as well on Armenian Street was built the Tua Pek Kong Temple which was dedicated to the God of Prosperity. It was founded by Khoo Teng Pang in 1844 and was also used as a base for the Tua Pek Kong triad or the Khian Tek Society. It was an important headquarters for the Straits Chinese.After 1890 when brain-te aser societies were banned by the government, this triad became a Hokkien kongsi consisting of several clans, such as the Khoo, Cheah, Lim, Tan and Yeoh, which built clan houses close by. Starting from that year and since then annually, they organised a chng panh (decorated stage) procession accompanied by the very colourful chingay featuring towering triangular flags. This procession which took place on the 14th day of the Chinese New Year, carried the Tua Pek Kong and the more than 200-year old incense urn from the Armenian Street temple to the Son Pearl Temple in Tanjong Tokong.There were also other clan houses on Armenian Street such as, the Moh Hun Association or the Teowchoo Social club, the Yap kongsi headed by Yeap Chor Ee, and a house which used to be the base for Dr. Sun Yat Sen whenever he was in Penang to plan his political strategies in China. Situated between Armenian and Acheh Streets, at Cannon Square, is the elegant Khoo Kongsi temple. The piece of land where it sta nds was bought in 1851. The Khoo clan started building the temple in 1894 and completed it in 1902. 32 Other sub-lineages of the Khoo clan built separate temples, such as the grand Boon San Tong Khoo Kongsi at Victoria Street, and the Khoo Si Toon Keng Tong which occupies a shoplot at Beach Street. The main Khoo Kongsi at Cannon Square which was surrounded by over 20 clan dwellings, is very impressive for its intricate architecture. The double imperial roof decorations were constructed from shards cut out from colourful ceramic bowls, and the ancestral hall was decorated with woods carved by specialist artisans. Religious and family functions used to be held here for it had a meeting room, a large reception hall and kitchen.Today it holds only three gatherings annually. They are to celebrate the Cheng Beng (Chinese All SoulsDay) or the Hungry Ghosts, when the descendants come to the clan temple to worship their ancestors a reunion observation during the Tang Chi (Winter Solstice) a nd an awards ceremony usually held to honour Khoos who have graduated from a tertiary education or who have gained public recognition. XIII. The Former Whole (paragraph 29(iv)) The expansion of Georgetown seemed to grow naturally. The waterfront which was the busiest commercially, was constructed with wharves, godowns and offices. dyers rocket Quay was the main street that greeted ships, tongkang, boats and ferries that carried passengers from the mainland. Colonial style two-storey brick buildings with arches dominated this area. They housed European companies, such as the Messrs. Behn, Meyer & Co. , German shipping agents, general importers and tin refiners. Parallel to dyers mignonette Quay, and on the inner side of the city, is Beach Street which was an extension of the port area. The western part was mainly occupied by Asian (Chinese, Malay and Indian) forwarding agents, traders, market sellers, metalsmiths, cargo handlers and shipyard workers.The buildings were normally smalle r. Only Gedung Acheh was four-storey high. The eastern side of the street was more dominated by European companies, and banks, such as the Standard Chartered Bank and the Algemene Bank Nederland (ABN Bank). An adjacent block of buildings that was built later housed the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. Adjacent to these latter buildings were the Government offices, first of the East India Company, and later of the Straits Settlements. They were called the Governments Quadrangle built on King Edward Place. The ground floor used to house the Post Office.Now it houses the State Religious Department on one side, which still retains the original building, and the Penang Malay Chamber of Commerce on the other, which underwent a complete renovation because it was bombed during the Japanese occupation. King Edward Place ends with the Victoria Memorial Clock Tower. This tower now stands on a small round-about that opens to Beach Street on its west, Light Street on its north, Jalan Tun Syed Sheh Barakbah on its east and the eastern end of Weld Quay on its south. The Tower was built by a prominent Chinese business man, Cheah Chen Eok, to commemorate the Queen Victorias adamant jublee in 1897.Although the Clock Tower is small compared to the buildings at Beach Street, it remains prominent because of its strategic position. It will be one of the first monuments that can be seen by ferry passengers to the island. XIV. Conclusion The cities of Melaka and Georgetown are both very rich in their cultural heritage. The people are the living verification of a unique multicultural population, the consequence of centuries of history, that are shown from the living cultures and abodes, the architecture, the languages, and daily routines.They are thoroughly mixed yet not completely blended, much like the rojak, a popular local mixed fruit salad in sweet, slightly hot thick sauce, where the taste of the different fruits is still maintained, but on the whole becomes differe nt because of the unique condiment that binds all in it. The people of both Melaka and Penang, though dominated by Malays, Indians, Chinese as different communities, yet there are also the unique historical offshoots of these communities that do not exist anywhere else (except perhaps in Singapore). They are the Peranakan Chinese, Indian, Portuguese and Arab.The most beautiful result of the historical phenomenon is that they all live together, side by side, doing their own things, maintaining their own religions and customs and also enjoying everybodys cuisine. Bibliography Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir,1969. The Hikayat Abdullah. Annotated and translated by A. H. Hill. