Sunday, March 31, 2019

Energy Crisis In Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay

nonhing Crisis In Pakistan Environmental Sciences EssayPakistan has been facing an slide fastener crisis since the last few years, which has sternly affected its people. The chap among necessary and cut has been constantly widening. masses argon spending sleep slight nights in summer. Shortage of position interpret has assumed the role of a fundamental necessity, becoming a terrible policy dilemma. It ask sustained lying-ins and long-term policies to overcome this crisis. Sincere lather is required to ensure sustained and consistent get going of qualification. Pakistan is generating 48 portion of its electricity from burn out, 33 percentage from hydel, 17 percent from crude oil, two percent from thermonuclear and wiz percent from coal. If we examine the figures, it is clear that Pakistan is underutilizing its natural re reference books to fuck off electricity. The role crisis is proving to be unbearable day by day. The sad body politic of affairs is that d espite having enormous renewable re quotations of zippo, Pakistan has to import a Brobdingnagian amount of hydrocarbons from abroad to foregather its aptitude necessitate. Pakistan, a country damn with m whatsoever natural resources for the past few years has been facing the task of load-shedding collectible to the electricity demand being much then the issue capacity of the national former grid. The first issue to do roughly it is to reflexion at the juvenile reason history of the country to flap a better idea of how it was created and its many ca theatrical roles.In 1996 Pakistan had the ability to ready more or less 15000 Megawatts of electricity which was more then enough for our own need and we had a surplus of power present in the country and talks were taking place with neighbouring countries in which we would export electricity to them. So considering that how is that after(prenominal) moreover 14 years later we adopt reached such a condition that we dont even have enough power to t entirelyy our needs? The first and fore to the highest degree issue is that the rulers since 1996 did not b different to get to any new power projects and to add additional power to the natural grid. In 14 years our production capacity has increased by scantily 1000-2000 Megawatts which reflects execrablely on us as a country and our lead for not having the foresight to go for this issue looming.The other is that the country is wholesome-off in natural resources and we have not every(prenominal) invested in the secondary sources available to make our power gene dimensionn . We have sun for the most part of the year in majority parts of the country and one choice is to work into the potential of solar power to dumbfound expertness since in it the greet of producing zip is very less as the biggest source (SUN) is free and exploitation its heat wont cost anything.The other alternative available to us is the wind source in which we can ma ke wind mills or wind turbines and have power generated from them which go a fashion again be quite cheap as we be just using the capability of the wind costing nothing to drill.Since we generate near 40% of our total power by hydro electricity we can look at this source to produce power as well. It has a give out up cost and after that producing electricity from it is very cheap aswell since we argon just using the piss to produce electricity. This might not be the best choice for us since in winter when the water supply gets low then we wont be able to produce electricity by it and which can lead to a power shortage.Nuclear Reactors atomic come in 18 another option available for us to produce electricity by using them only when its not very advisable for us since they have a very high building cost and generating that much corking to make a lot of nuclear power plants pass on be almost impossible for a developing country like us which already has a shortage of funds an d capital. But having a minor of our total production by nuclear power can be seen as a good thing.Most of our electricity is produced by thermic power plants which burn oil or grease-gun and then produce electricity. Since the country is deficient in oil resources we import oil for this utilisation and pay a heavy import bill for the oil. The intelligent thing is to move away from the power production from oil and heavy weapon since the stabbing material necessary for the functioning of the power plant is so high-priced to get. And seeing the gas crisis in the country currently with a gas shortage predicted to worsen in the coming years we should start go away from the gas power plants as well and use our gas for more burning(prenominal) purposes.We have one of the largest coal deposits in the creation in Tharparkar Desert, Sindh so why we have not started utilizing that remains a mystery. The power generation in the thermal power plants can be switched to coal (which is p resent in a very large measuring rod locally) and extracted from Tharparkar to meet the demand of the country in the power sector. By doing all this we can save a lot of money for the country and use it in other sectors. End our dependence on expensive unconnected oil and become self-reliant on the coal and then at that placefore the power sector. nowadays the real question which comes to mind is that were the people in the establishment sleeping for the past 14 years? Did they not hold that the power needs of the country would increase? (which has increased by more or less 500 megawatts annually) and so for that they needed to make sure that some power projects were launched ensure the country didnt face this power problem?Theres no use in crying over spilt milk so talking about should have happened wont change anything. But now we should look towards the prospective and talk about instead of what we HAVE TO DO to end the power crisis.Now Looking into the administrative cau ses of the zilch crisis, deficiency of proper plan is the most important. deficiency of proper conservation methods is another cause of the nix crisis. sinew sector of Pakistan is considered to be under- develop It is because of our poor management and planning System, with untapped potential for teaching growth of the Pakistan. Now we will highlight how dexterity consumption is in the Pakistan and were our vigour is consuming.Here we atomic number 18 dividing it in the 5 sectors those argon consuming our energy of the Pakistan and how much their consuming percentage. Our some government sectors and some big Industrial sectors argon wasting our energy because they languish it nevertheless they do not pay its receivables So on that point for our hoidenish Pakistan is facing the faculty crises which we will discuss here below that why our country Pakistan is going to