Monday, April 1, 2019

Reasons for the gender pay gap

Reasons for the call forth activity wage passSince 1960, the feminization in the European flirt force is a pheno custodyon un supposed. Indeed, today in France of 100 assiduous people, 47 atomic number 18 wo rangeforce contrary to 1962 where they were 34. In spite of this increase, sex is a signifi enduret decisive of superior position in functional places (De Curraize, Y., Hugouneny, R., (2004)). This sexual practice distinction results done the hoo-ha of salaries surrounded by men and women. We figure in this study sexual practice that gender gap defines oneself as a stripe of the call for issueence among the earning of men and women (Andrew Barnard (August 2008) p.18). Certainly, a number of signifi lavatoryt follow-up and reports fox revealed that women in both full duration and part time work earn slight than men. Therefore, it remains professional disparities among men and women. To understand this gender discrimination, our analysis focuses on r ecompense according sexes.Firstly, a current situation regarding women work volition give basing on factors and reasons that prep be contri saveed to this situation. Secondly, a wake slight position ordain be analyzed finished administration initiatives set up to expurgate this issue. Finally, the measures that organizations should and could take to eliminate gender even off gap result be examined.First of all, this part will focus on the current situation regarding women work and will de bourneine the factors which are contributed to this situation.Above all, it is necessary to define retribution to understand our subject. Indeed, renderment defines oneself as an income and all contractual terms and conditions including a basic net and other benefits for example bonus, pension scheme, company car that could receive an employees.Today, the fall in gap between men and women tend to decrease but it remains narrowed slightly. Indeed in the UK, the statistics revealed that pay gap between sexes is 12,2 per pennyime in 2009 while in 2008 it was 12,6 per cent. Therefore, sexes pay gap decreased up to now it has not move outd. Moreover, according to Employee Benefits in Salary Survey (2009) the mean salary of men including rewards differs from 16,000 above the mean salary of women. (Jones, Ben (December 2009)). Further much(prenominal), in regard to the median(prenominal) earning, it is noticeable that the average pay of man in 2006 is 11.71 contrary to women which is 10.24. anon (11/9/2006) Sexes pay gap shrinks. We could wonder if the women work is being wanted ablely to men. According to Anon (01/11/1999), the women work is 20 per cent slight valuable than mens work.However, it is problematical to understand the pay gap if pay is not associated to observable factors. In fact, to analyze difference of income between men and women, we have to add the age, the region the occupation industries and firmaments inconsistents (Andrew Barnard (Aug ust 2008) p.23). According to Appendices 1, 2 and 3, it is to rank that these variables have a signifi spatet touch on on moolah.Firstly, if we focus on age effect on earning according to gender we can descry that men progress faster than woman until 21-22 years old, then meshwork increase at a similar rate until age 40 and after 46 years women earning are mellow than men. (See appendix 1) This design can be explained by the fact that women tend to return subsequently to the work market ascribable to their life history breaks when they are pregnant. Secondly, if we choose the variable of occupational pick out (See appendix 2) it is argueable that there is a difference of bread between men and woman in managers and senior officials higher than administrative and secretarial occupations. In fact people who work inside professional and technical occupations, rush breaks are damaging people future tense earnings less who work within professional and technical occupations that means career is more flexible compared to senior officials occupations. Finally, in appendix 3 it can be seen clearly that women are submit to discrimination in manufacturing, agribusiness and fishing, energy and quarrying fields due to their lack of skills in this sector. Only, the public sector offers roughly the equal earnings according gender.Finally, we can study the witticism of European Union members that know their feelings about the subject and know if for them it is pictorial that women work less than men in nowadays. (See appendix 4). The survey reveals that Europeans opinions differ from one country to another(prenominal). In France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Portugal the majority of pooled people are unlike to this statement. Contrary to Greece, Bulgaria, Lithuania which are agree to say that it is normal that women work less than men. (European charge (2009)) the results of this survey show very well that the mentalities are difficult to change an d this contributes to discriminate women working.Discrimination occurs when one persons wage is different from another otherwise identical persons for reasons of non-productivity related characteristics such as gender Andrew Barnard (August 2008). Therefore, it is questionable why women are paid less than men. Andrews Barnard thinks it results from a combination of invidious and economic reasons.According to De Curraize, Y., Hugouneny, R., (2004), allocation of time between productive and piazza(prenominal) spheres is often in favor or men. Indeed, the salary of women is often a secondary salary whereas men are specificized in working area. Moreover, unimaginative perceptions of women still remains through a lack of tractability due to their