Saturday, February 23, 2019
Compare and Contrast the Ways in Which Shakespeare and Webster Present Hamlet and Bosola as Tragic Heroes. Essay
Bosola from Websters The Duchess of Malfi and village from Shakespeares settlement, twain toast elements of Aristotles model of the sad whiz through two of the characters, Shakespeare and Webster use the features of the tragicalal maven to engage Elizabethan and Jacobean audiences in an exploration of issues linked to the reincarnation, religion and philosophy. This essay will explore how the playw rightfulnesss present the tragic flaws in their gunes character and how they face struggles imputable to their inner passage of arms and may exhibit scoundrelous behavior however are non complete tyrants. Greek philosopher Aristotle recorded his ideas about tragedy dramas and the tragic hero in his noted hold back of literary theory titled Poetics (335 BCE), the book was rediscovered during the Renaissance and became commonly used as a playwriting manual. Aristotle stated that the tragic hero is a character of noble stature and has greatness but al curtilagegh they are ga in vigorn as pre-eminently great, they are not perfect.The tragic heros d possessf tout ensemble will come down to being gener whollyy of their own doing through the result of free choice rather than disaster or villainy or some other malevolent hazard. Aristotle characterised the tragic hero as displaying hamartia which is usually trans later(a)d as tragic flaw. in that respect is to a fault some increase in awareness and a smack of discovery upon the part of the tragic hero. Hamlets biggest flaw in character is that he over philosophises and delays landing Claudius up until it is too late for his family and himself. After he decides Claudius is guilty of murdering his father, he still relents from taking his revenge, he says Haste me to know t, that I, with wings as swift/ As hypothesis or the thought of love/ May sweep to my revenge. (Act I, scene V). This reference displays Hamlets deep want for revenge, the banters are muscular and using words such as swift gives the impression that he will not delay in taking action suggesting that he is ready, however the juxtaposing simile embedded within the quote is soft and suggests Hamlets cogitating over thoughts of love possibly his love for Ophelia, meditation likewise implies that he dwells in deep thought.Hamlet procrastinates a lot passim the play Smith says that due to his brooding and introspective nature, he practically wrangles with language to help him understand a reality where he has small(a) control. Hamlets famous to be or not to be soliloquy questions the righteousness of life over death in clean-living terms and discusses the many possible reasons for either living or last, this does however launch the audience Hamlets humanity, Shakespeare can also use his character to engage with the prevalent philosophical ideas during the Renaissance arrest Judkins states that the Renaissance embraces a series of religious, economic, and political changes which ripple into areas of science, literature, and philosophy, at a condemnation of change and new ideas many writers such as Shakespeare would have been interested in the ideas explored during the Renaissance and so create characters to mull over it. One example of Hamlets dilemma reflecting the debates in Elizabethan society, is linked to morality and law Hamlet finds himself torn between his desire for revenge but also his philosophizing over the futility of life J. J. Lawlor argues that the retaliator delays, not from despair or indecision which are finally spurned in favour of the duty of revenge, but because there is a disbelief about revenge itself.Hence, Hamlets scrupling reflects a man detain in changing times between the Medieval Age when damn revenge was accepted and the Tudor era of legal reformation where snobby revenge was outlawed. Bosola also shows internal divergence which could imply that he fits Aristotles model of the tragic hero, however it is shown to a greater extent through his asides rather than soliloquies as shown in Hamlet. Bosola is very bitter towards the system and the way the country is ruled, with those above him abusing their power but still he continues to carry out his ship canal, due to his greed poisoning his morals, it can be give tongue to he is plagued by his own melancholy and will only debate the consequences afterwards. Boas suggests that the tragic hero is made to feel him-self caught in a smudge over which he has little control but in which he moldiness show some decision, however futile. But the unhappy out-come always emerges from his decision. He must choose and cannot choose well, so although Bosola chooses to avenge the duchess he kills her, her children, Antonio and himself in the process.It could also be said that Bosola fails to redeem himself because his actions are driven by revenge, after he kills the Cardinal and Ferdinand he says, zero(prenominal) my revenge is perfect. Sink, thou main cause/ Of my undoing The last part of my life/ Hath through me best service (Act V, Scene, V). Like Shakespeare, Websters presentation of inner conflict in his protagonist also seems to suggest that the path of private payback is complex and will lead to destruction. Bosola does also come to terms with his fate existential nihilists claim that, to be honest, one must face the ridiculousnessof existence, that he/she will eventually die (Unknow Author). Bosola states that people are nevertheless the stars tennis balls (Act V, Scene IV) that a persons fate is already mapped out and everything is inevitable so Bosola feels like a victim of circumstance. seat F Buckingham states that perhaps there is also an etymological significance in Websters adjustment of the source name, Bozola to a new spelling that references the word Bossola Italian for a mariners compass, pointing up the irony that Bosolas own final journey is directionless, away from justice. It could be said that Hamlet also comes to terms with his fate and car ries it upon his shoulders like a burden. The time is out of joint O cursed spite, that ever I was born(p) to set it right (Act I, Scene V), here it could be said that Hamlet indisputably feels that he was born to avenge his fathers death, thus he vows to dedicate his life to vengeance.In the final scene Hamlet realizes that a person should be ready to accept the undeniable concomitant that death will come Hamlet says to Horatio, Theres special frugality in the fall of a sparrow. If it be now, tis not to come if