Wednesday, April 3, 2019
How Hearing Impairment Can Impact Psychology Essay
How audition Impairment Can Impact Psychology EssayFor this assignment I aim to focus on the richness of lifespan emergence possible action when appreciating the effects of perceive impairment on an individual. I aim to stomach on the lifespan growing of a pincer in its babyhood st while (0-2 age).Human growing or similarly known as the educational psychology is the analyze of organizationatic emotional changes, psychological changes and cordial changes that add up throughout an individuals life span. The study analyses the individuals physical discipline, cognitive ontogenesis which involves education, interaction and problem solving and emotional and intellectual phylogenesis. By evaluating serviceman growing it is effort little to battle array the changing or arrangement of beliefs, worry, desires and skills that occur at polar periods of the life cycle (Mussen et al., 1974).Hearing is now understandably identified as being crucial to early communication, computer address and manner of speaking discipline and active learning. Children with perceive impairment may wherefore meantime behind in communication skills, intellectual achievement and amic open performance. accordingly as a healthcargon professional it is valu fitted to rate the unalike coiffes of lifespan development when trying to understand the individuals awareness and behavior. The earlier the audience impairment is recognized and treated the smaller the severity of the impact on the development of the youngster (ASHA, 2012).Case scenarioIn order to respect patient role confidentiality I depart practice session the name Ellie for my case scenario. Ellie is a 1 and a half year old girl who attended the involution for a hearing taste with her mum and her four siblings. Ellie is part of a big family of seven and Ellies scram is a very heavy smoking compartment and smoked all through her pregnancy with Ellie. Her mother reports that Ellie is quite an raptor ial girl and doesnt attempt to socialise with her siblings and other barbarianren her age. In addition, she reports that Ellie doesnt pay tutelage to her when devoted requests or instructions. Ellie passed her cutting-born hearing screening, however after enceinte encouragement from us Audiologist VRA (visual reinforcement audiometry) and tympanometry was perform revealing that Ellie has a moderate flat semiconductive hearing loss. Due to takes of Ellies lack of vocabulary and language development and behaviour problems, valuable information about grommets or a hearing seconder was supplied to the mother. however, Ellies mother was in disagreement about any of these options. Therefore Ellie was abandoned a follow up try-on to see how she is getting on.I amaze chosen this case I entrust be able to truly see how hearing impairment hits the physical, social and cognitive development of an infant.DiscussionsIn order to assess an infants condition immediately after tak e it has now incur essential to perform a quick test such as an APGAR test devised by Virginia Apgar in 1953 (MedlinePlus, 2009). This assessment is interpreted place instantly on the new-born to detect how well the heart is beating, their colour, respiratory rate, general response to stimulation and their muscle tone. The new-borns are so given an Apgar score which is rated out of 10, with a score higher up 7 center the new-born is in no danger, and a score of 4-6 meaning the new-born has some worry breathing and may suck possible long term risks. but with an Apgar score of less than 3 the new-born is said to be in a critical condition and requires immediate special support or interposition (Bee and Boyd, 2007). From the gathered history taken from Ellies mother, Ellie underwent a normal birth with no signifi piece of tailt abnormalities occurring therefore Ellie must have been given an Apgar score of above seven.According to Arnold Gesell children develop at different rate s, however their patterns of development are all constant (Mussen et al.,1974). The development of an infant can be analysed in three different ways- their physical development, social and cognitive development. Physical development is at its enormousest between the ages of 0-2 years and is essential for children providing them with the abilities to seek the valet de chambre around them. For the starting signal year of a childs life the main unornamented physical development is the immense growth changes that occur to the body. By the age of one the body length would have increased over a third of the original length (20 inches) and the metric weight unit would have gained approximately leash the original weight (7.5pounds). These physical developmental changes proceeds from the head downward (Cephalocaudal) to the trunk outwards (Proximodistal) (Fitxgerald et al.,1977). Therefore by having these normative values we can tell if a childs physical development is lacking. Ellie was born as a low birth weight baby possibly as a result of the mother smoking throughout the pregnancy. Low birth weight babies like Ellie generally progress slower through the developmental stages scarce generally catch up in the first two years (Vasta et al., 1999). However Ellie is now one and a half and has no unembellished physical developmental abnormalities.The castanets of an infant are much softer than adults jams as a result of higher water content. These bones then harden through the developmental stages of an individual