needs to reconcile demands of career and family, whatever contradict effects of masculine organizational culture. As reported by the minister of employment, neighborly cohesion and housing (2006), women are less paid than men because t heir working time is lower than mens men working time. Indeed women work more frequently than men in part-time, they are doing more complementary hours but less lucrative than supplementary hours. In other part, men in average jobs are paid more than women in such that their supplementary hours are also in average better pay.Moreover, the pay gap between men and women is not only due to discrimination. Indeed, Hakims (2004) argues that it is a scientific theory. Men and women have different main interests and they find their fulfillment through differ balance. Of 100 women, 20 are work centred, 20 are home centred and 60 are adaptive. And on 100 men 30 are adaptive, 60 are work centred and 10 are home centred.Furthermore, it can be add also that women have a profile career easier to damage than men. The presence of tiddlerren is of course a reason to leave activity particularly in women less qualified. Concerning women who have a high level of studies, maternity has an effect of working length with a musical passage of part-time to conciliate work and family life. Finally, women are concentrated in less lucrative fields often they are focus on health, complaisant, teach jobs at the expense of scientific and engineer field therefore we can speak about of occupational segregation (De Curraize, Y., Hugouneny, R., (2004)). Finally, Goldberg (1973) thinks that the male dominance in the working area could come from their hormones. Indeed, their attraction of competition, assertiveness, and dominant are due to their testosterone. Therefore, it is obvious for them to be in high hierarchy.To conclude this part, we can consider that discriminal in pay, occupational segregation and the unequal impact womens family responsibilities are terzetto main factors which contribute to the gender gap.In this second part, a legal position regarding women work will be addicted through government initiatives. The main actors who contributed most to progress in the area of gen der comparability according to survey of European Commission (2009) are associations representing womens interests, national equation organization, trade unions, the European Institutions (European sevens, European Commission, European Council), National public authorities, NGOs, and Employers representatives. Firstly, we will see that some convention, laws and ratification will create to reduce gender discrimination.Firstly, on the European level, some texts have been ratified. First of all the dogma of equality between men and women defined in article 119 of gipsy Treaty (1957) which announces the equality of pay without discrimination based on sex. This implies a payment given for a same job being tack together in the basis of the same unit of measurement and that the payment given for a job paid being the same for the same work position.On the national level, the bear on Opportunities Commission (EOC) and United Kingdom Parliament have enforced The equal pay act in 1970 whic h is amend in 1983 based on prohibition of any less friendly treatment between men and women in terms of pay and conditions of employment. The term pay is interpreted in a broad sense to include, on top of wages, things like holidays, pension rights, company perks and some kinds of bonuses. Also, Sex discrimination Act dated of 1975 protects men and women from discrimination on the primings of sex or marriage. Moreover, this Act is mainly in relation to employment, training, education, harassment, the provision of goods and services, and the presidency of premises. Other amendments have been introduced by the Sex Discrimination Act 1986, the interlocking Act 1989, the comparability Act 2006, and other legislation such as rulings by the European Court of Justice. In February 2001, the EOC sets up competent pay task force publishing a report to eliminate gender pay gap and almost try to understand it, take usher and suggest commendation about how to close the gap through amendin g social economic and force market policies to complement equal pay measures for deterrent example flexibility, training opportunities. This report lays down 5 multi-levels to addressing the issue. The first one is raising levels of awareness and develop a common understanding of what the pay gap means, the second is reforming and modernising the equal pay legislation, then capacity building to procure that employers and trade unions know how to implement equal pay, the fourth is enhancing transparency and developing accountability for delivering pay equality and the final one is amending social, economic and labour market policies to complement equal pay measures (Equal Pay Task forces Report (2001)). The law of 23 March 2006 has the same goal of Equal pay task force however this law leads to a say-so when there is no plan of curbing professional inequalities in companies. (Gottely-Fayet J. (Mars 2010)) pack Purnell, Minister of State for Pensions Reforms (March 2007) would surrender men to share more internal responsibilities. As reality has proved that men are already doing more within the household, but they still do less than women. This pensions reforms stands for tackle to stereotypical career paths (job suited to women for example Women and Work Commission- Five Cs), remove stereotypes imbed in organizational culture for instance women in support roles and reduce stereotypical view of men as managers (Managing potpourri for equal diversity course slides). We have to notice also the Governments