Tuesday, February 19, 2019

Muslim Women : the Veil Essay

OBJECTIVETo field of operations the human bodys of Islamic women in versatile regions and to draw the conclusions related to the topic.INTRODUCTIONThe blur should be considered as an heaviness/ retrenchment or it should be left upon the women to decide? Certainly, religious sentiments should never be undermined because in some or the other charge it leads to vexation which further provokes uncertainty among divergent conclaves of people.However, creation a non- Moslem, it is somewhere inculcated in my mind that this exercising is a landmark of patriarchal society or suppression of women, but through and through my research, I strongized that it is not to the highest degree my views but it is active those Moslem women and their opinion regarding this practice. A Muslim charwoman wears hijab (veil for the simple reason that God has commanded it in the ledger and Sunna. There ar 2 verses which deal with the question of womens dress.They argon Surah an-Nur verse 31 a nd Surah al- Ahzab verse 59Mainly, umpteen a(prenominal) non-Muslims and few Muslims also, fail to examine and contemplate this issue and heart-to-heartly condemn this practice. Modernization has lessened the gap in the midst of men and women but it fails to understand that though Men and women are adapted but not identical. many feminists approaches excite been taken against the suppression of Muslim women. They suggest that Islam the like any patriarchal religion, subordinates women. They are committed to womens rights and believe that Islam doesnt everyow women liberation.If we look at the scenario from broader view, we exit find that thither is a wide gap between anthropological perspective and the modern perspective. Quran is the command of God and must be get hitched withed in in all times. In many aimries, view takeing is abandoned, much(prenominal) as France and in other countries it is left upon Muslim women to decide approximately it such as India, U.S . It has been abolished in many countries due to the rise of terrorist act which has become the global issue today and also due to many feminists movements.THE VEIL AND FEMINIST APPROACHESA perception that the veil is a image of oppression of women has different adherents who embody different assumptions ad different levels of sophistication. some westbounders and non- Muslims think that Muslim women are completely and utterly subjugated by men, and the veil is the symbolisation of that. They are underpinned by an unconscious adherence to liberalism and modernisation theory. A more sophisticated view is that of one instill of feminists, they argue that Islam, like any other patriarchal religion, subordinates women .They keep every carve up of knowledge around the religion and believe that it undermines the women liberation and their rights. Some of them do not listen to the cover women. There is another school of feminists that listens to the voices of covered women but re aches to different conclusions about covering from those of the liberal feminists. Often anthropologists and historians, this chemical group of feminists has been concerned to understand meaning of a rise to powerible practice from the inside.Thus, this group follows a contextual approach in soul the grievances of Muslim women. Many feminists consent trouble knowing how to deal with the veil, Islam, and the women who embrace it. Some feminists who in differing ways aim to build on, extrapolate from, or sometimes negate, immaculate Islamic justice, and reinterpret it for modern times. There are also feminists whose bench mark is liberal secular liberalism, who seeks to remove all aspects of Islamic law that do not conform to a secular liberal feminist ave clavereal of equality and liberation for women.METHODOLOGICAL STUDYThe study of women, indeed, Islam in general, has suffered methodological problems. Until recently, the predominant methodological approach to study Muslim w omen has been Orientalist, or neo-Orientalist. Orientalism has viewed Muslims through the prism of religion, said by Edward said. ISLAM has been as a static, monolithic, backward tenet that both explains and determines Muslim behavior. After World War II, Orientalism was transformed in to modernization theory. This approach analyzed the non-western creation to evolve into western elbow room institutions. The mainstream Western media and mass market books still rely on a belief in the inherent superiority of the Western ways to book the case against Islam.In modern times, Muslim elites take for granteded the Western chance variable of the meaning of the veil, and they also saw its disappearance as essential to the modernization of their countries. Nazira Zain al-Din, the first Arab woman to publish lengthy treaties on the topic of netting I have noticed that the nations that have habituated up the veil are the nations that have advanced in intellectual and material life. The u nveil nations are the ones that have discovered through research and study the secrets of character and have brought the physical