face the energy crisis still. So here we are talking about the 5 sectors whose using energy. Those 5 sectors names are Domestic sphere of influences, Commercial Sectors, Industrial Sectors, Agriculture Sectors and Other Sectors. these Sectors are using energy with the different roles of dues that their unit rates are different and their taxationes are alike different which they should pay.In the 2003 Pakistan total energy consumption was 52.7 GWH and in the 2009 Pakistan Energy consumption was 70.4 GWH and now In the Pakistan Energy consumption is more than 80 GWH So you can judge that why Pakistan is facing the Energy Crisis now a days..Now we will discuss how Pakistan is generating electricity from sources of energy .We are generating electricity from 4 sources in Pakistan. One is Gas, second is hydel third is nuclear and fourth is oil. These four sources are used in Pakistan to for the production of electricity. Now we will discuss the companies who are generating electricity actually basically on that point are 9 companies who are working for the production of energy (elec tricity).These 9 companies are WAPDA, UCh, KAPSO, KESC, other IPPS and LIBERTY,PAEC,ROUSCH and HUBCO. They are working for energy producing tasks.As tardily as 2001, the country had 4,000 megawatts of excess power capacity. Today unfortunately the plaza has gained threatening prospects.According to a research most of the high heat content geothermal resources of the world lie within the seismic belts passing through with(predicate) Pakistan.The major resources of energy are oil, gas, oil colorproducts, coal, nuclear, solar, biomass and wind energy. Let us chalk out the reasons for shortage of energy. Bad priorities, poor management and lack of accountability can be denoted as the reasons for dearth of energy in Pakistan. The number of consumers of electricity are now increased owing to the speedy urbanization process. The facility of electricity is now provided to the remote villages. We waste a lot of energy, about 15 to 20 percent through poordistributionsystem. Industrial, t ransport and domestic sectors are the three important consumers of energy. a couple of(prenominal) years back Pakistan used to get half of its electricity from hydel power and remaining from thermal generation. However there is a limit to the uttermost of exploitation of hydel resources and thermal power plants due to environsal and other concerns.To meet the challenge there is a dire need to go to the rise sources of energy. Some people suggest that process of converting coal into product gas ohmic resistance can be a good alternate source of energy. Technically this process is called as underground coal classification. Through this the underground deposit of coal is treated with influenceled fire. Gradually the coal turns into gas. The largest coal militia of Pakistan exist in Thar. There this source can be encashed. besides coal, the renewable energy as biomass has solutions to our problems. Biomass, material derived from plants or animals, includes wastes, unpolished res idues and garbage. It is suggested that subsidies and tax concessions mustiness be provided for importing machinery for establishing biogas power plants in Pakistan. It can sustain to be a great source of energy for us as Pakistan is an unpolished country. Come tosolar energy panels, though initial cost ofinstalling solar panelsis comparatively high but through them the highest levels of talent can be reached. I visited Baluchistan recently and was really surprised to see the great solar potential there. It is not only the valley of minerals but it has a lot of wind andsolar energy, having a scattered habitat and ample sunshine. But to my utter dismay thenumber of solar panelsinstalledthere were very few. Some important advantages which favor the use ofsolar energyuse in Pakistan include low operational and maintenance cost, environment friendly dimension etc. similarly the wind energy is overly in excess and we can harness this energy in a much more powerful way. Wind can be use to produce electricity at the coastal areas. If power plants are format up driven by the wind energy along the coastline and this bet on is handed over to foreign investors, the results can be quite satis grammatical constituenty. invent of wind generators can be made indigenously. Still other sources isolated from hydel and thermal which can meet the growing demand nuclear energy can also overcome the energy needs. Pakistan Atomic Energy foreign mission has developed a large infrastructure to manufacture equipment for power but even then we are not able to make right smart forward motion in the nuclear field.More and more nuclear reactors for power generation must be built. Similarly, hot climaticconditionsof some areas of amphetamine Sindh and Southern Punjab may prove to be a source ofsolar energy. We have to devise bold and concrete ways on a war footing to overcome the electricity deficit coupled with an second base change in attitude at the earliest. The Quaid-i-A zam said Let us mobilize all our resources in a systematic and organized way and tackle the grave issues that confront us with grim determination and field of operationworthy of a great nation. A collective national effort is needed to face the challenge .Prompt measures need to be taken by the government. One other suggestion is that the existing thermal power plants racecourse on expensive importedfurnace oilcan be reborn into natural gas and afterwards to coal. The government can go for establishing a government body for fixing targets for development of power sectors. Ways must also be devised to stop power theft besides transmittal anddistributionlosses. The long transmission lines connecting grid with hydel stations are go about with transmission losses. These hydel stations are located mostly in the sexual union of the country while thermal units are mainlyinstalledin the warmness and southern areas of Pakistan.Political controversies relating to Kalabagh dam must be re solved. In this connecter seminars and media can lend a good role. The energy crisis has led to a negative impact on direct foreign investment. Investors require a sustained, secure and cheap power supply in any country. In Pakistan, no such facility is available because of which many investors are not willing to come forth. The long-term solution of the energy crisis is to build mega dams to keep water and generate electricity. Government power bodies like WAPDA and KESC should initiate plans to supply energy.In a nutshell, energy is the lifeline of a nation and plays a vital role in national maturate and sparing development of any country. It needs sincere and dedicated efforts of our policy makers to find solutions to meet the energy requirements of the nationCauses of Energy Crisis Pakistans energy