Friday, January 18, 2019
Working with Children: Child-Centered Practice
The family asylum is an serious entity in the society that has implication on the future of infantren and the acres at large. In order to realize the richness of family institution, the leavens and their p arenting role should be placed at the centre of success st sendgy. This realization explains why at that place is an intense commonwealthal interest in parenting and the associated societal forces influencing parenting such as nestling grapple support organizations and inter-professional bodies that enhances an enabling environment to foster electric shaverren knowledge. natural bodies that frequently interact with the parents and their pip-squeakren in their upbringing are the family, friends and neighbours, professionals, voluntary workers or self-help groups such as Playgroups, and formal organisations for children such as Nurseries, Schools, After-School Clubs, childrens homes, hospitals. Developmental Scholars buzz off established that childs growth and disci pline is shaped by the environment in name of total fundamental interaction amidst parenting process and societal forces.The critical role played by societal complex forces and institutions that influences parents and early child rearing practices sack up non be underestimated only if base be evaluated to enhance its effectiveness in developing a wellnessy and all round future generation. Having a child centered practice means providing anxiety for the children from pre founding, antepartum and breastfeeding. Therefore, meliorate a child share network administration invokes addressing adds such as breastfeeding, parents time with their children, social and economic challenges of parenting and support function for parents in early child rearing process.In this regard, this paper shall try out and discuss how to amend childrens lives and provide a plan that reflects inter-professional, cooperative approaches to meeting their takes. In order to achieve papers objective , an overview of antenatal and preconceived nonion, and breastfeeding child railroad sustentation current practices and their necessary remedies shall be suggested. Introduction Parenting is a challenging topic to scholars and as a reply it has received often attention in the recent last(prenominal) owing top its importance to the societys sustainability.This much received attention received is payable to knowledge expansion in fields of behavioral, developmental psychology and neurosciences which hold in up emphasised the importance of childs early days in childrens presbyopic term growth and development in areas of behavior, health and long term learning. In this regard, various scholars and institutions have looked at the issue in detail from various perspectives that are determined by factors that influence process of bring up of children by parent-substitutes or parents .Attkisson (1992) name that the nation realizes m any benefits by clotheing in the childrens early hitch programs welfare. However, the issue of children welfare in relation to their development ought to be understand on a wider concept in terms of societal median(prenominal) of the families and children. Unfortunately, the public polls clearly indicate that 82% of the adults believe that it is catchy to undergo childhood phase than it used to be in the separate(prenominal) decades .While on the agnate roles and responsibilities borne by parents, statistics show that nigh parents demo hard times that they study help to successfully raise their children. It is homely that both the family and public sectors have heavily invested in the development of children. An estimated $16,030 is allocated to a child annually that translates to about 14. 47 percent of the GDP . This is entirely a tip of ice burg in resources allocation because it does not intromit indirect cost such valuation of the time parents spend compassionate for their children together with the dire ct out-of-pocket costs deal housing, health care and food .On average, the expenditure ration allocation of child care varies greatly between the private and the public sector with respect to compensation distri providedion . The major section being supported by the brass is that of children education and health care . However, before the children enroll in the easy schools the responsibility of child care and development is carried by the parents. In the past decades, the child development documentation foregrounds that the early old age of a child have an important bearing on the entire human life.Therefore, to improve child care systems requires a clear instinct of the parental behaviours and the contextual factors that affects the parenting at these early years. In this line of thought, this paper shall look at preconception and antenatal care, and breastfeeding as part of having a healthy children parenting. preconception and Prenatal Care Most early childhood interven tions usually home run the children from drive home up to five years. In contrary, the childs clever future should start before rescue. tates that antepartum and preconception child care are critical as they play key role in preventing the riskiness of infection of rugged induce cargo, birth defects and prematurity problems which in normal circumstances are major attributes that lead to high cases of childhood disabilities and babe mortality . For instance, developmental psychologists report that large(predicate) women who access adequate antepartum care are likely to give birth to right weight infants as opposed to their counterparts that received inadequate prenatal care who report infants with little weight of about 5. 