elements under their control as you see and know. plainly the veiled nations have not unearthed any secret and have not put any of the physical elements under their control but sole(prenominal) sing the songs of the glorious past and ancient customs duty.Historians and Anthropologists in particular, have challenged Orientalism and modernization theory in relation to Muslim women by urging a focus on the specificity of Muslim women in order to understand them better. Indeed, it is reusable to point out that womens frequently deteriorated under European hindrance in the Muslim world, challenging the linkage of Modernization and Westernization with liberation for Muslim women. Seclusion increased in the Ottoman Empire during European penetration. Muslim women have had right over their position delivered by give or earned by themselves, without the in volvement of their husband.In Aleppo, upper-class women were property owners of some importance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuriesIn 1770, 59 share of all property sales involved women as either buyers or sellers in 1800, 67 percent and in 1840 , 53 percent. In Egypt, Muhammad Alis centralization programme deprived Muslim women of stinting independence. Centralization excluded them, as ruler gave international land at his appreciation to womens detriment. In addition, the New centralized system also introduced impudent institutions derived from Europe that militated against women. Banks, crinkle exchanges, insurance companies, etc, in Europe did not have sex the legal existence of women and so they followed the same strategies in Egypt.Women were not allowed to open bank accounts in their own names or to play the stock market or to indulge in other activities in their own right. If modernization improved health and education and, afterwards colonialism, ended seclus ion, in other areas womens social maneuverability deteriorated. Hence historical study reveals the condition of many women in specific places and shows that Westernization and modernization did no in force(p) to Muslim women in their advancement. The veil is seen as quintessential tradition.Colonialists, missionaries, Orientalists, and secular feminists attacked hide as a backward tradition, but it is now known that netting became more widespread in the nerve center East after piles evasion of Egypt in 1798, and increased during European occupation of the Middle East (1830-1936). So, tradition and modernity are unstable categories. Afshar, who admits to not understanding why women embrace the veil , writes The twentieth degree Celsius marked the crown of Muslim womens intellectual engagement with their religion, first to denounce it and to relinquish from its sexual urge-specific prescriptions, and then to return to the texts and reclaim their Islamic rights. Faced with this unexpected volte hardihood researches have tended to take embattled positions to attack or defend the faith, and have all too often failed to engage with the realities and the situations in which women have entrap themselves .Keddie observes that the women and Islam field is ideologically charged and tense One group denies that Muslim women..are any more oppressed than non-Muslim women or argue that in appoint respects they have been less oppressed. A second asserts that oppression is real but extrinsic to Islam the Quran, they assure, intended gender equality, but this was undermined by Arabian patriarchy and foreign importations. An opposing group blames Islam for being irrevocably gender in egalitarian. There are also those who adopt intermediate positions, as well as those who tend to avoid these controversies by sticking to monographic or limited studies that do not confront such issues. Some scholars promote shifting emphasis away from Islam to economic and social forc es.In this context, we put forward say that Muslim women are deprived of many rights but for this it is the Quran to blame or the interpretations of Quranic verse by many Scholars and jurists. Local customs duty and predilections are relevant, perhaps most important for an understanding of womens effective subprogram and involvement in society. Obviously conceptual views of womens role and position and role in society do not count for something, and one of the burning questions of the contemporary Muslim scene is to what extent early(a) juristic proscriptions and prescriptions for womens status and role ought to be the guiding norm for Muslims today.Veiling is liked to an oppressive practice under Taliban regime in Afghanistan of the 1990s, where women have been denied education, confined to the home, and barred from any role in cosmos life veiling may be seen as a symbol of womens oppression in that community. Sonobol, argues that an important methodological problem I the fi eld is with those scholars who accept methodological problem in the field is with those scholars who accept the Quran, Hadith, and Sunnah as representing the genuine as opposed to the normative condition of women.Her assumption is that the normative position of women can