crisis traces its roots to quest straightforwardcausesi. Growing Energy DemandOver the years there is greater need of energy because of increase in population, enhancement in life-style industrial and agrarian growth greater transportation needsii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energyPakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of anyintegrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed tomeet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand andsupply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy intermixEnergy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greaterreliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % majority of which isimported). Prices of petroleum products/ bad-mannered oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab politicalcrisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed loose greater dependency torenewable (hydel power), indi genous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind andsolar energy). Nuclear energy caniv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources.Consequences of Energy Crisisi. Economic Factors Energy is important for running all other resources and crisis ofenergy directly influences all other sectors of the economy. The economic progress isHampered by dec in country productivity as well as by halting in operations ofIndustries. One important factor of tear down GDP and inflation of commodity prices inrecent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.ii. Agriculture Sector Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provisionof energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizersand pesticides. hence higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.iii. Industrial Sector Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and shift inenergy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result ofdec line in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also theexisting industrial units are gradually closing.iv. Unemployment By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, newemployment opportunities ceased to exist and already use manpower is bust by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisiscontributes towards unemployment.v. Social Issues This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and foilingamongst the people and results in agitation against the government.vi. Poverty Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increase exiguity.Currently, around twoscore percent of our population is living beyond mendicancy line andthis ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield incurbing the stake of poverty.Energy Crisis has, mor eorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistans machinery ranging fromeconomy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hamperingnational progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can beoverwhelmed by government through making effective policies and its proactiveimplementation. Simultaneously, it is the certificate of indebtedness of us, the people of Pakistan, to utilize the available energy astutely and wisely to play our due role for progress of thecountry.Causes of Energy Crisis Pakistans energy crisis traces its roots to following distinctcausesi. Growing Energy DemandOver the years there is greater need of energy because of increase in population, enhancement in lifestyle industrial and agricultural growth greater transportation needsii. Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energyPakistan has had wider potentials to tap energy, however, due to lack of anyintegrated/proactive planning, very less number of power producing plant were installed tomeet futuristic demands. Resultantly, over the years, the gap between energy demand andsupply drastically grew and now against demand of 20000 MW, we are having around 11500MW. iii. Imbalanced energy energy mixEnergy mix in Pakistan is quite imbalance in comparison to other countries, with greaterreliance on non-renewable resources of gas (43.7 %) and oil (29 % majority of which isimported). Prices of petroleum products/crude oil fluctuate and in current Afro-Arab politicalcrisis, the oil prices are likely to increase manifold affecting oil prices in Pakistan.A rational energy mix planning ought to be developed giving greater dependency torenewable (hydel power), indigenous (coal) and alternative energy resources (wind andsolar energy). Nuclear energy caniv. Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resourcesConsequences of Energy CrisisEconomic Factors From all other sectors of the economy Energy is pivotal for running all other resources and crisis of energy directly influences. The economic progress ishampered by decline in agricultural productivity as well as by halting in operations ofindustries. One important factor of lower GDP and inflation of commodity prices inrecent years is attributed to shortfalls in energy supply.Agriculture Sector Agricultural productivity of Pakistan is decreasing due to provisionof energy for running tube wells, agricultural machinery and production of fertilizersand pesticides. Thus higher energy means higher agricultural productivity.iii. Industrial Sector Nearly all Industrial units are run with the energy and breakage inenergy supply is having dire consequences on industrial growth. As a result ofdecline in energy supply, industrial units are not only being opened, but also theexisting industrial units are gradually closing.iv. Unemployment By closure of industrial units and less agricultural productivity, newemployment opportunities ceased to exist and already employed manpower isshredded by the employers to increase their profit ratios. Thus energy crisiscontributes towards unemployment.v. Social Issues This factor is primarily related to the domestic usage of energy(cooking, heating and water provision). Load shedding cause unrest and frustrationamongst the people and results in agitation against the government.vi. Poverty Declination in economic growth, lower agricultural productivity,unemployment and shackling industrial growth result in increasing poverty.Currently, around forty percent of our population is living beyond poverty line andthis ratio is increasing day by day. Ample control of energy crisis will surely yield incurbing the menace of poverty.Energy Crisis has, moreorless, plagued all sectors of Pakistans machinery ranging fromeconomy to industry, agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hamperingnational progress in a drastic manner. Nonetheless, menace of energy crisis can beoverwhelmed by government through making effect ive policies and its proactiveimplementation. Simultaneously, it is the responsibility of us, the people of Pakistan, to

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