5 pounds .In addition to that, prenatal and preconception care prop up reduction in risk taking behaviours, provide for parental support and education and healthy behaviours. Moreover, Halfon N et al. (2002) reports that effective and adequate precon ception and prenatal child care have a validating opposition that extends up to adulthood. Therefore, it is important to be include in the preconception and prenatal child care in aspect of the childhood care helpings. The national child care guideline highlight and emphasizes that the preconception and prenatal practices should be considered as integral part of the parenting and parent care incentives.This because the prenatal care involves a process that identify conditions that can baffle successful child bearing or pregnancy like birth defects but on that point is an intervention that can ameliorated them before a routine preconception care . Prenatal care can be relied on as a good strategy to prevent near recorded birth defects because most heavy(predicate) m otherwises usually start prenatal care before day seventeen and 56 days later their pregnancy, when the foetus is vulnerable to external effects that can result to birth defects .However, the extent of utilizatio n of the preconception and prenatal care by heavy(predicate) mothers has been put to question as many pregnant women exposes foetus to risk during and later on pregnancy. Evidently, the study of pregnant women between the age of 18 to 45 by (Gilian 1997) showed that 1in 7 women was underweight, 1 in 4 was an overweight, 1 in 5 was a smoker, 1 in 8 engaged in risky sexual behaviours that lead to contaminating STIs or HIV/ help infections, 1 in 15 was alcoholic, and 2 in 5 breastfed their infants aft(prenominal) being discharged from hospital.Extend of exposure risk among pregnant women exhibits disparities across the races social, class and race. The age group disparities in birth rates show that the teenage birth rate is high in Hispanic with 64 births for 1,000, Africans had 48, and white ladies had 14. On the other hand the rate of infant mortality has relatively celestial latituded from 7. 9 per 1,000 from 1997 to 5. 9 in 2004 with most cases reported from crushed-spirite d income and midst income families. Additionally, low weight births increased significantly by 6 percent with record of very low birth weight infants at 11percent of an equivalent of less than 3. pounds . However, the African born infants in all circumstances were likely to be twice as sedate as white infants. Available Interventions There are a bit of programs that pregnant woman can access in order to execute prenatal and preconception care for the children. These go include private restitution for reproductive age women, Medicaid and the Comprehensive Prenatal Services Program (CPSP) that provides for low income women, Access to Infants and Mothers (AIM) provide low cost insurance cover to middle income women and their infants.Additionally, Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Block Grants that funds maternity and prenatal care, Adolescent Family Life Program (AFLP) aims at educating teenage parents to minimize their chances of conception while increasing their chances of gradu ation, Migrant and Community Health centers serves and supplements food for low income mothers and their infants reducing infants deaths by 40 percent . Gaps The research reveals that in that location are still many gaps alongside barriers within the child care networking system.However, understanding the gaps and barriers is necessary to fill these gaps and lower the barriers in order to foster and evoke quality early childhood development. Some of the fundamental gaps in child care are First, lack of the defined framework for administration, funding and redevelopment delivery of prenatal and preconception child care for low income pregnant mothers. Second, the insufficient instructional design for parental education that lacks home and car safety, cognitive development in children, new born immunization needs, infant-parent stick to techniques and normal infant behaviours and needs.Third, there is insufficient or costly skunk cessation education which is unaffordable to low i ncome parents that does not meet their needs . And lastly, there is no sufficient attempts geared towards taming domestic violence against pregnant women as statistics reveal that 4 to 8 percent of pregnant parents are physically mistreated annually causing deformity, diseases and damage to the foetus . Barriers The barriers that are limpid to the prenatal and preconception hinders answer utilization and as a result the target populations can not benefit it fully .Some of the barriers includes low valuation of the prenatal and preconception intervention programs by the service providers and with child(p) mothers. This attitude is believed to be caused by lack of knowledge for expectant mothers and unsuspecting of program benefits by the go providers. The diversity nature of the population need pagan and linguistic competency to dispense child care services of which the nation lacks. Lastly, there is a barrier in terms of service coordination for prenatal care providers and the closely associated programs.Improving prenatal and preconception care. establish on the gaps and barriers, it gives an opportunity to search for possible measures to improve prenatal and preconception child care. It is appoint of worth to note that, it is difficult to do everything for every angiotensin converting enzyme but if a few priority areas are identified and addressed, then a small input can yield a tangible returns in early child growth and development. The priority areas which need to be amend on include promotion of outr all(prenominal) incentives in order to encourage pregnant women which have shown positive impact in the past in terms improved access to child care and birth outcomes.Enhancement of service capacity is requiring so that it can serve any increasing occur of pregnant women when they show up after outreach campaigns, promotions and awareness. There is need to invest heavily in parenting education by designing and sustaining parenting classes for parents expecting or those with infants with partnership with local agencies and professional bodies. Smoking and alcohol abuse cessation efforts particularly to Africans and teens to minimize that risk of exposing foetus to this external hazard .The government and other stake holders should work hard to design policies that aim at sensory domestic violence against pregnant women by use of group counseling, abused women care and prosecution of criminals. Psychological support is needed at each level by dint of development of the family resource centre to provide the population with psychological support and skills for parents in regard to flexible work schedules against responsibilities, child care and paternity leaves for male spouses to support infant growth and development .Enhancement of the services coordination and integration of the system between the early childhood health systems and the reproductive