be said to be oppressive, but actual womens life may not have been, that actual womens lives may not have been conformed to the description of a constricting official doctrine If anything, social discourse seems to point to juxtaposition quite opponent to what the formal discourse present us. This means that the actual lives women led caused reactionary clergymen to interpret laws more conservatively. The looser the women, the stricter the interpretation.Across Islamic history, this is sometimes true. Some Islamic discourses may result in an oppressively patriarchal order, but other Islamic discourses do not. Berktay, a Turkish feminist, criticizes the contextual approach, which seeks to understand Muslim women f rom their own perspective, for its heathen relativism. She argues following Tabari, cultural relativism becomes a banner under which oppression may be do to appear tolerable . Berktay refers to veiling as an example of the problems of cultural relativism This likable cultural relativism on the part of Western feminists sometimes goes far as to extend a rationalization of the segregation of women to accepting and condoning even veiling for the Middle Eastern sisters Although universally perceived in the West as an oppressive custom, it veiling is not experienced as such by women who habitually wear it, writes Leila Ahmed.Leaving aside the strength of the argument about the social construction of experience and feelings, and about how misleading it therefore is to claim a special authenticity for (only some among) them, one wonders whether Western feminists, who know absolutely well that these practices spring from a theology of the upkeep of so called feminine purity, would ever accept veiling for themselves- and not as an alternative way of life, but as something compulsory, from which there is no possibility of opting out.Warne speaks of the unacknowledged quarantine that has existed between feminists and religious studies, and suggests it is time o break down the barriers Unfortunately, there is a tendency to consider only womens negative experiences with religion as accurate, and all positive ones, by definition as a pleasing of patriarchally induce false consciousness. Judgments such as these pose serious problems for scholars interested in both women and religion, because work that attempts to be more nuanced is sometimes read as betrayal or as patriarchal co-optation.VEIL AND THE westwardAt the beginning of the twenty-first century, the topic of Islam, fundamentalism, terrorism, extremism and womens position in Islam is on many peoples minds. The discourse in the everyday mind is one of the backwardness, violence and barbarity of Islam, Arabs and Muslims. This makes challenging the Western stomp that the veil is the symbol of Muslim womens oppression an uphill battle, all the more in light certain late twentieth century events in the Muslim world Irans imposition of the chador after khomeinis revolution in 1979 the Talibans imposition of the burqa after their accession to power in 1997 and the violence perpetrated by radical groups in the name of Islam in Egypt, Israel, Algeria and the like.Does not all this merely confirm that Islam is violent, strict and anti-women? The point is that Muslims are not accorded the same degree of care and precision, there is no recognition of special, localized circumstances that intervene between Islam and enactment. US Administration and other western powers do not have anything against Islam and Muslims in general actually the public rhetoric demonizing Islam is part of the Western maintenance of its global hegemony. The discourse in West is tied to western study interests. US policy in the Middle East is to protect its access to Middle Eastern oil fields and give unconditional stomach to Israel.Because Islam is perceived as anti-West, the contemporary Islamists movements to install shariah law are feared. It is sight that Muslim governments committed to implementing Islamic law will interfere with western interests and may threaten Israel. Hence pro-western, secular governments in the Muslim world are supported, even if they repress their own mankind. The veils sleeper with the Islamists movement is thus the link between Western power regime and an anti-veil discourse in the west. However, US and Western national interests have impose foreign policies that are interpreted by most of the Muslim and Arab populace as hypocritical and harmful to their own interests and need Israel is not bombed for its covering fire nuclear weapons program the West remains silent over violations of Muslims human rights and the West supports corrupt governments over democratic movements.MuslimS IN THE WESTThe need to challenge the negative stereotype of the veil as oppressive is urgent for those Muslims who live in the west. Anecdotal evidence demonstrates that Muslims (male and distaff are hurt by the negative image of veil and Islam. some(prenominal) examples are there to support it. In 1995 some Muslim school girls were thrown out of the school in Quebec, Canada, for refusing to