up to adolescence in a process called ossification. A new-born babys skull has the ability to compress without damage during birth as it is separated by spaces named fontanels. By Ellies age the fontanels would have been replete with bone developing into a singular combined skull bone (Bee and Boyd, 2004). In the first few years of an infants life there is an accelerated growth in the human brain with the greatest development occurring in the midbrain . The cerebral lens cortex and the cerebrum enclose the midbrain and control the construction of language, consciousness, problem solving, thinking and learning. thereof an infants life commences with a set of beneficial natural responses called automatices. A reflex is an involuntary movement in response to any stimuli. According to the psychologist jean Piaget the beginning of an infants life is all to do with movement and so most of the infants actions are reflexive (Davenport, 1994). Most of these reflexes may be adaptive reflexes or also known as survival reflexes in which assists the infant to sw exit, breath, attain or suck involuntary. Whilst the primitive reflexes are not essential for their survival, it however gives a good suggestion of the status of the infants neurological system. Examples may be of the Babisnki reflex (as the sole of an infants foot is stroked the big toe enhances with the other toes airing outwards) and the Moro reflex (startle reflex extendi ng arms and legs after loud noises). With Ellies case these reflexes have disappeared which is normal for her age and demonstrates that there is no damage to her nervous system (Mussen et al., 1974).Infants are born with surprisingly good set of perceptual skills and so are fully equipped to follow objects that are 12 inches out, come pitch and level of sound and recognize parents faces from others. By one month old the infants posture and large movements should be fully developed. The infants arms would be more active than the legs, the infant will turn head away as you rub its ear, their head will descent loosely unless back up however the neck muscles will start to develop at this stage (Sheridan, 1975). During the VRA testing it is apparent that Ellies small and large take skills such as handling of small objects, hand-eye coordination, grasping, sitting upright and walking seem to be fully developed. However her language development was lacking which may be due to her hear ing loss. Ellies mother raised a slight concern on Ellies ability to talk. During the appointment Ellies speech was very difficult to understand and her sentence structures were as to be expected from a child with a hearing loss. Infants with a hearing loss often cannot hear speech sounds and therefore misinterpret and misuse their vocabulary. Developmental problems such as speech and language may also contribute to a reduced academic achievement and social isolation from the children which can be remarkably woeful for the parents (ASHA, 2012).Erik Erikson was the first psychologist to develop the psychosocial model of personality, which is the foremost known model of development and personality. He believed that development is constant throughout ones life. Eriksons model expresses how a childs social experiences influence an individuals value of self and their personality (Mcleod, 2008). Like Erik, John Bowlby (1907-1990) was other theoretician concerned with child development w hich created the attachment theory. Bowlby suggested that an infants personality is influenced by their childhood relationships. According to Bowlby children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive (Cited from Mcleod, 2007). Children who fail to form this real attachment by around 6 months of age tend to be less sociable, less emotionally mature and more aggressive. Therefore for a coercive and whole development of a child like Ellie it is essential for a stiff attachment between the infant and the primary caregiver (usually the mother). However Ellies positive behaviour and social skills seemed to be lacking. A child similar to Ellie with a significant hearing loss may often feel stray as they cannot proclaim therefore it is decisive at this stage for the mother to understand this and meet their childs impoverishments (Shaffer, 1993). From informally assessing Ellie behaviour and her mother it is go off that this initial bonding may be absent between the two.Vygotsky the theorist believed that a childs development associates mostly to mental development, being language, interpretation processes and plan (Cattan and Tilford, 2006). However Jean Piaget (1896-1980) concluded that a childs cognitive development is formed from a distinct series of stages. He believed that a childs cognitive development skills take place due to glide slopement of the brain and the childs abilities to interact with their surroundings. Piaget characterizes the development of children into four set stages with each stage symbolizing the childs appreciation of the universe and its surroundings at that stage. The first two years of an infants development is regarded to as the sensorimotor stage. During this stage the child learns and experiences the world around them through their senses and movement. The child accomplishes an activity and by repeating this activity they are able to advance on thei r new knowledge and awareness (Bee and Boyd, 2004). Piaget termed the cognitive structures as schemes (set of activity, anticipations and memories that allow the