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press. Bird, Isabella, 1983 (first published in 1883). The Golden Chersonese. Introduction by redbreast Hanbury Tenison. London, Century Publishing. Choong Kwee Kim, In Good Hands The Star, 5. 2. 2001 Clammer, John R. , 1979.The Ambiguity of indistinguishability Ethnicity Maintenance and Change Among the Straits Chinese Community of Malaysia and Singapore. ISEAS. fooling publisher No. 54. Clodd, Harold green, 1948. Malayas First British Pioneer The Life of Francis Light. London, Luzac. Fujimoto, Helen, 1988. The South Indian Community and the Evolution of the Jawi Peranakan in Penang up to 1948. Tokyo, ILCAA, Tokyo Gaokokugo Daigaku. Harrison, Brian, 1985. belongings the Fort Melaka under Two Flags, 1795-1845. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Monograph No. 14. ___________, 1979.Waiting For China The Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, 1818-1843, and Early Nineteenth Century Missions. Hong Kong. Karathigesu, R. , Mariammans Temple Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 42-44. Khoo Su Nin, The Red Belted School Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 3. , 1990, pp. 10-11. __________, The Acheen Street Community A Melting Pot of the Malay World Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 2, p. 22. __________, The carry Procession Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 46-48. Leith, George, 1804. A short(p) Account of the Settlement, recrudesce and Commerce of the Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca. London, J. Booth.Malacca, 1986. The Times Travel Library, Singapore. Meerah, N. , Old Tamil Place label Pulau Pinang, Vol. 1, No. 5, 1989. Pp. 13-15. New Straits Times, 4. 8. 1998. Ong Seng Huat, Temple On the Knoll Pulau Pinang, Jan-Feb. 1989, pp. 24-29. ____________, The Khoo Clan Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990, pp. 4-16. Pintado, Manuel Joachim, 1980. A Stroll Through Anciet Malacca And A Glimpse At Her Historical Sites. Melaka, Loh Printing Press. Rabeendran, R. , Ethno-Racial Marginality in West Malaysia The Case of Peranakan Hindu Malacca or Malacca Chitty Community University of Malaya, n. d. Scott-Ross, Marcus, 1971.A curt History of Malacca. Singapore, Chopmen Enterprise. Tan Leh Sah, Convent Light Stree Pulau Pinang, Vol. 1, No. 6, 1989, pp. 24-26. The Star, 24. 6. 1984 8. 9. 1987. Wurtzburg, C. E. , 1984. Raffles of the Eastern Isles , Singapore, Oxford University Press. 1 Harold Park Clodd, 1948. Malayas First British Pioneer The Life of Francis Light. London, Luzac. P. 9. 2 Marcus Scott-Ross, 1971, A Short History of Malacca. Singapore, Chopmen Enterprise, p. 94. 3 Qouted from Manuel Joaquim Pintado,1980. A Stroll Through Ancient Malacca And A Glimpse At Her Historical Sites. Melaka, Loh Printing Press, p. 6. 4 M. J. Pintado, op. cit. , p. 76. 5 Brian Harrison, 1985. Holding the Fort Melaka Under Two Flags, 1795-1845. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Monograph No. 14, p. 62. 6 Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir, 1969. The Hikayat Abdullah, by Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir. Annotated and translated by A. H. Hill, Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, p. 63. 7 C. E. Wurtzburg, 1984. Raffles of the Eastern Isles, Singapore, Oxford University Press, p. 76 8 ibidem p. 79. 9 Brian Harrison, 1979. Waiting For China The Anglo-Chinese College at Malacca, 1818-1843, and Early Nineteenth Century Missions. Hong Kong, pp. 40-44. 10 John R. Clammer, 1979. The Ambiguity of Identity. Ethnicity Maintenance and Change Among the Straits Chinese Community of Malaysia and Singapore. ISEAS. Occasional Paper No. 54. p. 3. 11 R. Rabeendran, Ethno-Racial Marginality in West Malaysia The Case of Peranakan Hindu Malacca or Malacca Chitty Community University of Malaya, n. d. , p. 7. 12 Malacca, 1986. The Times Travel Library. Singapore, p. 31. 13 Marcus Scott-Ross, op. cit, p. 111. 14 New Straits Times, August 4, 1998. 15 Isabella Bird, 1983. (First Published in 1883). The Golden Chersonese. Introduction by robin Hanbury Tenison.London, Century Publishing. pp. 254-255. 16 George Leith, 1804. A Short Account of the Settlement, Produce and Commerce of Prince of Wales Island in the Straits of Malacca. London, J. Booth, p. 14. 17 Quoted from Shukor Rahman, The Star, 24 June 1984. 18 Like the Baba in Melaka, these people were born in the Straits Settlements, including Penang. There were few marriages wit h the local Malays, but had little ties with China. They were distinct from the Melaka Baba. See, John R. Clammer, 1979. The Ambiguity of Identity, p. 54, pp. 2-3. 19 The first Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman was once ameliorate here.So was Tan Sri Lim Chong Eu, one of the Chief Ministers of Penang. 20 Tan Leh Sah, Convent Light Street in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 1, No. 6, 1989, pp. 24-26. 21 Choong Kwee Kim, In Good Hands The Star, 5 February 2001. 22 The Star, 8 kinsfolk 1987. 23 Khoo Su Nin, The Red Belted School in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1990, pp. 10-11. 24 Ong Seng Huat, Temple on the Knoll in Pulau Pinang, Jan-Feb 1989, pp. 24-29. 25 R. Karthigesu, Mariammans Temple in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, no. 6, 1990, pp. 42-44. 26 Khoo Su Nin, The Chariot Procession, in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, no. , 1990, pp 46-48. 27 Isabella Bird, op. cit. , p. 256. 28 N. Meerah, Old Tamil Place Names, in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 1, No. 5, 1989, pp. 13-15. 29 Helen Fujimoto, 1988. The South India n Community and the Evolution of the Jawi Peranakan in Penang up to 1948. Tokyo, ILCAA, Tokyo Gaokokugo Daigaku, p. 36. 30 The Acheen Street Mosque in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2 No. 2, 1990, p. 27. 31 Khoo Su Nin, The Acheen Street Community A Melting Pot of the Malay World Pulau Pinang. Vol. 2, No. 2, 1990, p. 22. 32 Ong Seng Huat, The Khoo Clan in Pulau Pinang, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1990, pp. 4-16.

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