remove their scarves. The schools ruled that scarves were an flamboyant symbol akin to a swastika. A teenage girl in Quebec who wore hijab to high school was mortified to see her teacher on telecasting proclaiming, Islam degrades women. I started to cry. I could not understand why someone would say something like that, she told.She knows me. She knows what I am like, and that I am not like that. How can she say that? CAIR (Council on American Islamic Relations) reported in November 1997 that a 13 year old boy was hospitalized after being beaten by two or more teenagers who called him a take in caput and f-ing sand n-gger. Apparently the attack occurred after the let of one of the attackers called the father of the victim a rag head and the rag head lover. Thus the life of these Muslims is miserable in such countries and antifertility measures must be taken to protect the individual freedom.MUSLIM WOMEN IN FRANCEMuslim women in France are refrained from using see veil. The French law doesnt allow face veil in France. Many Muslim women condemn the law and also protested against it. But the result was not changed. Instead, fit in to the law they were to be charged with fines and compensation. They are allowed to use the headscarves but not face veil. The government gives reason that this face veil has lead to the accidents of many ladies who wear it and fail to follow the traffic rules.It keeps them away from the world as due to it they do not see and hear properly. Many feminists say that this religious habit shows the dominance of patriarchal so ciety and women should come up by not accepting it or refusing it. Government has also charged males of the family who impose women of the family to wear it. This law has invoked protest in the Paris where full-size number of Frances Muslim stay. Thus, many modern Muslims have halt wearing face veil in the public. But few women are hurt and heartlessly follow it. The government has also asked them to shift to those countries that follow this tradition, instead of living or spending their livelihood in France.MUSLIM WOMEN IN INDIAMuslim women in India have full freedom of choosing their views about veiling. It is all left upon them about the decision of face veil. In India, where 83 percent of majority is Muslims and Christians, the interests of people (Muslims and Christians) cannot be negated. Our politicians seek vote from these two major communities, thats why they never undermine their interests.To make a comment upon this is quite tough that Politicians to seek chair (power) , ignores the truth. But, in our topic of banter this title has no importance, because basically its the discussion about Muslim women and the veil. Indian government has put forth to check that Male of many Muslim family do not threaten/impose their wives and daughters to put face veil without their consent. Thus, the Indian Muslim women wonder their right in India and are free to choose their likes and wither away their dislikes.THE VEILIn the English language a veil is normally a piece of usually more or less vapourous fabric attached to a womans hat, etc, to conceal the face or protect against the sun This word corresponds to the Arabic niqab , the veil with which women cover their faces. As a word to convey the Islamic notion of hijab it is totally inadequate. It can include covering the face, or not. It includes lowering the gaze with the opposite sex, and applies to men as well, who must lower their gaze and cover from belly button to knee.These days, hijab is also the na me of the cloth women use as a headscarf for their head coverings and tie or pin at the neck, with their faces showing. Over the centuries and in different places, how a woman covers has varied enormously what parts are covered, with what kind of material, texture, pattern etc. The terminology has varied also, region to region, of course. The word niqab refers to the face veil that some women attach to their headscarves.CONCLUSIONThe study of veil is not only about the religious analysis but also about understanding the complexity of issue in the contemporary world. The instructions given in Quran about Muslim women to veil were written according to that time. The practice taking place at that time harassed many women of that time. The instructions given were to improve the conditions of those women.But the things are changed now, the Modernization see these things as oppression of women. With the rise of Globalization, people have become advanced and do not believe in religious s entiments of those who still follow their tradition and culture. Some Muslim women are oppressed by the male members of their family and are not able to enjoy certain rights. Those women must come up and must put forward their interests. Religious sentiments should never be undermined as it can lead to uncertainty among various classes of the society.BIBLIOGRAPHYRETHINKING MUSLIM WOMEN AND THE VEIL, KATHERINE BULLOCKWOMEN AND sexual practice IN ISLAM, AHMEDWEBLIOGRAPHYwww.iiituk.comwww.sultan.org

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