health by supporting the local effort to enhance capacity, facilitate service coordination and experiment more on prenatal and preconception care to gain better insight . Moreover, there should be adequate funds allocation for research and evaluation of the program in order to feedback to further improve the services. There is need however, to promote cultural competency in services delivery.Lastly, the programs for prenatal and preconception intervention shall be helpful to the pregnant women if there is an additional investment to the program . However, to reframe the prenatal and preconception phases of child care special attention should be attached to aspects such prenatal services as being point of inlet for other services, service platform such as administrative platform, partnership between obstetrician and pediatrician and the service providers training and sustainability is key.Breastfeeding After prenatal and preconception care as the child is born, the immediate step is the breastfeeding. Gilian, (1997) notes that breastfeeding is not only an i mportant aspect in the sense that it denotes how organized the family is, but also determines the infants initial nourishment and the feeding . Breastfeeding is perceived today as an old age essential behavior for survival purposes of species, its utilization has declined acutely in present century due to cows milk formula availability.As a consequence, breastfeeding have not remain to be an automatic behaviour to be exhibited by lactating mother for the childs survival, but a select that depends on the family, health system factor and social factors. It should be noted that many families today are reaching a decision to breastfeed the infant though not easy to arrive at as it involves a complex adaptations and decision. disrespect the ups and down of arriving at the decision to breastfeed, there are many long term benefits accrued to breast feeding.In fact, the infants that are breastfed usually experiences less chronic and septic illnesses and shape optimal child growth and d evelopment. Therefore, as medical and social practitioners this is an opportunity to adopt, support and sustain this vital health promoting behavior by addressing barriers such as workplace, social and economic factors that hamper breastfeeding . The challenge that is evident as far as breastfeeding is concerned is the sustainability of breastfeeding after the period of six moths after discharge from the hospital thus many infants fail to get full benefits resulting from breastfeeding.The challenge of breastfeeding has emerged in early mid-forties due to introduction of formula or artificial baby milk replacing mothers milk. As a result, breastfeeding is no daylong valued as universal health source for infants nutrition. As a consequence of declined breastfeeding culture, three barriers emerge. These barriers are Lactation instruction is no longer a serious priority, few nurses and physicians were trained for care and support of breastfeeding and breastfeeding was not recognized a s primary choice for infants feeding.Therefore, the decline resulted to elimination of knowledge base and model for pregnant women to use in supporting or teaching breastfeeding. Evidently, these barriers have to be handled at any cost due to the tangible benefits of breastfeeding. Some of the Developmental and Health benefits of breastfeeding are mothers milk is a source of complete nutrition for infants hydration and optimal growth during the first six months of life.Breastfeeding reduces infectious illnesses such as botulism, meningitis, otitis media and bacteremia . Additionally, there are reduced chances of chronic illnesses that can affect the infant Crohns infection, food allergies, SIDS and bottle tooth decay. Provides the needed 30 percent of calories between 1 and 2 years of growth and development Infant improves his or her Intelligent Quotient and performance of the developmental assessments and lastly breast milk reduces infant risk of retinopathy of prematurity.The mo ther through breastfeeding her infant benefits by keeping off chronic diseases such as ovarian cancer, hip fractures and premenopausal breast cancer. Secondly, the lactating mother can quickly recover from childbirth, high self esteem, minimal risk for parental depression, can rapidly return to pregnancy weight and reduces her risks for hemorrhage. Economically, breastfeeding proves to less overpriced and reduces health care expenses because there are healthy childrens. Improving breastfeeding Breastfeeding is an important undertaking vital for human race survival.However, communication issues emerges to be one of the most urgently needed to be addressed as breastfeeding is no longer seen on our local or international media such as radio, internet, TVs, magazines, news papers, journals and posters. The media shall play a key role in ever-changing the public attitude towards this important health support activity for infants . Secondly, there is need to invest in lactation managemen t support and services in child care centers and educate parents sufficiently. And thirdly there is need to Integrate and Coordinate Services, Programs, and Funding in breastfeeding to realize a positive impact.This will help to build and develop a strong child-community centered, encyclopedic and integrated child care breastfeeding system that can support around all families. Conclusion In conclusion, the paper ahs discussed elaborately how to improve child care by looking at the preconception and prenatal. Thereafter, the paper has looked at the immediate phase of breastfeeding which need to be addressed if the nation has to keep the infants healthy and fit as future generation. However, the parenting part remains of impact in terms parent-infant interaction.The research shows that the relationship or interaction between the parents and the infant has positive cognitive, social and emotional development effects. In advance this, the parents should be guided and counseled in rel ation to making of conscious choice geared towards caring for children over that for excogitate, mothers to have husband support and that of other family allies, work organization, connecting to other social or agencies providers and need for balancing family obligations with that of job are essentials that facilitate successful parenting at advanced infant years of the child.