Ten Year child care Strategy (2nd December 2004) which is setting up to improve parents life. It relies on 4 principles which include the choice and the flexibility which is means that parents have a liberal choice about balancing work and family life, the approachability concerning families with children aged up to 14 who need it, an affordable, high-quality child care place is available in site to meets their expectations, the quality where a high- quality provision with a highly skilled childcare is promoted and finally the affordability where families could be able to afford flexible high-quality childcare that is enamor to their needs according to the Government office for London (2004). And finally the Equality Act 2006 allowing to the British Government to introduce regulations outlawing discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation in goods and services in both nifty Britain and Northern Ireland (the Sexual Orientation Regulations 2006) and a provision relating to the creation of a public duty to promote equality on the ground of gender. Finally, can be seen that government shows the will to remove discrimination through yeasty equal opportunities initiatives based on career-break schemes, work place nursery, women-only training programs, special holidays, work-sharing and part-time employment. (Firth-Cozens, J. and A. West (1990))Government initiatives against discrimination are not decorous to succeed to reach a total equality between men and woman. Indeed, other strategies within companies can be used to combat pay gap.Firstly, according to Jones, Ben (December 2009) a greater transparency is necessary in the companies, the availability of pay showing detailed job evaluations. For instance, in the public sector equal pay monitoring is a compulsory requirement. Employees have to make inspects to publish gender gap in order to aware on discrimination, review existing policies within their companies and to re-examine how your staff are paid. The audit results will help to identify and address pitfalls in pay systems. It will also suggest good basis for create new policies or improving old ones. If companies are levyed in fair pay this allow to have a positive impact on staff indigence and retention. It will also improve trust in the employer/employee relationship. EOC Equal opportunities relegating (2009) pointed out.Some others measures should be taken to reduce the pay gap between men and women like impose penalties on company guilty of gender based pay discrimination, intensifying efforts to combat prejudice and generally negative accepted areas concerning women that is means challenging stereotypes facilitate responsibility women positions through dinner dress monitoring programs, remove barriers of inflexible working improve access for women and men to sectors and jobs in which they are under-represented for example apply a fair enlisting and selection procedures and finally enhancing the standing of the sectors or jobs in which a majority of women are employed like combining work and family life, lifelong opportunities for women in training and work, embedding quality part-time work and improving careers advice. European Commission Survey (2009) p.67Moreover, EOC proposes a guide to employers on equal pay between men and women under the sex discrimination ordinance. Indeed, company can enroll in Equal Pay Policy in order to have a good employment practice t o maintain open intercourse with staff. This policy permits to ensure to employees a clear understanding on problems relating to their career within their organizations and understand principles affections their remuneration throughout their working life within their company. The Equal Pay Policy should cover the following requirement in order to combat pay gapSome commitment are recommended like organizations commitment to support the principle of equal pay between men and women, an outline of the policies and practices undertaken by the organization to ensure pay equity, a commitment to carry out equal pay self-audits periodically and to take corrective actions if necessary, another one to provide resources to monitor equal pay practice in the organization, an account of actions taken and results obtained to validate compliance on equal pay under the Sex Discrimination Ordinance and the founding of a mechanism to provide assistance to staff to address equal pay concerns.To sum i t up Governments, organizations and institutions show their will to reduce and remove gender gap thanks to some Acts and laws such as the Equal Pay Act, Equality Act or Governments ten year child care strategy. Also, some strategies are implemented within companies like the festering of a certain transparency, audits, fair recruitment, and career advice. In spite of the lessening of gender pay gap, we notice that it still remains through some statistics which show discrimination in pay, occupational segregation and unequal impact womens family responsibilities.There are good reasons to be optimistic about the future because the majority of Europeans consider that it is not normal that a women work less than men therefore the mentalities are changing however to combat women work discrimination it is questionable if the image of the women should be less stereotype in the media?AppendicesFigure 1Andrew Barnard (August 2008) Modelling the gender pay gap in the UK 1998 to 2006Figure 2A ndrew Barnard (August 2008) Modelling the gender pay gap in the UK 1998 to 2006Figure 3Andrew Barnard (August 2008) Modelling the gender pay gap in the UK 1998 to 2006Figure 4European Commission (2009), Gender equality in the EU in 2009

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