it be not to come, it will be now if it be not now, til now it will come. The readiness is all (Act V, Scene II). Both Hamlet and Bosola show villainous behaviour, but it can be argued that they arent in fact completely evil. Hamlet soon finds himself acting upon passion and is at to the lowest degree at crucial moments of his experience, passions slave, as in his chewing out of Ophelia and, more tragically, in his murder of her father (Allan). Hamlet is not a bad pers on yet the pressure and intensity of his vengeance disunite away at him he finds himself acting sometimes rashly and uncertainly, and in the case of Polonius murder, he does not initially show any signs of contrition as he looks down on him calling him a wretched, rash, irrupt fool (Act III, Scene IV), which suggests he is almost saying it is Polonius fault for getting involved and does not take responsibility. Hamlets actions are caused by his desire to avenge his father the old king Hamlet who was polish off by his brother Claudius and so it could be argued that had Hamlet not know thatClaudius murdered his father, he would not have carried out the murders and would therefore not be villainous, as Hamlet was loved by the people and was known to be a smart scholar who went to university. Shakespeare uses Ophelia to reflect these views when she says, O what a noble mind is here oerthrown (Act III, Scene I). Hamlet did not int give up onhurting his loved ones in the beginning an d should not be seen as evil as his aims were to only avenge his father. Allan comments that, power of word and deed do not come inherently to Hamlets contemplative and moral temperament. On the other hand, critic Augustus Schlegel argues that Hamlet has a natural inclination for crooked ways he is a hypocrite towards himself his far-fetched sense of right and wrong are often mere pretexts to cover up his want of goal, this suggests that Hamlet is just as Machiavellian as Claudius but this interpretation would be too simple, and does not consider the impact of Hamlets humanity which is evident in his delay and conflicting thoughts. Bosola however is more entangled in Machiavellian scheming, serving the Duchess brothers, the Cardinal and Ferdinand, and so it could be said that he is not in fact a villain but instead just a working man. Bosola refers to himself as their beast (Act I, Scene I) with its connotations of unthinking, loyalty and inhumanity, Bosola carries out their de eds for his own material befool seemingly regardless of his morals most likely due to his tartness and discontent with social structure and other existing conditions. Bosola is a lynchpin part of the plot and acts as a spy and a manslayer but although it was his choice to have this way of life, in the end he stands for his beliefs.Bosola has already been to prison which implies he is criminal, but during his asides, it is evident that he is not an evil assailant but a man doing a job, For the wakeless deed you have done me, I must do all the ill man can invent. He recognizes the consequences of his actions and feels remorse, for example, when Bosola is ordered to kill the Duchess, he cannot face her as his true self due to his humanity towards her and so he disguises himself C. G. Thayer states that having caused the Duchess so much agony already, Bosola cannot now direct to have her recognize him as he comes to supervise her murder, or, more simply, that he is ashamed to app ear in his own shape. This idea of the onomatopoetic shape links to Machiavellian ideas but also links to his own sense of morality and feeling towards the Duchess and Antonio and his shame for how he is ruining their family and lives. Bosola cannot be seen to be a villain completely as at the end of play he plans to kill the Cardinal for making him kill all those people and for committing crimes, hoping to help save Antonio, and although he kills Antonio accidently, he did change his ways and tried to help, this is an excellent example of how Bosola resembles the tragic herofigure. In ratiocination it is clear that Hamlet fits the model of the tragic hero and it is evident that Bosola also fits the characteristics of a tragic hero.Smith describes Hamlet as the quintessential tragic hero. none only does he begin with the noblest motivations but by the end, his situation is so dire that the only plausible final act should be his death. If we consider Bosola as the malcontent of th e play, the audience can see he tends to view things cynically, and makes numerous critical comments on the nature of Renaissance society. Bell states that Bosola also acts as a choric figure at regular intervals during the play and he often makes judgements on the other characters and the series of events. However despite these more seemingly malcontent traits, it is evident that he can also be seen as a figure resembling the tragic hero. Hamlet and Bosola both(prenominal) display a tragic flaw in character, both display villainous behavior yet it is clear that they both have a sense of morality, neither character realize the right thing to do until the end of both plays and so fail to gain happiness. Shakespeare and Webster both use the traits of the tragic hero to engage in and explore topics which were being challenged and revamped by the discoveries of the Renaissance period.BibliographyAllan, Phillip. Hamlet Phillip Allan Literature Guide for A-Level. Hodder training Oxford shire, 2011. Bell, Millicent. Hamlet, Revenge The Hudson Review, Vol. 51, No. 2 (Summer, 1998), pp. 310-328. Boas, George. The Evolution of the Tragic combatant. The Carleton Drama Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, Greek Tragedy (1955 1956), pp. 5-21. Buckingham, John F. The Dangerous Edge of Things John Websters Bosola in Context & Performance, 2011. Judkins, David. Life in Renaissance England Online available at Lawlor, J.J. The Tragic Conflict in Hamlet. The Review of English Studies. R.E.S rude(a) Series, Vol 1, No. 2, 1950. Schelegel, Augustus William. Criticisms on Shakespeares Tragedies Hamlet. Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature. London, 1846. Hamlet. Ed. Cyrus Hoy. Norton and Company New York, 1992, pp. 155-7. Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. Cambridge Cambridge University Press, 2005. Smith, Nicole. Shakespeares Hamlet as a Tragic Hero Online available at Thayer, C. G. The Ambiguity of Bosola. Studies in Philology, Vol. 54, No.2 (Apr., 1957), pp. 162-171. (Unknown Author) Nihili sm Onlineavailable atWebster, John. The Duchess of Malfi. London Methuen drama, 2001.