child to understand their surroundings). Therefore for Ellie to keep up with her cognitive development she must have good coordination between her receptive (hearing) and motor actions (movement). Ellies cognitive development might be underdeveloped as she receives less sensory information due to her hearing loss and therefore has less motor actions. The effect of a hearing loss on the cognitive development of a child like Ellie is rather intricate due to the different ways cultures, families and human kind respond to children whom attempts or fails to talk and communicate due to their hearing loss (Mayberry, 2002).There are also learning theories involved in cognitive development. Ivan Pavlov devised the classically conditioned model, which is described as a learning process that takes place when an unfamiliar stimulus is presented into the system. As the new-born is repeatedly conditioned to the same stimuli (brush cheek before feeding), this stimuli will become a conditioned stimuli in the course of time. Operant conditioning is also classed as a learning process as the new-born learns and interacts through the use of reinforcement such as a toy, smile, attention or diet (Bee and Boyd, 2007). During the VRA testing, Ellie was conditioned to move her eyes in the direction of the sound generator and rewarded visually by a lighted up toy (BATOD, 2012). after(prenominal) great encouragement Ellie performed a positive VRA test and therefore show no signs of abnormal learning process.Starting at the age of 1 and increasing until the age of 5, repetitive and exploratory play is very public in children. At around Ellies age it is expected of children to be able to push and pull large toys, carry a toy, grasp crayon, taste coloured books and perform VRA testing. However in Ellies case and for any chil d with a hearing loss these normal behaviours might be subscript or absent as hearing and speech are the vital implements to learning process, play and development of social skills (Sheridan, 1975). Hearing is essential to a childs development, yet children with hearing problems continue to be an under identified and undeserved population (Cited from ASHA, 2012). Not only does a childs hearing loss affect the childs development it also affects the parents/primary caregivers involved inflicting feelings of anxiety on their new responsibilities for their child. Therefore it is essential to provide the parents or the primary caregivers the vital information and advice on their childs hearing loss for the childs positive development. Ellies mum needed great encouragement on this in order to improve Ellies self-esteem and help her to positively develop (ASHA, 2012).ConclusionHearing impairment has a great effect on the childs social life, cognitive and learning development. Ellie has pr oven to have normal physical development however her cognitive and social development and speech and language capabilities are evidently hindered by her hearing impairment. It is therefore essential to supply the family of the child with any valuable information that will benefit the childs development and stress the importance of early interpolation. The earlier the hearing impairment is recognized and intervened the greater the developmental outcome.Without knowing the normative of a childs developmental process it is hard to analyse the exact cause of the childs behaviour. Ellies hearing loss has evidently delayed her revealing and acceptant communication skills (speech and language) hint to her social seclusion and low self-esteem. Her aggressive behaviour and her lack of kindle in others can be explained by her lack of auditory stimulus and therefore lack of her ability to effectively communicate. It is all important(p) for Ellies mum to appreciate the challenges that Elli e is faced before managing them properly herself. However it is also crucial to support the entire family through Ellies developmental progress and early family concentrated intervention is advised to advance Ellies language and cognitive development (ASHA, 2012).An additional appointment was made for Ellie to see if they have changed their mind regarding to trying a hearing aid, however Ellie will continue to receive advice and care from us Audiologist, a specialised paediatrician and speech and language therapist throughout. From this case study I am able to fully appreciate the effect that a hearing impairment has on the developmental process of a child. However I am also very aware for the future of the importance to support the entire family when attempting to provide the best care for a child similar to Ellie.Why is ellie aggressive and dont socialise..can categorize them into being naughty successive away. Important that ellie gets enough attention she needs to help her deve lop, but important that this doesnt overurule the development of other kids. Vital to give all info need to parents and stress on the importance of early implementation better outcome.http//www.asha.org/ rough/news/Press-Releases/2011/Do-You-Understand-The-Effects-Of-Hearing-Loss-On-Your-Child-s-Development.htmhttp//unitron.com/unitron/global/en/consumer/children-c/supporting.htmlhttp//asha.org/public/hearing/disorders/effects.htmhttp//entcentre.com/FAQs/impact_of_hearing_loss_in_childr.htmhttp//unitron.com/unitron/global/en/consumer/children-c/supporting.htmlhttp//www.asha.org/About/news/Press-Releases/2011/Do-You-Understand-The-Effects-Of-Hearing-Loss-On-Your-Child-s-Development.htm conclusion?